Horlicks is the name of a company and of a malted milk hot drink developed by the founders James and William Horlick. It is now manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline in the United Kingdom, South Africa, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, and Jamaica, and under licence in the Philippines and Malaysia.
In the initial stage of manufacturing, milled malted barley and wheat flour are mashed together in hot water where the starch is converted into sugars. To this sugar solution dairy powders are added. The water content is then evaporated to form a syrup that is dried in vacuum band driers to form a cake. This cake is milled into the finished powder. This is then fortified with vitamins and minerals.
Claims are often made by malted milk drinks such as Horlicks that they assist sleep, but these claims have been difficult to verify. According to GlaxoSmithKline: "While ... research indicates that Horlicks drinks can help you to sleep better, the exact way in which Horlicks works is not clear."
Malted drinks may help to stave off hunger overnight, which can lead to sounder sleep.
The claim that the product helps one to sleep might be explained simply. Often, waking during sleep can be attributed to low blood sugars and this is common in people who undertake high levels of physical exercise and who suffer insomnia from over training. The mechanism involves the body producing adrenalin in response to the low blood sugars where the body attempts to wake itself in order to seek out carbohydrate and glycogen to refuel. Malt extracts are high in carbohydrate and thus can keep the body’s blood sugars replenished during sleep.
Alternative word usage
Usually taken to be a substitute for the profanity "bollocks". This use was exploited by the company in a 1990's advertising campaign, in which a harassed housewife exclaims "Horlicks" in a context where a stronger term could have been expected, thus widening the term's exposure and usage for a while.
This substitution in the form of a singular noun is also used to refer to a minor disaster or shambles, as in 'to make a complete Horlicks of something'. For example, the term was used in July 2003 by British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw ("a complete Horlicks") to describe irregularities in the preparation and provenance of a dossier regarding weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.
- Dan Dare, Pilot of the future serial sponsored by Horlicks in 1952 and heard Monday to Friday at 7:15 p.m. over Radio Luxembourg.
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In 1961, Horlicks ran a television advertising campaign that featured Scottish entertainer Billy Raymond and an actress. The theme of the advert was "Horlicks — the food drink of the night."
Horlicks was the sponsor of the Lum and Abner Show from 1934 to 1937.
Around the world
In Hong Kong, Horlicks is known better as a café drink than as a sleeping aid. It is served at cha chaan tengs as well as fast-food shops such as Café de Coral and Maxim's Express. It can be served hot or cold, and is usually sweetened with sugar. It is made with warm milk, and ice is added to it if a cold drink is desired.
India and Bangladesh
Horlicks came to India with The British Army; the end of World War I saw Indian soldiers of British Indian Army bringing it back with them as a dietary supplement. Punjab, Bengal and Madras Presidencies became early adopters of Horlicks and many well-to-do Indians took to drinking Horlicks as a family drink in early 1940s and 1950s. It became a sort of status symbol in upper middle class Indians and rich classes. The first flavour available in India, as in Britain, was malt.
India, where it has traditionally been marketed as The Great Family Nourisher, is the largest market for Horlicks. The Indian formulation for Horlicks is slightly different than in most other countries, as there it is manufactured from buffalo milk rather than cows milk due to cultural concerns. In 2003, the brand underwent a revamp which led to the introduction of new flavours such as vanilla, toffee, chocolate, honey, and elaichi (cardamom). The current line-up of flavours include original (malt), chocolate and elaichi.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the scope of the brand in India. By pushing it to newer segments of the market, Horlicks has become an umbrella brand for a wide variety of products ranging from the flagship malt drink to instant noodles, confectionery and breakfast cereal. Special formulations of the malted drink for young children (Junior Horlicks), breast-feeding mothers (Mother's Horlicks), women (Women's Horlicks) and adults (Lite Horlicks) exist. Horlicks biscuits were first launched in 1993, and an energy bar was launched in 2009, named Horlicks NutriBar. Also in late 2009, Foodles, a brand of instant noodles, was launched under the Horlicks umbrella. This was followed in 2011 by launches of Horlicks Gold, a premium variant of the malt drink (dubbed The Best Horlicks Ever), and Horlicks Oats, the first breakfast cereal product under the Horlicks brand.
In 2010, Horlicks accounted for 85% of the 2306 crore (US$350 million) revenue of GlaxoSmithKline in India. It is currently the most widely consumed packaged beverage in India, after bottled water.
In Pakistan, Horlicks is produced and marketed by GlaxoSmithKline. In 2010, Horlicks accounted for 85% of the PKR 2306 crore (USD 435.83 million) revenue of GlaxoSmithKline in Pakistan. It is currently the most widely consumed packaged beverage in Pakistan, after bottled water.
In some Southeast Asian countries, such as the Philippines and Malaysia, Horlicks was also sold as milky-chocolate-flavoured discs in paper packets, which were then eaten as candy. Horlicks remains popular in Malaysia and Singapore where it packed under licence from SmithKline Beecham and sold in large glass and tin containers. It is also available in 1.5 kg refill packs. "Taller, stronger, sharper" is its slogan.
In the United Kingdom, Horlicks is available in Original (prepared with hot milk), Light (prepared with hot water), Malt Chocolate (prepared with hot water) and Caramel Dream (prepared with hot water). GlaxoSmithKline attempted a rebrand of the product in 2004 for younger consumers by redesigning the packaging and publicising its consumption at a number of trendy London venues such as the Groucho Club.
The company also owned Horlicks Farms and Dairies, a cheese, dairy and cattle breeding Station at 'Hort Bridge' Ilminster, Somerset. (The cattle breeding centre provided an Artificial Insemination service to farmers). In 1958, it took over The Cheddar Valley Dairy and by the early 1960s would have retail rounds, depots and shops at Burnham, Cheddar, Clevedon, Glastonbury, Nailsea, Taunton and Weston-super-Mare.
In New Zealand, Horlicks is produced and marketed by GlaxoSmithKline. Horlicks is available in Original (prepared with hot milk).
- 1869: William Horlick from Ruardean, Gloucestershire emigrated to the United States.
- 1873: James Horlick, a pharmacist, joined his brother, William, in the U.S. and together they founded the company J & W Horlicks in Chicago to manufacture a patented malted milk drink as an artificial infant food.
- 1875: Business moved to larger premises at Racine, Wisconsin, with an abundant supply of spring water.
- 1883: U.S. patent 278,967 granted to William for first malted milk drink mixing powder with hot water.
- 1890: James returned to London to set up an office importing U.S.-made product.
- 1906: Slough selected as site for new factory (see picture).
- 1908: Factory construction completed at a cost of £28,000.
- 1909-1910: Horlicks became popular as a provision for North Pole and South Pole expeditions by Robert Peary, Roald Amundsen, and Robert Falcon Scott.
- 1914: James made a baronet. World War I saw extensive use of Horlicks drink at home and at the front.
- 1921: Death of James led company to split, with William having responsibility for the Americas and the sons of James for the rest of the world.
- 1928: William Horlick High School founded just north of Horlicks' headquarters in Racine, Wisconsin.
- 1931: "Night Starvation" story developed to promote Horlicks as a bedtime drink.
- 1935: Richard E. Byrd named the Horlick Mountains on the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf after William, in appreciation of his support. A small factory opened in Australia for the local market, including New Zealand. Horlicks milky-chocolate-flavoured disks in paper packets, which were eaten as candy, were marketed in the USA via radio commercials touting the ease with which they could be taken to school by children.
In America, Horlicks Tablets were sold as a candy, offered in a glass bottle resembling an aspirin jar. These tablets were used during World War II as an energy boosting treat by U.S., UK and other soldiers, as well as being a component of aircrew escape kits. Today, these are packaged in foil pouches, manufactured in Malaysia as Horlicks Malties
- 1936: William Horlick died, aged 90.
- 1945: The U.S. company was acquired by the British Horlicks business.
- 1952: Horlicks was linked to the successful treatment of gastric ulcers and some forms of diabetes.
- 1960: Factory built in Punjab, India to make Horlicks from buffalo milk.
- 1968: Factory built in Punjab, Pakistan, to supply local demand (including East Pakistan, now Bangladesh).
- 1969: Horlicks acquired by the Beecham Group.
- 1975-1978: Factory construction and expansion in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh.
- 1989: Beecham Group became SmithKline Beecham.
- 2000: SmithKline Beecham became GlaxoSmithKline.
- Terry Kirby (22 September 2004). "Never mind a Cosmopolitan, how about some Horlicks?". The Independent. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Rachel Kaufman (8 January 2008). "Is your bedtime drink bad for you?". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Straw says dossier was 'embarrassing'". BBC News. 24 June 2003. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
- Pinto, Viveat. "GSK plays catch-up in foods & beverages". Business Standard. Retrieved 20 June 2012. "Leading the charge is Horlicks, GSK’s Rs1,500-crore brand — easily the largest in its portfolio contributing 70 per cent to the brand’s revenues globally."
- Kitchen Lore: The History of Malted Milk Powder
- Moutusi Maity; Arunava Saha Dalal, Giridhar Rao B.G., Navneet Chahal, Rohini Ramachandran, Suraj Holla Byndoor. "Revitalising Women's Horlicks in India". Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Horlicks Products | Horlicks". GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare India Limited. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Bhanu Pande; Ratna Bhushan (3 February 2011). "GSK Consumer: Will pushing Horlicks into new categories destroy the brand?". The Economic Times. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Horlicks Products | HFDs". GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare India Limited. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare India - Products - Horlicks Biscuits". GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare India Limited. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Khicha, Preeti. "Stretching the Horlicks core". afaqs!. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Kitamura, Makiko. "Glaxo’s Horlicks Health Drink Outsells Pepsi in India: Retail". Bloomberg. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
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What Do Brits Mean by "Horlicks"? by Brendan I. Koerner