Honolulu International Airport

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Honolulu International Airport
HonoluluAirportWelcomeSign.jpg
IATA: HNLICAO: PHNLFAA LID: HNL
WMO: 91182
Summary
Airport type Public / Military
Owner State of Hawaii
Operator Department of Transportation
Serves Honolulu, Island of O'ahu
Location Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Hub for
Focus city for Allegiant Air
Elevation AMSL 13 ft / 4 m
Coordinates 21°19′07″N 157°55′21″W / 21.31861°N 157.92250°W / 21.31861; -157.92250Coordinates: 21°19′07″N 157°55′21″W / 21.31861°N 157.92250°W / 21.31861; -157.92250
Website hawaii.gov/hnl
Map
FAA airport diagram
FAA airport diagram
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
4L/22R 6,952 2,119 Asphalt
4R/22L 9,000 2,743 Asphalt
4W/22W 3,000 914 Water
8L/26R 12,300 3,749 Asphalt
8R/26L 12,000 3,658 Asphalt
8W/26W 5,000 1,524 Water
Statistics (2012)
Aircraft operations 278,145
Total passengers 19,291,412
Total cargo (metric tonnes) 412,270
Sources: ACI[1]

Honolulu International Airport (IATA: HNLICAO: PHNLFAA LID: HNL) is the principal aviation gateway of the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawaii and is identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States, with traffic now exceeding 21 million passengers a year and rising.[2]

It is located in the Honolulu census-designated place three miles (5 km) northwest of Oahu's central business district.[3][4] Main roads leading to the airport are Nimitz Highway and the Queen Liliuokalani Freeway of Interstate H-1.

Honolulu International Airport serves as the principal hub of Hawaiian Airlines, the largest Hawaii-based airline. Hawaiian offers flights between the various airports of the Hawaiian Islands and also serves the continental United States, Australia, New Zealand, American Samoa, Tahiti, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. It is host to major United States and international airlines, with direct flights to American, Asian, and Pacific Rim destinations. In addition to not only serving most major western cities, and many smaller ones especially in California, recent announcements have revealed new routes on the East Coast to both New York-JFK, and Washington-Dulles joining the already established routes to Atlanta-Hartsfield and Newark-Liberty.

It is also the base for Aloha Air Cargo, which previously offered both passenger and cargo services under the name Aloha Airlines. This airline ceased passenger flights on March 31, 2008 and sold off its cargo services to Seattle-based Saltchuk Resources, Inc (also owners of inter-island sea-based shipping company Young Brothers and Hawaiian Tug & Barge.)

In 2012, the airport handled 19,291,412 passengers, 278,145 aircraft movements and processed 412,270 metric tonnes of cargo.[1]

History[edit]

HNL opened in March 1927 as John Rodgers Airport, named after World War I naval officer John Rodgers.[5] It was funded by the territorial legislature and the Chamber of Commerce, and was the first full airport in Hawaii: aircraft had previously been limited to small landing strips, fields or seaplane docks. From 1939 to 1943, the adjacent Keehi Lagoon was dredged for use by seaplanes, and the dredged soil was moved to HNL to provide more space for conventional airplanes.[citation needed]

The U.S. military grounded all civil aircraft and took over all civil airports after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and Rodgers Field was designated Naval Air Station Honolulu. The Navy built a control tower and terminal building, and some commercial traffic was allowed during daylight hours. Rodgers Field was returned to the Territory of Hawaii in 1946. At the time, at 4,019 acres (16.26 km2), it was one of the largest airports in the United States, with four paved land runways and three seaplane runways.[5]

John Rodgers Airport was renamed Honolulu Airport in 1947; "International" was added to the name in 1951.[5] Being near the center of the Pacific Ocean it was a stop for many transpacific flights. By 1950 it was the third-busiest airport in the United States in terms of aircraft operations, and its 13,097-foot (3,992 m) runway was the longest in the world in 1953.[5] In summer 1959 Qantas began the first jet service to Honolulu on its flights between Australia and California.[6] Aeronautical engineer and airline consultant, Frank Der Yuen, advised in the design of the original building and founded its aerospace museum.[7]

The original terminal building on the southeast side of runways 4 was replaced by the John Rodgers Terminal, which was dedicated on August 22, 1962 and opened on October 14, 1962.[5] From 1970 through 1978, the architect Vladimir Ossipoff designed a terminal modernization project that remodeled this terminal and created several additions,[8][9] which included the Diamond Head Concourse in 1970, the Ewa Concourse in 1972, and the Central Concourse in 1980.[10]

Pan Am used Honolulu as a transpacific hub for many years, initially as a connecting point between the West Coast and Polynesia (Fiji, New Caledonia and New Zealand) in 1946,[11] followed by service to East Asia through Midway Island and Wake Island from 1947.[12] By the mid-1970s Pan Am offered nonstop service from Honolulu to Japan, Guam, Australia, New Zealand and Fiji, as well as to cities on the West Coast.[13] Continental Airlines used Honolulu as a stopover point for charter service to Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War era, and to feed its Guam-based Air Micronesia operation.[14] American Airlines also operated flights to Australia and the South Pacific through Honolulu from 1970 to 1975.[15] Many foreign carriers used Honolulu as a transpacific stopover point, including Air New Zealand, China Airlines, Japan Airlines, Korean Air, Philippine Airlines, Qantas and Singapore Airlines.[16]

Modernization and history since 2006[edit]

On March 24, 2006 Hawaii Governor Linda Lingle unveiled a $2.3 billion modernization program for Hawaii airports over a 12-year period, with $1.7 billion budgeted for Honolulu International Airport.[17] The plan involves implementing short-term projects within the first five years to improve passenger service and increase security and operational efficiencies.[18]

As part of the modernization, flight display monitors throughout the airport have been upgraded, new food and beverage vendors have been added, and a new parking garage across from the International Arrivals terminal has been completed. Current projects include an international arrivals corridor with moving sidewalks built atop the breezeway leading to the Ewa Concourse. The first phase of the project was completed in October 2009, while the remainder of the two phase project was completed in 2010.[19]

In 2011, Hawaiian Airlines renovated the check-in lobby of the Interisland Terminal, replacing the traditional check-in counters with six circular check-in islands in the middle of the lobbies, which can be used for inter-island, mainland, and international flights. This renovation project was fully funded by Hawaiian Airlines and not a part of the modernization program.[20]

Future projects include construction of a Mauka Concourse branching off the Interisland Terminal, the first concourse expansion at HNL in 15 years. Construction of the concourse will involve replacing the existing Commuter Terminal.[21]

By 2012 Hawaiian Airlines was re-establishing Honolulu Airport as a connecting hub between the United States mainland and the Asia-Pacific region.[22] That year, according to a Massachusetts Institute of Technology study, the airport had 24% fewer domestic departure flights than it did in 2007.[23]

Authority[edit]

A Hawaiian Airlines Boeing 717 with HNL's new control tower in the background

Honolulu International Airport is part of a centralized state structure governing all of the airports and seaports of Hawaiʻi. The official authority of Honolulu International Airport is the Governor of Hawaiʻi, who appoints the Director of the Hawaiʻi State Department of Transportation who has jurisdiction over the Hawaiʻi Airports Administrator.

The Hawaiʻi Airports Administrator oversees six governing bodies: Airports Operations Office, Airports Planning Office, Engineering Branch, Information Technology Office, Staff Services Office, Visitor Information Program Office. Collectively, the six bodies have authority over the four airport districts in Hawaiʻi: Hawaiʻi District, Kauaʻi District, Maui District and the principal Oʻahu District. Honolulu International Airport is a subordinate of the Oʻahu District officials.

Facilities and aircraft[edit]

The Reef Runway with Honolulu in the background

The airport has four major runways, which it shares with the adjacent Hickam Air Force Base. The principal runway designated 8R/26L, also known as the Reef Runway, was the world's first major runway constructed entirely offshore. Completed in 1977, the Reef Runway was a designated alternate landing site for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle program in association with Hickam Air Force Base, which shares Honolulu International Airport's airfield operations.[24]

In addition to the four paved runways, Honolulu International Airport has two designated offshore runways designated 8W/26W and 4W/22W for use by seaplanes.

The entire terminal complex features twenty-four hour medical services, restaurants, shopping centers and a business center with conference rooms for private use. Passengers have the option of using various short-term and long-term parking structures on the grounds of Honolulu International Airport.

For the 12-month period ending December 8, 2006, the airport had 323,726 aircraft operations, an average of 886 per day: 55% scheduled commercial, 26% general aviation, 15% air taxi and 5% military. There are 206 aircraft based at this airport: 48% single-engine, 27% multi-engine, 16% military, 6% helicopter and 3% jet.[3]

All Nippon Airways has its Honolulu Office in Airport Building 47.[25] When Mid-Pacific Airlines was in operations, its headquarters were on the airport property.[26]

Terminals[edit]

Honolulu International Airport has three terminal buildings. A fleet of Chance RT-52 buses provide interterminal transportation between the ticket counters of all three terminals and between the concourses in the Interisland and Main terminals. These buses, known as "Wiki Wiki" buses (from the Hawaiian word for "quick"), are the namesake for the WikiWikiWeb, the first wiki.

The largest airline at Honolulu airport is Hawaiian Airlines offering 13,365 seats per day, which represents a 45% market share. The #2 and #3 carriers are United and Japan Airlines (JAL) with 7.7% and 7.4% market share respectively.

Main Terminal

Traffic between Honolulu and the mainland United States is dominated by flights to and from Los Angeles and San Francisco. These two cities, plus Seattle, account for around half of all flights between the mainland and Honolulu. Hawaiian Airlines, with 10 routes, has the highest market share on routes between Honolulu and the mainland.[27]

Internationally Japan is the dominant market. Two-thirds of international seats are heading either for Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo (Haneda and Narita airports) with services provided by JALways/Japan Airlines, Air Japan, China Airlines, Delta, Hawaiian, or United. Narita alone is served with 61 weekly departures with Japanese carriers operating twice as many flights as US carriers.[27]

Other major international routes are to Seoul (25 weekly departures operated by Korean Airlines, Asiana Airlines and Hawaiian), Sydney (12 weekly departures operated by Hawaiian, Jetstar and Qantas) and Vancouver (19 weekly departures spread between Air Canada and Westjet). In October 2009, China-based Hainan Airlines was granted approval for a nonstop flight from Honolulu to Beijing.[28] It would be the first mainland Chinese carrier to serve Hawaii and the airline's second US destination after Seattle. The airline originally planned to launch the service by the summer of 2010,[29] but the route has been further delayed due to visa concerns and landing fees.[30] China Eastern, however, announced that it will begin nonstop flights from Honolulu to Shanghai on August 9, 2011 instead, marking the first ever direct, regularly scheduled service between China and Hawaii.[31] On January 21, 2014, Air China launched the second China-Hawaii route with nonstop flights from Honolulu to Beijing, also the first nonstop route between to 2 cities.[32]

Commuter Terminal (Gates 62–80)[edit]

The Commuter Terminal serves smaller airlines which operate flights between both the smaller and major commercial airports in the island chain.

Boarding and deplaning is conducted directly on the tarmac, using an auxiliary incline ramp to avoid the air-stairs. Passengers who depart from the commuter terminal, and is bound to another island, and wishing to connect to a flight bound for the U.S. Mainland may not have baggage checked all the way to their final destination. The bags must be claimed at the next airport and be re-checked after completing pre-departure agriculture inspection formalities.

  • Gate 62–64: Holding area for go! & Island Air In-transit/Connecting passengers from the U.S. Mainland.
  • Gate 71–74: Gates designated for go! Airlines, flights operated by Mesa Airlines
  • Gate 75–78: Gates designated for Island Air
  • Gate 79: Gate designated for Mokulele Airlines, flights operated by Mokulele Flight Service
  • Gate 80: Gate designated for Pacific Wings.

Interisland Terminal (Gates 49–61)[edit]

Inter-island terminal

The Interisland Terminal mainly serves the interisland and some US mainland flights and departing international flights (gate 54) of Hawaiian Airlines; most of Hawaiian's U.S. Mainland and International departures leave from Gates 15–34. It is designed to handle flights of jet aircraft between the major commercial airports in the Hawaiian Islands. The former Aloha Airlines and Mokulele Airlines Alii Lounge has been converted to a second Hawaiian Airlines Premier Club Lounge near Gate 56.

On the ground level, Hawaiian Airlines uses Baggage Claim B for U.S. Mainland arrivals, and Baggage Claim C is used for interisland and U.S. Mainland arrivals. International arrivals on Hawaiian use the International Arrivals Baggage Claim located in the Main Terminal. Mokulele Airlines and Aloha Airlines formerly occupied Baggage Claim C.

Main Overseas Terminal (Gates 6–34)[edit]

Main overseas terminal's departure area

The Main Overseas Terminal serves U.S domestic and international destinations. All boarding gates in the Main Overseas Terminal at Honolulu International are common use, shared among all airlines, and may change daily as the need arises. No gates are assigned to any specific airline. The Main Overseas Terminal is divided into three concourses:

  • Diamond Head Concourse contains gates 6-11
  • Central Concourse contains gates 12-25
  • Ewa Concourse contains gates 26-34

Gates 26–34 in addition to serving U.S. domestic flights can serve International flights and provide arrivals access directly into the International Arrivals Building to CBP screening via an enclosed secure corridor. Prior to this opening fully in early 2012 arriving international passengers had to board a Wiki Wiki bus to International arrivals.[33]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Airlines Destinations Lobby
Air Canada Vancouver 4
Air China Beijing-Capital 8
Air New Zealand Auckland 4
Alaska Airlines Anchorage, Bellingham, Oakland, Portland (OR), San Diego, San Jose (CA), Seattle/Tacoma 4
All Nippon Airways operated by Air Japan Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita 4
Allegiant Air Las Vegas, Los Angeles
Seasonal: Bellingham, Boise, Eugene, Fresno, Phoenix/Mesa, Santa Maria, Spokane, Stockton
6
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles
Seasonal: Chicago-O'Hare
7
Asiana Airlines Seoul-Incheon 8
China Airlines Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita 4
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai-Pudong 7
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Fukuoka, Los Angeles, Osaka-Kansai, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Tokyo-Narita
Seasonal: Nagoya-Centrair, New York-JFK (begins December 18, 2014)[34]
7
Fiji Airways Apia, Kiritimati, Nadi 4
Hawaiian Airlines Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York-JFK, Oakland, Phoenix, Portland (OR), Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA) (resumes May 16, 2014),[35] Seattle/Tacoma 2
Hawaiian Airlines Auckland, Beijing-Capital, Brisbane, Fukuoka (ends June 29, 2014),[36] Hilo, Kahului, Kailua-Kona, Lihue, Osaka-Kansai, Pago Pago, Papeete, Sapporo-Chitose, Sendai,[37] Seoul-Incheon, Sydney, Tokyo-Haneda 3
Island Air Kahului, Lanaʻi, Lihue 1
Japan Airlines Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita 5
Jetstar Airways Brisbane (begins December 15, 2014),[38] Melbourne, Sydney 4
Korean Air Seoul-Incheon, Tokyo-Narita 4
Mokulele Airlines Kahului, Kapalua, Lanaʻi, Molokaʻi 1
ʻOhana by Hawaiian operated by Empire Airlines Lanaʻi, Molokaʻi 3
Omni Air International Las Vegas 6
Philippine Airlines Manila 4
Qantas Sydney 4
United Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Chuuk, Denver, Guam, Houston-Intercontinental, Kosrae, Kwajalein, Los Angeles, Majuro, Newark, Pohnpei, San Francisco, Tokyo-Narita, Washington-Dulles 8
US Airways Phoenix 6
WestJet Vancouver
Seasonal: Victoria
4
WestJet operated by Thomas Cook Canada Seasonal: Calgary 4
Map of cities with direct international or domestic long-haul service to and from Honolulu International Airport.

Top destinations[edit]

Busiest international routes from HNL (October 2010 to August 2011)[39]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Flag of Japan.svg Tokyo (Narita), Japan 1,105,725 ANA, China Airlines, Delta, JAL, United
2 Flag of South Korea.svg Seoul (Incheon), South Korea 906,000 Asiana, Hawaiian, Korean Air
3 Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taipei (Taoyuan), Taiwan 759,000 China Airlines
4 Flag of Australia.svg Sydney, Australia 405,000 Hawaiian, Jetstar, Qantas
5 Flag of New Zealand.svg Auckland, New Zealand 325,000 Air New Zealand
Busiest domestic routes from HNL (December 2012 – November 2013)[40]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Los Angeles, California 1,038,000 Allegiant, American, Delta, Hawaiian, United
2 Kahului, Hawaii 1,033,000 go!, Hawaiian, Island
3 Kona, Hawaii 707,000 go!, Hawaiian
4 Lihue, Hawaii 684,000 go!, Hawaiian, Island
5 Hilo, Hawaii 556,000 go!, Hawaiian
6 San Francisco, California 476,000 Delta, Hawaiian, United
7 Seattle, Washington 309,000 Alaska, Delta, Hawaiian
8 Las Vegas, Nevada 252,000 Allegiant, Hawaiian, Omni
9 Phoenix, Arizona 228,000 Hawaiian, US Airways
10 Dallas, Texas 145,000 American

Scheduled cargo services[edit]

Airlines Destinations
Aloha Air Cargo Hilo, Kahului, Kona, Lihue
Asia Pacific Airlines Guam, Kiritimati, Kwajalein, Majuro, Pago Pago, Pohnpei
Corporate Air Hoolehua, Kalaupapa, Kamuela, Kapalua, Lanai, Lihue
FedEx Express Hilo, Los Angeles, Memphis, Oakland, Sydney
Kalitta Air Hong Kong, Los Angeles
UPS Airlines Guam International Airport, Hong Kong, Long Beach, Louisville, Kahului, Kona, Ontario, Sydney

Fixed-base operators[edit]

A number of fixed-base operators are located along Lagoon Drive on the airport's southeastern perimeter. While these focus on general aviation services, there are a few small passenger airline operations that operate from these facilities, rather than from the main terminal complex. Air tour flights typically depart from this area as well.

Airlines Destinations FBO
Makani Kai Air Charters Kalaupapa, Molokaʻi [41] Makani Kai
Te Mauri Travel operated by Maritime Air Charters Kiritimati Castle & Cooke Aviation

Public transport[edit]

TheBus routes 19, 20, and 31 stop on the upper (departure) level of the airport. Routes 19 and 20 connect the airport to Pearlridge Center (20 only), Hickam AFB (19 only), Downtown Honolulu, Ala Moana Center, and Waikiki. Route 31 connects the airport to Tripler Army Medical Center, via Kalihi Transit Center. Routes 9, 40, 40A, 42, and 62 run on Nimitz Highway within walking distance of the airport.

Accidents[edit]

  • Pan Am Flight 830: a bomb exploded aboard as the aircraft prepared for approach to Honolulu International Airport from Tokyo on August 11, 1982. One teenager was killed and 15 others were injured. The aircraft did not disintegrate, and made a safe emergency landing in Honolulu.
  • Aloha Airlines Flight 243: flying from Hilo to Honolulu International Airport on April 28, 1988, experienced a rapid decompression. An 18-foot-long (5.5 m) section of the fuselage roof and sides were torn from the airplane, due to metal fatigue. Out of the 89 passengers and 6 crew members, the only fatality was a flight attendant blown out of the airplane. Several passengers sustained life-threatening injuries. The aircraft diverted to Kahului Airport.
  • United Airlines Flight 811: a Boeing 747 carrying 3 flight crew, 15 cabin crew and 337 passengers from Honolulu to Auckland on February 24, 1989, suffered rapid decompression when a cargo door separated from the aircraft after takeoff from the Reef Runway. Nine passengers were swept from the aircraft. The plane returned to Honolulu.
  • Bojinka plot: a plot discovered by US and Filipino intelligence authorities after a fire in a Manila apartment, included in its first phase the planned detonation of bombs aboard several flights inbound to, or outbound from, Honolulu on January 21, 1995. The Bojinka plot later developed into the September 11 attacks.

In popular media[edit]

The airport is featured in the two racing video games, Test Drive Unlimited and Test Drive Unlimited 2.

The airport has also been featured in several episodes of the Hawaii Five-0 (2010) television series, as well as in the 2006 film, Snakes on a Plane.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "2012 North American Airport Traffic Summary (Top 50 Airports - Passengers, Cargo, Movements)". Airports Council International. Retrieved 2013-10-04. 
  2. ^ "The State of Hawaii Airport Activity Statistics By Year 2007-1994", Department of Transportation, Airports Division, State of Hawaii.
  3. ^ a b FAA Airport Master Record for HNL (Form 5010 PDF), effective 2007-12-20
  4. ^ "Honolulu CDP, HI." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Honolulu International Airport...Celebrating 80 years" (PDF). Gateway to the Pacific: Honolulu International Airport 80th Anniversary. Hawaii Department of Transportation, Airports Division. 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2009. "John Rodgers Airport was dedicated March 21, 1927. The field was named in honor of the late Commander John Rodgers, who had been Commanding Officer of the Naval Air Station at Pearl Harbor from 1923 and 1925..." 
  6. ^ "HNL 1960-1969". Hawaii Department of Transportation, Airports Division. 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  7. ^ Trevor James Constable (2008). "ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: A detailed review of participants in and their contributions to etheric rain engineering since 1968". Etheric Rain Engineering Pte. Ltd. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
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  13. ^ "1973 route map". Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
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  18. ^ Reyes, B.J. (2006-03-25). "$2.3B airports upgrade proposed". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
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  27. ^ a b "Not so Happy Hawaii* sees capacity drop by 30% after Aloha’s collapse". anna.aero. 19 September 2008. 
  28. ^ Dingeman, Robbie (2009-10-12). "Hainan Air approved for Honolulu-Beijing service". USA Today. Tysons Corner, VA, USA: Gannett Company. Archived from the original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  29. ^ Hawaii flights by Chinese airline may not start until summer
  30. ^ Direct route to China delayed, Honolulu Star-Advertiser, Aug 15, 2010.
  31. ^ "Airline sets a date for China flights to Hawaii - Hawaii News Now - KGMB and KHNL". Hawaii News Now. 2011-06-16. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  32. ^ "China-Hawai'i service begins". KPUA. January 21, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  33. ^ "Honolulu International Airport 3rd Level International Arrivals Corridor", CDS International, 2012, retrieved 2012-07-29 
  34. ^ http://airlineroute.net/2014/03/24/dl-jfkhnl-dec14/
  35. ^ http://www.marketwatch.com/story/hawaiian-airlines-expands-capacity-and-service-in-bay-area-network-2014-03-13?reflink=MW_news_stmp
  36. ^ Silverstein, Stephanie (February 26, 2014). "Hawaiian Airlines to end flights between Honolulu and Fukuoka, Japan". Pacific Business News. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  37. ^ "Rediscover the Beauty of Sendai". Hawaiian Airlines. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  38. ^ "Jetstar to launch Brisbane to Honolulu flights - Australian Business Traveller". 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-02. 
  39. ^ "RITA | Transtats". Transtats.bts.gov. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  40. ^ "RITA | BTS | Transtats". Transtats.bts.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  41. ^ Silverstein, Stephanie (June 5, 2013). "Makani Kai Air adds Honolulu-Molokai flights to schedule". Pacific Business News. Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
  42. ^ Aviation Safety Network Aircraft Accident Douglas R6D-1 (DC-6) 131612 Honolulu, HI
  43. ^ Associated Press, "66 Killed as Navy Plane Hits Hawaiian Peak," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, story dated 22 March 1955, quoted in full at lifegrid.com Charles J. Coombs, Jr.
  44. ^ Chronology of Significant Events in Naval Aviation: "Naval Air Transport" 1941 -- 1999
  45. ^ Grossnick, Roy A., United States Naval Aviation 1910-1995, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, undated, ISBN 0–945274–34–3, p. 206.
  46. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 October 2009. 
  47. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 October 2009. 

External links[edit]