|Battles/wars||Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
Battle of Jalula
Hormuzan (Persian: هرمزان) was the satrap of Khuzestan, a noble of Median origin and a Marzban as well as one of the Spahbeds at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah. He was later taken as prisoner by the Muslims at Shushtar in 642.
Hormuzan was a wealthy satrap of Khuzestan. He was from one of the seven Parthian clans of the Sasanian Empire and was the brother-in-law of Khosrau II and the maternal uncle of Kavadh II. Being proud of this rich heritage Hormuzan was permitted to wear a crown upon his head. However, it was smaller than the Kings. During the advent of Islam, Hormuzan was checking if his province was safe (due to the fact that it was one of the richest in Iran). At the battle of al-Qādisiyyah he commanded the right flank of the army and was defeated. Hormuzan, however, regrouped and fought at the battle of Jalula but also suffered defeat. He then escaped capture in the region, while many of his forces were captured and killed by the Arab Muslims. In 642 he made heroic resistance in Shushtar against the Arabs but lost the battle and surrendered.
|“||Hormuzan, on obtaining an audience, pretended thrist and asked for a cup of water, which was given him; he then looked suspiciously around, as if he expected to be stabbed while drinking. "Fear nothing," said Umar; "your life is safe till you have drunk the water." The crafty Persian flung the cup to the ground, and Umar felt that he had been outwitted, but that he must keep his word.||”|
Hormuzan was then given a pension and resisted to embrace Islam in some time, but in the end he embraced it after he was told that he should choose between death and Islam. While in Medina he advised Caliph Umar in making important fiscal and institutional changes. He was killed by the son of Umar after involvement in a plot to kill Umar. His killing was ignored by Uthman, but Ali strongly protested to Uthman and threatened that he would carry out legal punishment for murder if he ever gained the position to do so.
- HORMOZĀN, A. Shapur Shahbazi, Encyclopaedia Iranica
- Pourshariati (2008), p. 238
- Muir, William The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline and Fall from Original Sources Kessinger Publishing Co (20 September 2004) ISBN 978-1-4179-4889-5 originally published 1891 p.176 
- Wilferd Madelung, "The Succession to Muhammad", Published by Cambridge University Press, 1998. pg 69.
- Shahbazi, A. Shapur. (1983). "HORMOZĀN". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 5. p. 460-461. Retrieved December 15, 2004.
- Pourshariati, Parvaneh (2008). Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-645-3.