By the 1920s, American bandleader Paul Whiteman was often referred to as the "King of Jazz" in press releases
Honorific nicknames in popular music are often religious, familial, or (most frequently) royal and aristocratic in nature and are used as a form of expression in the media, or to identify the significance of an artist by fans. Honorific nicknames were used in classical music in Europe as early as the early nineteenth century, with figures like Mozart being called "The father of modern music" and Bach "The father of modern piano music". They were also particularly prominent in African American culture in the post-Civil War era, perhaps as a means of conferring status that had been negated by slavery, and as a result entered early jazz and blues music, including figures such as Duke Ellington and Count Basie.
In American culture, despite its republican constitution and ideology, honorific nicknames have been used to describe leading figures in various areas of activity, such as industry, commerce, sport and the media; father or mother have been used for innovators, and royal titles like king and queen for dominant figures in a field. In the 1930s and 1940s, as jazz and swing music were gaining popularity, it was the more commercially successful white artists Paul Whiteman and Benny Goodman who became known as "The King of Jazz" and "The King of Swing" respectively, despite such genres of music originating from African American culture. These patterns of naming were transferred to rock and roll when it emerged in the 1950s. There was a series of attempts to find (and a number of claimants to be) the "King of Rock 'n' Roll", a title that became most associated with Elvis Presley. This has been seen as part of a process of the appropriation of credit for innovation of the then new music by a white establishment. Different honorifics have been taken or given for other leading figures in the genre, such as "The Architect of Rock and Roll", by Little Richard from the 1990s, but this term, like many, is also used for other important figures, in this case including pioneer electric guitarist Les Paul.
Similar honorific nicknames have been given in other genres, including Aretha Franklin, who was literally crowned "Queen of Soul" by disk jockey Pervis Spann on stage in 1968. Other nicknames have been adopted in direct emulation of these, including Michael Jackson's title "King of Pop" from 1989. Honorific nicknames are often part of a process of marketing and may be adopted or dropped by the press and fans over time. They have been strongly promulgated and contested by various artists and occasionally disowned or played down by their subjects. Some notable honorific nicknames are in general usage and commonly identified with particular individuals.
D denotes template[not in citation given], i.e. for source(s) that have been checked, but did not contain the cited material.
E denotes template[clarification needed], i.e. clarification of wording or interpretation is needed.
F denotes template[dead link], i.e. source cannot be verified.
G denotes template [according to whom?] The discussed artists themselves and/or only one cited person?
^A. R. Frey, Sobriquets and Nicknames (1888, published online by BiblioBazaar, 2009), p. 115.
^S. S. Walker, "What's in a name: Black awareness keeps the African tradition of 'meaningful names' alive", Ebony, vol. 32 (8), (June 1977), pp. 74-8.
^D. Evans, "From Bumble Bee Slim to Black Boy Shine: Nicknames of Blues Singers" in D. Evans, ed., Ramblin' on my mind: new perspectives on the blues: African American music in global perspective (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008), pp. 179-222.
^S. Deger-Jalkotzy and I. S. Lemos, Ancient Greece: from the Mycenaean palaces to the age of Homer (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006), p. 272.
^M. Benoliel and Linda Cashdan, The Upper Hand: Winning Strategies from World-Class Negotiators (Adams Media, 2006), p. 26.
^B. G. Rader, Baseball: a history of America's game (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 3rd edn., 2008), p. 140.
^ abY. Bynoe, Stand and deliver: political activism, leadership, and hip hop culture (Soft Skull Press, 2004), p. 155.
^M. T. Bertrand, Race, rock, and Elvis: Music in American life (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000), p. 220.
^G. B. Rodman, "A hero to most?; Elvis, myth and the politics of race", Cultural Studies vol. 8 (3), (1994), p. 474.
^J. Warner, On this day in black music history (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2006), p. 56,
^"Overnight the unknown 14-year old became an international star. This earned her the nickname 'Princess of R&B'.", in W. Sutherland, Aaliyah Remembered (Trafford Publishing, 2005), p. 21.
^"But Aaliyah Dana Haughton, the reigning Queen of Urban Pop, wasn't sitting still. She was hard at work, shooting her next video, when a plane crash ended her life on August 25" in Behind the Music > Ep. 166 > Aaliyah, VH1, retrieved 2013-01-23
^"Recall that throughout most of the eighties and even into the nineties, Aaron was known as the queen of heavy-metal rock, the loudest, brashest and sexiest female rock belter this side of Janis Joplin." in Niester, Alan (2000-09-22), "Metal queen slips into something jazzy", The Globe and Mail: R.6, ISSN0319-0714
^"His nickname, 'The King of Country Music,' may sound a bit mawkish and old- fashioned, but, in many ways, it is remarkably accurate." in Wolfe, Charles K. (2001), Classic Country: Legends of Country Music, Routledge, p. 19, ISBN978-0-415-92827-4
^"The reigning queen of soul owned the stage at the packed Royal Albert Hall, highlighting her elegant artistry and dynamic personality in a 93-minute set", in Toombs, Mikel (2012-05-22), "Adele Earns Title Of Soul Queen", Seattle Post-Intelligencer: C.3, ISSN0745-970X
^ abcdefg"Some women have even been given titles. Tina Turner who is The Queen of Rock and Aretha Franklin, dubbed the Queen of Soul. Donna Summer is the Queen of Disco and Mary J. Blige is the Queen of Hip-Hop, Gloria Estefan is the Queen of Latin Pop, Madonna is the Queen of Pop, while Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera are the Princesses of Pop", in L. Bollinger and C. O'Neill, Women in Media Careers: Success Despite the Odds (University Press of America, 2008), p. 147.
^"It probably makes sense to call him - as several people do in the movie [Hail! Hail! Rock 'n' Roll (1987)] - as the 'King of rock 'n' roll'", in D. Denby, "What's in a game", New York Magazine, Oct 19, 1987, p. 102.
^"Calling her a mere R&B diva is, at this point, almost an insult: With grace and grit, Beyoncé has become the Princess of pop, a one-woman Hitsville U.S.A." in "Beyoncé in Rolling Stone", Rolling Stone, December 2009-January 2010: 41Check date values in: |date= (help)
^Affirming her role as one of the reigning queens of pop music, Beyonce was the top winner at the 52nd annual Grammy Awards on Sunday night, taking six prizes, including song of the year for her inescapable hit "Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It)." Sisario, Ben (2010-02-01), "Biggest Haul at Grammys Goes to Beyonce", The New York Times: C.1, ISSN0362-4331
^"It is three years since she dissolved Destiny's Child after three albums and a run of award-winning hymns to womanly empowerment such as Survivor and Independent Woman; six since her duet with the Brooklyn rap demigod Jay-Z served notice to the world that America's foremost hip-hop star and its emerging queen of R&B were an item." in Paphides, Pete (2008-11-14), "Shy big sister by day ... wild girl by night", The Times: 2, ISSN0140-0460
^With four Mobo nominations, Beyonce is the undisputed queen of R&B. Simpson, Eva; Hedley, Caroline (2006-08-16), "3AM: Mo contest for Beyonce", The Daily Mirror: 16
^ ab"The nine-time Grammy Award-winning singer/songwriter - who has earned such sobriquets along the way as 'the Queen of Hip-Hop Soul' and 'the Empress of Soul' - returns Dec. 21 with her ninth studio album, "Stronger" Gail Mitchell (2009-12-12), "Strength of Character", Billboard121 (49): 17, ISSN0006-2510
^"Universally known as the 'Queen of Hip Hop Soul' because of her frequent collaborations with rap artists and Hip Hop producers..." in" Bynoe, Yvonne (2006), Encyclopedia of rap and hip-hop culture, Greenwood Press, p. 32, ISBN978-0-313-33058-2
^"Once again The Candy Store and Fresh City Promotions have pulled a major rabbit out of the hat with the launch party for the new album by Mary J Blige, the undisputed Queen of R&B, Growing Pains", in "Fresh party for Mary j's new album", The Plymouth Evening Herald, 2008-02-15: 2
^In the wake of her 'Breakthrough' success, the reigning queen of R&B tries to please her many followers—but, most of all, herself. Vozick-Levinson, Simon (2007-12-21), "Mary J. Blige", Entertainment Weekly: 22, ISSN1049-0434
^"The queen of K-Pop made her highly, highly anticipated comeback to Korea for the first time in five years with her 9th studio album, Hurricane Venus", in BoA - "Game", MTV, 2010-09-03, retrieved 2011-04-18
^"The king of country music is making plans to retire", in "Garth Brooks To Retire". CBS News. 1999-12-16. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
^"With his debut single "Run It," 16-year-old Chris Brown back-flipped his way into becoming the first male solo artist to release a song that went straight to No. 1. He was later crowned the Prince of R&B", in Celebrity Central: Chris Brown, People
^"His noncommittal response was perhaps not the teary confessional that was expected after the Grammy-night altercation which changed everything for the then crown prince of R&B", in Elan, Priya (7 November 2009), Will Chris Brown's assault on Rihanna harm his record sales?, London: The Guardian, retrieved 2009-11-22
^"...the Godfather of Go-Go has done it again...", Kip Lornell; Charles C. Stephenson (2009), The Beat: Go-Go Music from Washington, DC, Univ. Press of Mississippi, p. 45, ISBN978-1-60473-241-2
^"Others will point to the likes of the 'crown prince of reggae' Dennis Brown, for his contribution to roots reggae and his influence on a generation of reggae artistes", in The reggae debate: still unresolved, 17 October 2008, retrieved 2008-10-25
^"And today, James Brown's status as 'The Godfather of Soul" remains undiminished'.", in David Pullman to Securitize "Godfather of Soul" James Brown, Business Wire, 1999-05-03, p. 1
^ abYvonne Shinhoster Lamb (2006-12-26). "Hardworking Godfather of Soul". Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-05-08. "Brown, also called the 'hardest-working man in show business', was a visionary and an innovator who pushed music to new places."
^"To Mark the ten years, officials at the Apollo crowned Brown 'King of Soul'." in "James Brown Crowned 'King Of Soul' At The Apollo Theater", Jet43 (3), 1972-10-12: 59, ISSN0021-5996
^"Years before Aretha Franklin, Diana Ross, and Etta James, Ruth reigned as the original queen of r&b. She achieved a distinctive sassy and streetwise style, which made her one of the most popular singers of her era. Her career has been so influential that Atlantic Records is sometimes referred too as 'the house that Ruth built' and for good reason", at Cotton, Nzgina (2008-04-07), "Ruth Brown: The Original Queen of r&b", New Nation: 22, ISSN1365-7496
^"Years before Aretha Franklin was crowned Queen of Soul, Ruth Brown reigned as the original Queen of R&B", in Jones, Steve (2006-11-20), "R&B diva for the ages", USA TODAY: D.1, ISSN0734-7456
^"Burke, long ago dubbed the King of Rock 'n' Soul, was worth the wait", in M. Newman, "Soul man Solomon Burke: Live on Film; Capricorn's Smoking New Companion" in Billboard July 8, 1995, Vol. 107 (27), p. 10.
^"Born August 19, 1954, in Kingsville, Texas, she is recognized as 'la reina de la onda Tejana' (the queen of Tejano music)." in Candelaria, Cordelia; Peter J. García (2004), Encyclopedia of Latino Popular Culture, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 822, ISBN978-0-313-33211-1
^ ab"If Ella Fitzgerald is the queen of jazz, Billie Holiday first lady of the blues, and Aretha Franklin the queen of soul, then who is the queen of pop? In the 1990s, it would seem to be a three-way tie between Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey, and Celine Dion. Certainly all three have their devotees and detractors, but their presence has been inescapable", in Lister, Linda (2001), "Divafication: The Deification of Modern Female Pop Stars", Popular Music and Society25 (3/4): 1, ISSN0300-7766
^"Mariah Carey is unstoppable. With 17 No. 1 singles since her career began in 1990, Mariah is the reigning queen of pop." "The new Mariah Carey", Scholastic Scope50 (1): 16, ISSN0036-6412
^"Profile: Roberto Carlos". allmusic. Retrieved 2011-07-11. "(...) the mid-'90s witnessed a resurgence of Jovem Guarda talents through tributes of new rockers and Carlos reached the 21st century uncontestedly enjoying his absolute title: the King."
^"Roberto Carlos: King Of Music In Brazil". Latin Music About.com. Retrieved 2011-07-11. ""1965 was Carlos’ year. In a popular vote promoted by the TV show Reino de Jeventude, Carlos was elected “O Rei” – the King of Brazilian music and has retained the title ever since."
^"Cher - singer, Oscar-winning actress and campaigner -is the original queen of reinvention, an expert at re-creating herself." in Lee, Vinny (2006-09-02), "Turning back time", The Times: 73, ISSN0140-0460
^Bowing out, if not exactly gracefully, Cher, that surgically enhanced queen of reinvention, last week brought her farewell tour to Glasgow. Sweet, Lucy (2004-05-16), "Cher's so long farewell", The Sunday Times: 11
^ ab"What happens when the 'God of Song' descends on Genting Highlands during a cold and wet weekend? He warms and melts the hearts of both young and old with his charm and huge repertoire of hits, that's what! And that was precisely what Hong Kong superstar Jacky Cheung - arguably the most popular and enduring of the four Heavenly Kings - did at his two sold-out concerts last Friday and Saturday at the Arena of Stars. (For the uninitiated, Cheung, Andy Lau, Aaron Kwok and Leon Lai are the four "Heavenly Kings" of Chinese pop, the over-the-top title probably bestowed by the imaginative Hong Kong media because of the singers' immense popularity. Cheung, of course, has been elevated even higher on the celestial plane!)" Ming, Fong (2002-11-09), "Jacky, oh!", New Straits Times: 3
^"'We want Gor Gor' (Cantonese for 'big brother', Cheung's nickname) to know that he has not been forgotten and never will be," a spokeswoman said." "Thousands of fans pay tribute to Leslie Cheung", China Daily, 2004-04-01, retrieved 28 November 2012.
^"Dubbed the 'king of Chinese pop' by local media, Jay Chou has released eight studio albums, spawning several hits," in Song, Berwin (2008-08-09), "5 Chinese Acts Using The Games To Boost Their Profile", Billboard120 (32): 28, ISSN0006-2510
^Shepherd, Julianne (2007-01-16). "Ciara: The Evolution". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 2013-05-08. "In 2004, upon the release of Ciara Harris's excellent debut Goodies, Lil Jon christened the 21-year-old Atlanta starlet the 'Princess of crunk & B.'"
^"A common sight towards the end of the sixties in New York and London announced 'Clapton is God'", in Vinita, Profiles in Popular Music (Sura Books, 2005), p. 71.
^Appiah, Kwame Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (2004). Africana: An A-to-Z Reference of Writers, Musicians, and Artists of the African American Experience. Running Press. p. 146. ISBN0-7624-2042-1.
^DeCurtis, Anthony; Henke, James (1992). The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll: The Definitive History of the Most Important Artists and their Music. George-Warren, Holly. Random House. p. 135. ISBN0-679-73728-6.
^"After receiving numerous requests, we will analyze the CD Damares Queen Bee ... Damares without doubt is one of the greats of gospel music and has tremendous public resulting from the "Taste of Honey"." FCG, May 2, 2013
^"Why? I do not know, these are the "artists of the moment," pure marketing strategy by Sony to sell, it is clear the preference of "Queen Bee" in the halls of Sony" Loja Evangélica.
^"Sure BBB Disc Diamond is not news to anyone, for any media gospel, the singer herself and the staff of Sony had released this done. However it will be very nice to see the 'Queen Bee' receiving this award on national television..." Damares receives diamond disc in Programa Raul Gil October 24, 2012
^"The Arab world's most successful recording artist, Father of Mediterranean Music, movie star extraordinaire, dedicated family man or simply the King of Arab Pop are all titles Amr Diab has picked up over the years." in Crane, Kelly (2010-04-22). "Egyptian superstar Amr Diab is set to rock Dubai". Gulf News. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
^"With the success of "Let's Go Trippin', Dale was immediately billed as the 'King of the Surf Guitar', in M. Warshaw, The Encyclopedia of Surfing (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2005), p. 585.
^"Celine alert! Celine alert! Quebec's favourite daughter, Celine Dion, will be fited in a special show on July 10. After the phenomenal success of last year's tribute to the late King of Pop, Michael Jackson, a special show combining the talents of two of the superstars in the fireworks business will showcase the music of our Queen of Pop", in Anne Sutherland (2010-05-28), "Fireworks; Celine Dion Joins Countries Lighting Up the Sky", The Gazette: 14, ISSN0384-1294
^"Ebony hailed Domino as the "King of Rock 'n' Roll" in Altschuler, Glenn C. (2003), All shook up: how rock 'n' roll changed America, Oxford University Press, p. 43, ISBN978-0-19-513943-3
^"Known as England's 'King of Skiffle.' Member of Chris Barber's Jazz Band in 1954" in J. Whitburn,, The Billboard book of top 40 hits (Billboard Books, 8th edn., 2004), p. 188.
^"If Clifton Chenier was the king of zydeco music, Rockin' Dopsie (pronounced doopsie), with his unequaled proficiency on the button accordion, was its crown prince", in http://www.allmusic.com/artist/p71749 Allmusic biography
^"Japanese fans had labeled Nokie the 'King of Guitars,' at a time when Deep Purple's Ritchie Blackmore publicly announced, 'I think I can wipe up the floor with most guitarists.'" in Halterman, Del (2009), Walk-Don't Run - The Story of The Ventures, Lulu, p. 211, ISBN978-0-557-04051-3
^"Significantly, he also duetted with Missy Elliott on the brilliant, Timbaland-produced, 'Busa Rhyme' on her Da Real World album. Eminem makes no attempt to tone down the misogynistic elements of Slim Shady in the face of the 'First Lady Of Hip Hop.'" in Stubbs, David (2006), Eminem: The Stories Behind Every Song, Thunder's Mouth Press, p. 230, ISBN1-56025-946-9
^"Just two albums down, Missy "Misdemeanour" Elliot is riding a fine line between hip-hop heavyweight and pop princess. She's already proved she can do both - on debut album Supa Dupa Fly - and a lot more besides, having also moonlighted in the studio for the likes of Whitney Houston and Janet Jackson." in Baillie, Russell. "Missy Elliott: Da Real World". NZ Herald News. nzhearald.co.nz. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
^"After his hugely successful 'One of a Kind' world tour this past year, [G-Dragon] has recently announced the release of his third solo record, Coup D'Etat, which will have a feature from hip-hop heavyweight, Missy Elliott." in Ortiz, Kristine (August 21, 2013), "Countdown to KCON 2013", Audrey (audreymagazine.com), retrieved November 8, 2013
^"When Missy 'Misdemeanor' Elliott isn't creating another hit song mixed with rapping and singing, you can bet she's off collaborating with another artist. For this reason, the talented singer/rapper/songwriter/producer has been dubbed the 'Puff Mommy' of hip-hop." in Netter, Matt (1999), 'N Sync with Justin, Simon & Schuster, p. 74, ISBN9780671032760
^"And who, at twenty-seven, has become such an industry player that they're calling her Puff Mommy? 'Aw, that's MISSY.'" in Hirshey, Gerri (2001), We Gotta Get Out of This Place: The True, Tough Story of Women in Rock, Grove Press, p. 253, ISBN0-8021-3899-3
^"Beyond being the best-selling female hip hop artist to date, and often referred to as the queen of hip hop, what separates Missy Elliott is her ability to allow her aesthetic to speak for itself. She uses her artistry to transcend cultural norms in hip hop and in the music industry." in Hess, Mikey (2007), Icons of Hip Hop: An Encyclopedia of the Movement, Music, and Culture, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 503, ISBN978-0-313-33904-2
^"She's the unrivalled queen of rap and the first black music mogul, so it's no surprise that Missy Elliott has a reputation as the diva you cross at your peril." in Baker, Lindsay (October 31, 2003), "Scary? Missy Elliott?", The Guardian (Guardian.co.uk), retrieved 2013-02-22
^"Missy Elliott, reigning queen of rap, releases five albums in only six years, earns two Grammys, the 2003 American Music Award, and MTV's 2003 Video of the Year." in Shaw, Andrea Elizabeth (2006), The Embodiment of Disobedience: Fat Black Women's Unruly Political Bodies, Lexington Books, p. 100, ISBN0-7391-1487-5
^"Widely regarded as the queen of rap music, Missy Elliott is an icon of girl culture because of her innovative style and ability to succeed in the music industry without objectifying herself." in Mitchell, Claudia; Reid-Valsh, Jacqueline (2008), Girl Culture: Studying girl culture: a reader's guide, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 276, ISBN978-0-313-33908-0
^"Just as millions of fans considered Selena the 'queen' of Tejano music, her closest male counterpart, Emilio Navaira, has often been called the "king" of Tejano music." in Hartman, Gary (2008), The history of Texas music, Texas A&M University Press, p. 52, ISBN978-1-60344-002-8
^"Known far and wide as the 'Queen of Latin Pop', Gloria Estefan is one of the most recognized artists in the world", in "Gloria Estefan to Write Her First Book, a Children's Story Starring Her Bulldog Noelle; Published in English and Spanish Editions by Rayo, an Imprint of HarperCollins, in November 2005", Business Wire, 2004-12-06: 1
^"Brenda Fassie Black Madonna - "I'm a Mafia in bed". The obelisk which Mussolini took to Rome their obelisk back. WHILE gossip-mongers in the Western world are drooling over Madonna's blockbuster tome "Sex" Brenda Fassie (304-314), New African, 1993, p. 26, ISSN0142-9345
^"The singer who was affectionately known as 'The First Lady of Song' died peacefully at home surrounded by family and friends, said spokeswoman Andrea Hecht" at "Ella Fitzgerald, first lady of song, dies at 78". findarticles.com. July 1, 1996. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
^"Red Foley was then 'Mr. Country Music', the first country artist to sell a million records..." in J. C. Hefley, Country Music Comin' Home (Hannibal Books, 1992), p. 93.
^"She is also known as 'Sister Ree,' 'Lady Soul' 'La Diva Franklin,' and 'The Queen of Soul'," in Bego, Mark (2001), Aretha Franklin: The Queen of Soul, Da Capo Press, p. 6, ISBN978-0-306-80935-4
^ abc"Just as journalists had crowned white bandleaders Paul Whiteman and Benny Goodman as the kings of jazz and swing, in the 1950s they enthroned Presley, Haley, and Freed as the kings of rock 'n' roll" in Coleman, Rick (2007), Blue Monday: Fats Domino and the Lost Dawn of Rock 'n' Roll, Da Capo Press, p. xvii, ISBN978-0-306-81531-7
^"Known as the king of Latin pop, Gabriel also has sold more than 35 million albums worldwide." in Ryon, Ruth (2000-03-26), Latin Pop King Quitting Castle, Los Angeles Times, p. 1, ISSN0458-3035
^"He was the 'Prince of Motown,' strong, silent and majestic" in R. Gulla, Icons of R&B and soul: an encyclopedia of the artists who revolutionized rhythm vol. 2 (Greenwood, 2008), p. 338.
^"Dubbed "the Prince of Soul," Marvin Gaye endured lifelong turmoil, never grasping the genius of his own talent..." in N. Talevski, The unofficial encyclopedia of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (Greenwood, 1998), p. 402.
^"Although Gaynor was crowned the 'Queen of Disco' after dance floor favourites like "Honey Bee," "Never Can Say Goodbye" and "Casanova Brown" ..." in P. Shapiro, Turn the Beat Around: The Secret History of Disco (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2006), p. 213.
^"Marika Gombitová Is Celebrating Today". Korzár (in Slovak). Petit Press. 2008-09-12. korzar.sme.sk. Retrieved 2011-12-01. "The Songstress of the Century Marika Gombitová is celebrating today her 52nd birthday and her nameday, too..."
^"Marika Gombitová - Awards". Občianske združenie Osobnosti.sk (in Slovak). NWS. osobnosti.sk. Retrieved 2011-12-01. "Awards: 2000 - Title 'The Songstress of the Century'"
^"For many people the name Benny Goodman is synonymous with swing. His record sales and performances helped usher in the swing craze of the 1930s; for more than a decade, the 'king of swing' enjoyed incredible heights of popularity." Martin, Henry; Keith Waters (2006), Jazz: The First 100 Years, Thomson Wadsworth, p. 138, ISBN978-0-534-62804-8
^Lambert, Pam (1995-12-18). "Not Who You Think She Is". People. Retrieved 2011-10-16. "...her once-perfect Prom Queen of Soul facade has begun to crack as her marriage has become increasingly strained"
^"She was known as 'The Voice'", in A. Sarat, Legal Responses to Religious Practices in the United States: Accommodation and Its Limits (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), ISBN 1107023688, p. 67.
^"Recently, the girls proved their credibility as live performers, appearing as guests to Hong Kong's legendary "God of Songs" Sam Hui during his two live dates in Malaysia for the 50,000-strong crowds at Bukit Jalil National Stadium in Kuala Lumpur." in "Sounds of the East", Bangkok Post, 2005-03-15: 1
^"But somewhere between his last album, "Naughty Little Doggie", and his latest one, "Avenue B", the godfather of punk turned 50...", in Christman, Ed (1999-08-07), "Iggy Pop opens a 'window into the soul' on Virgin's contemplative 'Avenue B'", Billboard111: 14, ISSN0006-2510
^"Looking remarkably healthy for a man who nurtured a world-class drug habit for many years, the "Godfather of Punk" Iggy Pop is set to close the Other Stage on Saturday night." in "Godfather of punk still has lust for life", Western Daily Press, 2007-06-05: 30
^"Janet Jackson, music's princess of pop, is at a crossroads of her life and career: She is pursuing acting roles and she has parted ways with her longtime partner, Rene Elizondo ... Having established herself as the world-renowned princess of pop music, in addition to making strides as an actress, one would think there is not much left on her to-do list. But the possibilities are endless", in Norment, Lynn (November 2000), "Janet: At the crossroads", Ebony56 (1): 180, ISSN0012-9011
^"Janet Jackson is a big deal these days, the Queen of Pop, though we can still call her by her first name", in Smith, Giles (1996-04-21), "Slow riffs, fast riffs, midriffs", The Independent: 26, ISSN0951-9467
^"It's been close on a decade since she emerged from brother Michael's shadow and the Nineties has seen her constantly re(de)fining her musical and stage personae. In its staggering professionalism, the Velvet Rope tour bears witness to the success of such artistic endeavour as well as her status as the undoubted queen of R&B", Miles Keylock (1998-11-20), "Dammit Janet!", Mail & Guardian, retrieved 2011-04-19
^J. Wallenfeldt, Black American Biographies: The Journey of Achievement (Rosen, 2010), ISBN 1615301372, p. 320.
^Browne, David (November 29, 1991). "Michael Jackson's Black or White Blues". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-07-03. "[A] highly placed source at MTV says the network was obligated to refer to Jackson on air as the King of Pop in order to be allowed to show "Black or White." An MTV spokeswoman denies that, but the phrase was part of MTV's ads for the video and was repeatedly used by its VJs. A source at Fox confirms that Jackson's people did request that Bart use the phrase "King of Pop" in the video and that the phrase also be used in the network's press releases; 'King of Pop' also crops up in Fox's print ads for the video and in press releases by Jackson's publicists, Solters/Roskin/Friedman."
^"He wears the crown as the King Of Pop because no artist has broken his record of selling nearly 60 million copies of a single Album (Thriller)", in Lewis Jones, Jel D. (2005). Michael Jackson, the King of Pop: The Big Picture: the Music! the Man! the Legend! the Interviews: an Anthology. Amber Books Publishing. p. 3. ISBN978-0-9749779-0-4.
^"...the musical legacy of Robert Johnson has entranced later generations of rock and blues musicians such as the Rolling Stones and Led Zeppelin. Fans and experts alike call him the "grandfather of rock and roll", in "The grandfather of rock'n'roll: The devil's instrument", The Independent, 26 July 2006, retrieved 9 September 2009.
^"Janis Joplin found hers in Texas and left for the West Coast, there to become queen of rock and roll." in McNally, Dennis (2003), Desolate Angel: Jack Kerouac, the Beat Generation, and America, Da Capo Press, p. 316, ISBN978-0-306-81222-4
^...Janis Joplin, the nation's reigning queen of rock 'n' roll. Jackson, Buzzy (2005), A bad woman feeling good, W. W. Norton & Company, p. 81, ISBN978-0-393-05936-6
^Edward A. Berlin, King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and his Era (Oxford: Oxford University Press US, 1995), ISBN 0195356462, p. 146.
^"He was known as 'King of the Jukebox' and was one of the first black artists to have both white and black supporters following his jazz, blues, and boogie-woogie tunes", in Brewer Jr., John M. (2007), Pittsburgh Jazz, Arcadia Publishing, p. 95, ISBN978-0-7385-4980-4
^"Jully Black has been called a lot of things. But she gets a good laugh at those who have called her the 'new queen of Canadian R&B'." in O'Brian, Amy (2007-11-22), "Black paves a new path for women in rhythm & blues; Canada's new queen of R&B? Who's the old one, asks trendsetter Jully Black", The Vancouver Sun: D.11
^Danielle Canada (1998-12-28). "R. Kelly". Jet Magazine. Retrieved 2012-01-26. "During a recent interview with the reigning King of R&B, Kelly told JET why success saddens him"
^Holden, Stephen (1995-17-12). "Pop Briefs". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-26. "The reigning king of pop-soul sex talks a lot tougher than Barry White, the father of such fluffed-up pillow talk and along with Marvin Gaye and Donny Hathaway, a major influence on Kelly."Check date values in: |date= (help)
^"The reigning 'queen of R&B', as decreed by her backing vocalist (and opening act) Jermaine Paul and countless others, Keys owned the stage at a packed WaMu Theater, highlighting her elegant artistry and dynamic personality in a 90-minute set." in Toombs, Mikel (2008-09-22), "Superwoman Keys Earns Title Of R&B Queen", Seattle Post-Intelligencer: C.3, ISSN0745-970X
^On Friday, the queen of R&B, Alicia Keys, took over RodeoHouston. Clark, Michael (2005-03-07), "Duff makes rodeo a pop event", Houston Chronicle: 5, ISSN1074-7109
^"In the past five years, Western music critics have reached into their grab bag to label him the 'Algerian Elvis' and the 'poster boy for the modern form of Algerian desert blues'. In the decade before that, he was known as Cheb Khaled (cheb means "young man" in Algeria's Arabic dialect) or, more simply, the 'King of Rai'", in Curiel, Jonathan (2005-07-10), The 'King of Rai' Seeks a New Name, San Francisco Chronicle
^"Much later, as the reigning King of the Blues, BB would explain that the 'blues isn't just some sad music about a broken heart, a busted dream, or a painful love affair. Blues is much more than any of these things. If I could pick three descriptions of it, I'd say it ain't nothing but living, laughing and loving'", in Nazel, Joe (1998), B.B. King: King of the Blues, Holloway House Publishing, p. 60, ISBN978-0-87067-792-2
^"Inevitably called 'King of the Blues', BB King is today probably the most commercially successful blues singer with black audiences." in Oakley, Giles (1997), The Devil's Music: A History of the Blues, Da Capo Press, p. 228, ISBN978-0-306-80743-5
^Her string of hits since the early '60s as the Empress of Soul are known in the streets of Johannesburg and around the world. They include those she recorded with and without the Pips - such as "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" and "Neither One of Us." Phil Roura (2010-09-26), "Knight on a Mission: Georgia's Soul Superstar Has New Orleans on Her Mind", New York Daily News: 20
^At 65, the Empress of Soul is leaving on the Midnight Train to Georgia for the last time. Gladys Knight's "farewell tour" winds down a six-decade-long career that began with a talent contest at the age of seven. You can't blame her for wanting a rest, although, as one of the greats, she isn't bowing out quietly. For almost two hours, she conducts a "musical journey" that is both an emotional rollercoaster and a social history lesson.Dave Simpson (2009-10-09), "Review: Pop: Gladys Knight Manchester Arena 4/5", The Guardian: 44, ISSN0261-3077
^"The man many call the godfather of house, Frankie Knuckles began DJing in New York in the early '70s while still a teenager, years before the disco boom which proved to be the first flowering of modern dance music." "Frankie Knuckles". allmusic.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
^"For Koo, who credits his music studies at Berklee with having an influence 'mainly on the theory and inspiration' of his musical arrangements, went on to make such a major impact on the local popular music scene that he was bestowed the title 'The Godfather of Cantopop'", in Yvonne Teh. "the godfather of cantopop". bc magazine. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
^"Lady Gaga -- real name Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta -- has, over the course of a few scant years, scaled to pop heights not witnessed since the glory days of Madonna (and we're not just talking about those 10-inch Alexander McQueen heels). Not a week goes by that she's not in the news for something or other. Her Lollapalooza turn this past weekend confirmed her stature, as if there were any doubt, as America's new Queen of Pop", in Randall Roberts (2010-08-11), "Lady Gaga at Staples Center: The numbers behind the music", Los Angeles Times, retrieved 2010-08-18
^Harmanci, Reyhan (November 8, 2009). "Lady Gaga in the running to be the next Madonna". San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst Corporation). Retrieved February 19, 2013. "...For decades now, the media have been on a quest to anoint "the next Madonna." A quick Google search unearths more than 79,000 hits for that phrase - everyone from Rosie Perez to Rihanna has been mentioned. Madonna herself has participated in the search from time to time, while still making albums, releasing videos, bedding young models, scaring the world with the tightest quads in the music business - in general, still being Madonna. Her staged kiss with Britney Spears at a 2003 music awards show certainly signaled a contender, although Britney, sadly, proved unfit for the title. (Who knew that mental stability was in the job description to replace Madonna?)....."
^"She is the acclaimed Princess of the South, the original Candy Girl before she even became an adolescent teen. All across the nation Lil Brianna has been imprinting her name all over the industry." in "Lil Brianna", 24HourHipHop (24HourHipHop.com), August 1, 2007, retrieved March 30, 2013
^"The power of this self-appointed 'Godmother of Hip-Hop and R&B' may take some by surprise; while many artists spin tales of their hard-knock childhoods, Lil' Mo's family was often called the 'fake Cosbys.'" in R&B Divas: LA Announces Cast, tvOne.tv, April 5, 2013, retrieved August 13, 2013
^ abc"Queen of Country. The title has been bestowed on Dolly Parton, Reba McEntire, Loretta Lynn and a few other female country stars." in Proskocil, Niz (2008-08-07), "Who is the queen of country?", Omaha World - Herald: 11
^"If any long-running singer deserves to wear the crown, or at least the tiara, of Queen of Country, then surely it's the Coal Miner's Daughter herself, Loretta Lynn, right? Right. (Sorry, Dolly)", in "Queen for a day", Pantagraph, 2008-03-13: D.5
^ abSavage, Mark (2008-08-15). "Pop superstars turn 50". BBC. Retrieved 2009-04-07. "The album True Blue, with its iconic Herb Ritts cover, cements Madonna's reputation as the first lady of pop...; Also known as: The Queen of Pop, Material Girl..."
^"Madonna, called the Princess of Pop" in "Celebrity Beat", Jet69 (6), 1985-10-21: 53, ISSN0021-5996
^"...the so-called Queen of Pop eludes both followers and critics by shifting her image..." in R. Gairola, "Re-worldling the Oriental: Critical Perspectives on Madonna as Geisha" in S. Fouz-Hernández and F. Jarman-Ivens, eds, Madonna's drowned worlds: new approaches to her cultural transformations, 1983-2003(Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004), p. 104.
^"The queen of reinvention has achieved the seemingly impossible yet again", in "Spotlights: Singles", Billboard117 (44), 2005-10-29: 69, ISSN0006-2510
^"The queen of reinvention, Madonna, even named her 2004 world tour Reinvention", in Gallo, Carmine (2006), 10 Simple Secrets of the World's Greatest Business Communicators, Sourcebooks, p. 204, ISBN978-1-4022-0696-2
^ ab"Teena Marie, born Mary Christine Brockert but also known as Lady T and the Ivory Queen of Soul, was found dead Dec. 26 at 54," in Alexandra Silver (2011-01-10), "Teena Marie", TIME, retrieved 2011-01-26
^"Through massive record sales and live shows that take on a Bruce Springsteen-like endurance, McEntire has earned her unofficial moniker as 'The Queen of Country'", in Schaults, Janine (2009-05-20), "It's Reba, for a good cause", Chicago Tribune: 4, ISSN1085-6706
^"In a music heavily dominated by men, Lydia Mendoza, the First Queen of Tejano Music, stands out", in Dorian, Frederick; Simon Broughton, Mark Ellingham, James McConnachie, Richard Trillo, Orla Duane (2000), World Music: The Rough Guide, Rough Guides, p. 606, ISBN978-1-85828-636-5
^Ferrari, Glauco (2012-04-08). "Italian American Celebrities > Liza". Life in Italy. lifeinitaly.com. Retrieved 2012-08-22. "Born in L.A., she is the quintessential New Yorker, a queen of Broadway and Hollywood."
^"Once upon a time, long before anybody had even heard of Britney, Christina, Jessica or Mandy, Australian singer Kylie Minogue ruled the charts as princess of pop", in "Kylie's back on royal form", Birmingham Post, 2000-07-08: 5
^"The queen of pop, Kylie Minogue, lines up alongside the Chelsea Pensioners and note-smashing Russell Watson to press the royal flesh ..." in "Pick of the Day", The Mail on Sunday (London), 2010-12-12: 55
^バラードの女王、MISIAの歌声をいち早くフルで楽しみたい人は、さっそくダウンロードしておこう。 (Ubiquity translation: Those who want to quickly listen to the Queen of Ballads Misia's singing can immediately download the song.)"MISIA、ドラマ「JIN-仁-」で話題の新曲着うたフル配信". Livedoor. 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
^ジャパニーズソウルの女王として圧倒的歌唱力を誇るシンガー MISIAと、日本のロックを牽引する最高のギタリスト 布袋寅泰による書き下ろし主題歌「Back In Love Again（feat.布袋寅泰）」は、堺雅人演じる右衛門佐（えもんのすけ）と菅野美穂演じる綱吉による“二人の永遠の愛”を表現。 (Ubiquity translation: Misia, the Queen of Japanese Soul known for her powerhouse vocals, and Japan's leading rock guitarist Tomoyasu Hotei wrote the theme song "Back In Love Again" to express the "eternal love" between Masato Sakai's Emonnosuke and Miho Kanno's Tsunayoshi.)"MISIA×布袋寅泰 映画『大奥』主題歌で夢のコラボ実現". Billboard Japan. 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
^"Since her debut at age nine, she was the queen of Japanese pop music", at "The East", East Publications (University of Virginia), 25-25, 1989: 57
^Known as the queen of Japanese pop music... "The Japan Foundation newsletter", The Japan Foundation (University of Michigan), 17-21, 1989: 6
^ ab"Rising above it all was Monica, the headline female act, who's currently sharing the title of 'R&B Princess' with young singer Brandy" in Townsend, Audarshia (1998-10-31), "No Real Treat Monica Highlights Otherwise Dreary Halloween Bash", Chicago Tribune: 25, ISSN1085-6706
^ ab"Rudy Ray Moore has been called the Godfather of Rap (a title that has also been used to describe sociopolitical soulster Gil Scott-Heron)." in Bogdanov, Vladimir; Chris Woodstra, John Bush, Stephen Thomas Erlewine (2003), All Music Guide to Soul: The Definitive Guide to R&B and Soul, Backbeat Books, p. 482, ISBN978-0-87930-744-8
^"This record was a collaboration between Philip Oakey, the big-voiced lead singer of the techno-pop band the Human League, and Giorgio Moroder, the Italian-born father of disco who spent the '80s writing synth-based pop and film music." Evan Cater. "Philip Oakey & Giorgio Moroder: Overview". allmusic. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
^"Rock Singer Sentenced". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. October 30, 1970. p. 15. Retrieved 05-07-2013.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
^Edward L. Davis (2008), Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture, Taylor & Francis, p. 567, ISBN041577716X, "Anita Mui, frequently referred to as the 'Madonna of Asia', was also active in movies, like most Hong Kong pop stars"
^Magrini, Tullia (2003). "The Tearful Public Sphere: Turkey's "Sun of Art," Zeki Müren". Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean. University of Chicago Press. ISBN978-0-226-50165-9.
^"...with Rolling Stone magazine dubbing Nicks, 'The Reigning Queen of Rock and Roll'", in Brackett, Donald (2007), Fleetwood Mac: 40 Years of Creative Chaos, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 159, ISBN978-0-275-99338-2
^"Plucking the Same Old Strings". The Hindustan Times. 2009-02-06. "Take Edge of Seventeen, the elegy for John Lennon which launched the solo career of Stevie Nicks, queen of rock and roll and former better half of Fleetwood Mac."
^"Odetta, who has died of kidney failure aged 77, received many honours during her life, most notably from Martin Luther King, who called her 'the queen of American folk music', and the then US president Bill Clinton, who in 1999 awarded her the National Medal of the Arts and Humanities. She had been due to sing at Barack Obama's inauguration in January." in "Queen of folk led way for female solo singers", The Irish Times, 2008-12-06: 14
^ abE. B. Christian, ed.., Rock Brands: Selling Sound in a Media Saturated Culture (Lexington Books, 2010), ISBN 073914636X, p. 45.
^T. Kernodle, H. Maxille and E. G. Price III, eds, Encyclopedia of African American Music (Greenwood, 2010), ISBN 978-0-313-34199-1, p. 126.
^"His North American breakthrough came in 1972, when he sang the role of Tonio in Donizetti's Daughter of the Regiment at New York's Metropolitan Opera. In his big number, "Pour mon ame", he had to sing nine high C's, a feat that virtually every tenor pulls off by singing falsetto. Not Pavarotti. ... He was from then on known as 'The King of the High C's'." Enman, Charles (September 7, 2007). "The King of the High C's". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
^Perkins, Carl; David McGee (1996), Go, Cat, Go!: The Life and Times of Carl Perkins, the King of Rockabilly, Hyperion Press, pp. 11, 12, ISBN0-7868-6073-1
^"His original status as the King of Rock and Roll has never been seriously challenged, and he's remained a bottomless source of inspiration for the generations of rock and rollers who've taken up the cause in the decades since that July night in Memphis". Schinder, Scott (2008), Icons of Rock: An Encyclopedia of the Legends who Changed Music Forever, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 2, ISBN978-0-313-33846-5
^"It was only a matter of time before |the Princess of Rock 'n' Roll decided to rely on her royal bloodline and make a music career", in Gumbrecht, Jamie (2003-07-24), "5 Questions For... Lisa Marie Presley", The Atlanta Journal- Constitution: 35, ISSN1539-7459
^B. Mazor, Meeting Jimmie Rodgers: How America's Original Roots Music Hero Changed the Pop Sounds of a Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), ISBN 0-19-532762-4, pp. 197-238.
^"Rave fave Rozalla has a Plymouth date. The Zambian-born singer, who has seven top 30 hits to her name, plays Zeros on Saturday, October 3. She enjoyed her biggest hits with Everybody's Free (number six) and Faith (11) in 1991. Her album, with the same title as the top 10 single, earned her the tag the Queen of Rave", in "'Queen of Rave' at Zeros", The Herald, September 22, 2009
^"'He is the most imitated, most listened to, most recognized, voice of the second half of the twentieth century,' the New York disk jockey William B. Williams said in the fifties, tagging him forever with the epithet Chairman of the Board", in J. Lahr, Show and Tell: New Yorker Profiles (University of California Press, 2002), p. 52.
^"Nina Simone (Eunice Waymon), who long shared the title 'Queen of Soul' with Aretha Franklin", in M. Ellison, Extensions of the Blues (J. Calder, 1989), ISBN 0714537179, p. 94.
^ ab"Bessie Smith became the 'Empress of the Blues' based on her strong vocal abilities...When Nina Simone 'the High Priestess of Soul' performed at the Academy" in M. E. Bratcher, Words and songs of Bessie Smith, Billie Holiday, and Nina Simone: sound motion, blues spirit, and African memory: Studies in African American history and culture (Routledge, 2007), p. 2.
^Joe S. Harrington, Sonic Cool: The Life & Death of Rock 'n' Roll (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2002), ISBN 0634028618, p. 262.
^"SACC showcase: Dato' Siti Nurhaliza and Krisdayanti". New Straits Times. April 10, 2010. Retrieved 2013-01-07. "Dato' Siti Nurhaliza is a multiple-award winning Malaysian pop singer-songwriter who has garnered more than 100 local awards. Known as the Voice of Asia, Siti has recorded more than 30 albums including singles. She is also known to have the most number one singles than any other artist in Malaysia."
^Often referred to in interviews, cover stories and promotional material as the new 'princess of pop' Susan Hopkins (2002), Girl Heroes: The New Force In Popular Culture, University of Michigan Press, p. 60
^"... the queen of pop, Britney Spears awarded the king of pop, Michael Jackson the 'Artist of the Millennium' award, in "Eminem wins best music video award". CBBC Newsround (BBC). 30 August 2002. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
^"Spears proved to audiences universally that she was, like Madonna in her heyday, the new publicly appointed 'Queen of Pop'", in Martin Charles Strong; John Peel (2004), The Great Rock Discography, Canongate Books, pp. 1,423, ISBN978-1-84195-615-2
^"Initially a cult figure, by 1985, 'The Boss', as he became known to his fans, was the world's most successful white rock star since Elvis." in Shuker, Roy (2001), Understanding Popular Music, Routledge, p. 123, ISBN978-0-415-23509-9
^"Known as 'Principal' or 'Principal Tam', Alan Tam has received this title after years of experience mentoring younger artists", in Top 10 Cantopop Classics from the ’80s, MTV, retrieved 2012-06-23
^"Koko Taylor is Chicago's reigning 'Queen of the Blues', in Hine, Darlene; Elsa Barkley Brown, Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (1993), Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, Carlson Publishing, p. 1143, ISBN978-0-926019-61-4
^"Irma Thomas was then a young vocalist with a nice smile who would be known for the next thirty years as the Soul Queen of New Orleans" in Widmer, Mary Lou (2000), New Orleans in the Sixties, Pelican Publishing Company, p. 86, ISBN978-1-58980-620-7
^"Prince of Pop Justin Timberlake strolls into town this week for three incredible dates at the SECC as part of his 2007 FutureSex/ Love Show - and you can be there, courtesy of our friends at Sony Ericsson and Vodafone." in Goodwin, Clayton (2007-05-02), "Win The last tickets to see Justin", Daily Record: 15
^"Rencenty the Godfather of Punk has been more forthcoming about his spiritual beliefs" in G. Giuliano, Behind Blue Eyes: The Life of Pete Townshend (Cooper Square Press, 2002), ISBN 1461731968, p. 268.
^"...line for a cure from the local miracle worker, or to a Gloria Trevi rock concert to hear the scandalous Mexican Madonna's" in Carlos Monsivìs: Culture and Chronicle in Contemporary Mexico (University of Arizona Press, 2001)
^John Farley, Christopher (September 15, 2001). "Diva on Campus". Time. pp. Splash. Retrieved July 11, 2011. "She's virtually unknown in the U.S., but Hikaru, 18, is Japan's biggest pop star. The Japanese media sing her praises: (...) THE DIVA OF THE HEISEI PERIOD! The Japanese public devours her music: her debut CD, First Love (1999), sold more than 9.5 million copies, making it the best-selling album in Japanese history."
^"In 1952, Kitty Wells was named the Queen Of Country Music by Fred Rose..." in Larkin, Colin (1992), The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music, p. 2662, ISBN1-882267-00-1
^"A crown, presented to the singer in 1973, is among the costumes, awards, mementos and other artefacts now on display in 'Kitty Wells, Queen of Country Music', a career-spanning biographical exhibit at Nashville's Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum running through next June." in Mazor, Barry (2008-10-01), "Music: The Queen of Country Music Holds Court", The Wall Street Journal: D.9, ISSN0099-9660
^"Jackie Wilson, Jackie (Jack Leroy Wilson, “Mr. Excitement”) (1934–1984)" in S. Otfinoski, African Americans in the Performing Arts A to Z of African Americans (Infobase Publishing, 2010), ISBN 143812855X, p. 253.
^John Bush. "Xuxa - Music Biography, Credits and Discography: AllMusic". Allmusic. All Media Guide. Retrieved 2013-10-14. "For the past three decades she has been known in Brazil as Children's Queen and has sold more than 30 million albums in the country all alone. In the early 1990s her fame crossed her country's borders and Xuxa became famous in all of Latin America and later she was invited to come to the US to present her own TV series, but it was recorded and the show lasted only one season consisting of 65 episodes. [Xuxa(TV Series)]"
^"It had already been noted that Neil Young was an important influence on grunge musicians, and in the mid-1990s it became common to see Neil Young described as 'the godfather of grunge'", in Echard, William (2005), Neil Young and the Poetics of Energy, Indiana University Press, p. 43, ISBN978-0-253-21768-4
^"Hungary's pop 'King' dies". BBC News. 2001-01-03. Retrieved 2013-03-24. "The 42-year-old singer, who was known in his home country as 'King', died in hospital on Tuesday."
^"...signature rifts, and it becomes clear why Aerosmith has been tagged 'America's Greatest Rock and Roll Band.' Few bands on the globe—forget just the United States—have accomplished what Aerosmith have. The band has sold more than 70 million albums worldwide and has won countless awards, including three Grammys. And, with a few exceptions, Aerosmith has delivered on its promise: to make music that strikes the listener in the heart, feet, soul and groin." in Walker, Don (1998-08-15), "Rock This Way: A Brief History of Roads Taken", Billbaord110 (33): 20, ISSN0006-2510
^Whatever there is to say now about Aerosmith, the long-lasting, hard-rocking quintet that has often been billed or hyped as America's greatest rock and roll band, it could've been said two decades ago. Mieses, Stanley (1997-08-09), "Still Walking the Walk, Leading the Way", Newsday: B.05
^ ab"The Five Stairsteps were 'The First Family of Soul'. A title bestowed upon the Chicago-based teenaged group in part because of their astounding five-year run of hits, which included the 1970 million-selling single "O-o-h Child." 'The First Family...' title was later adapted by The Jackson 5. Hogan, Ed, The Five Stairsteps, Allmusic|accessdate= requires |url= (help)
^"The Stairsteps were tremendous R&B stars and were critically acclaimed as the 'First Family of Soul'." Calloway, Earl (1998-08-22), "Five Stairsteps remembered on ultimate Regal stage revue", Chicago DefenderXCVI (166): 15, ISSN0745-7014
^"For one quick breath, the old R.E.M. extended family came together in a show of support. It is fitting that this update edition ends with the departure of Holt and Barry. It's the end of the world as we know it, and the end of an era for the band who in its lifespan has come to be known as America's Greatest Rock and Roll Band", in Sullivan, Denise (1998), R.E.M.: Talk About the Passion : An Oral History, Da Capo Press, p. xxiii, ISBN978-0-306-80857-9
^"The Stones figured out early on that you can rock, and also understand the value of branding. 'The World's Greatest Rock & Roll Band' was a title the Stones bequeathed to themselves, and soon enough, neither media nor fans could think of the name of the band without its slogan."Popkin, Helen A.S., The Stones may be old, but they can still rock, MSNBC, retrieved 2009-04-19