Hupa

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For other uses, see Hupa (disambiguation).
Hupa
Hupa mother and infant, ca. 1924, photo by Edward Curtis
Total population
2140 enrolled (1990)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 United States ( California)
Languages
English, Hupa
Religion
traditional tribal religion
Related ethnic groups
Chilula and Whilkut[1]
A Hupa man with his spear

Hupa, also spelled Hoopa are a Native American people of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group in northwestern California. Their autonym is Natinixwe, also spelled Natinookwa, meaning "People of the Place Where the Trails Return".[1] The majority of the tribe is enrolled in the federally recognized Hoopa Valley Tribe.

History[edit]

wood plank and rock Hupa sweat house

The Hupa people migrated from the north into northern California around 1000 CE [1] and settled in Hoopa Valley, California. Their heritage language is Hupa, which is a member of the Athabaskan language family. Their land stretched from the South Fork of the Trinity River to Hoopa Valley, to the Klamath River in California. Their red cedar-planked houses, dugout canoes, basket hats, and many elements of their oral literature identify them with their northern origin; however, some of their customs, such as the use of a sweat house for ceremonies and the manufacture of acorn bread, were adopted from surrounding indigenous peoples of California.

Hupa people had limited contact with non-native peoples until the 1849 Gold Rush brought an influx of miners onto their lands.[1] In 1864, the United States government signed a treaty that recognized the Hupa tribe's sovereignty to their land. The United States called the reservation the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation (located at 41°05′57″N 123°40′21″W / 41.09917°N 123.67250°W / 41.09917; -123.67250), where the Hupa now reside. The reservation is next to the territory of the Yurok at the connection of the Klamath and Trinity Rivers in northeastern Humboldt County. The reservation has a land area of 141.087 sq mi (365.413 km²).

Culture[edit]

Arts[edit]

Hupa people have traditionally excelled at basketry, elk horn carving, and since the 17th century, petroglyphs.[2]

Ethnobotany[edit]

The Hupa use the acorns of lithocarpus densiflorus to make meal, from which they would make mush, bread, biscuits, pancakes, and cakes. They also roast the acorns and eat them. [3] They also use the dyed fronds of woodwardia radicans for basketry. [4] They also use xerophyllum tenax to create a border pattern in baskets. [5]

Population[edit]

Further information: Population of Native California

Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber thought that the 1770 population of the Hupa was 1,000 and that the Chilula and Whilkut accounted for another 1,000. Kroeber estimated the population of the Hupa in 1910 as 500.[6] In 1943, Sherburne F. Cook proposed an aboriginal population of 1,000 for the Hupa and 600 for the Chilula.[7] He subsequently suggested a population for the Hupa alone of 2,900.[8] William J. Wallace felt that the latter estimate was "much too high", and allowed 1,000 for the Hupa, 500–600 for the Chilula, and 500 for the Whilkut.[9] The Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has a resident population of 2,633 persons according to the 2000 census.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Pritzker 126
  2. ^ Pritzker 127
  3. ^ Merriam, C. Hart (1966). Ethnographic Notes on California Indian Tribes. University of California Archaeological Research Facility, Berkeley (p. 200).
  4. ^ Murphey, Edith Van Allen (1990). Indian Uses of Native Plants. Glenwood, Ill.: Meyerbooks. Originally published in 1959 (p. 4).
  5. ^ Murphey, Edith Van Allen (1990). Indian Uses of Native Plants. Glenwood, Ill.: Meyerbooks. Originally published in 1959 (p. 2).
  6. ^ Kroeber, p.883
  7. ^ Cook 1976, p. 170
  8. ^ Cook 1956, pp. 99–100
  9. ^ Wallace, p. 176

References[edit]

  • Cook, Sherburne F. 1956. "The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California". Anthropological Records 16:81–130. University of California, Berkeley.
  • Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Goddard, Pliny Earle (1903). Life and Culture of the Hupa. The University Press. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 1:1–88.
  • Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D.C.
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.
  • Wallace, William J. 1978. "Hupa, Chilula, and Whilkut". In California, edited by Robert F. Heizer, pp. 91–98. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • U.S. Census Bureau, Hoopa Valley Reservation

Bibliographies[edit]

External links[edit]