Hornblende

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hornblende
Amphibole.jpg
Amphibole Hornblende
General
Category Silicate mineral
Formula
(repeating unit)
Ca2(Mg, Fe, Al)5 (Al, Si)8O22(OH)2
Identification
Color Black/dark green
Crystal habit Hexagonal/granular
Crystal system Monoclinic
Cleavage Imperfect at 56 and 124 degrees
Fracture Uneven
Mohs scale hardness 5–6
Luster Vitreous to dull
Streak Pale gray, gray-white[1][2]
Specific gravity 2.9
Pleochroism Strong

Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).[3] It is not a recognized mineral in its own right, but the name is used as a general or field term, to refer to a dark amphibole.

Hornblende is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules; a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate, an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate, and an iron-magnesium silicate.

The general formula can be given as (Ca,Na)2–3(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH,F)2.

Compositional variances[edit]

Some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude:

Physical properties[edit]

Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6, a specific gravity of 2.9–3.4 and is typically an opaque green, greenish-brown, brown or black color.

Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees. It is most often confused with various pyroxene minerals and biotite mica, which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite.

Occurrence[edit]

Hornblende is a common constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite, syenite, diorite, gabbro, basalt, andesite, gneiss, and schist.

It is the principal mineral of amphibolites. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende, from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt and related rocks. Hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote.

A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide, is gray to white in color, and named edenite, from its locality in Edenville, Orange County, New York.

Other minerals in the hornblende series include:

Etymology[edit]

The word hornblende is derived from the German horn and blenden, to 'deceive' in allusion to its similarity in appearance to metal-bearing ore minerals.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]