Horse burial is the practice of burying a horse as part of the ritual of human burial, and is found among many Indo-Aryan peoples and others, including Chinese and Turkic peoples. The act indicates the high value placed on horses in the particular cultures and provides evidence of the migration of peoples with a horse culture. Human burials that contain other livestock are rare; in Britain, for example, 31 horse burials have been discovered but only one cow burial, unique in Europe. This process of horse burial is part of a wider tradition of horse sacrifice. An associated process is that of Chariot burial, in which an entire chariot, with or without a horse, is buried with a dead person.
Background and detail
The horse carries great symbolic meaning in human cultures (see horse worship). In Celtic and Germanic cultures, for instance, the horse "could be associated with the journeying sun", and horses were deified and used in divination, but Celtic horse sacrifice is rare whereas horses were regularly sacrificed and buried alongside dead humans in Germany and Scandinavia. The Indo-European ubiquity and importance of horse sacrifice (which in many cases involves a symbolic coupling between king and mare) attests to this importance.
Considerable differences exist between different horse burials even within a single area and culture, so much so that it is perhaps impossible to generalize. Sometimes horses were cremated, sometimes buried; sometimes they were placed in the same grave as humans, sometimes in a different pit; some cultures appear to favor horse burial for male warriors, others did not seem to differentiate in gender.
Geographical and historical distribution
The practice of horse burial is bound to the historical territory covered by the domesticated horse, which initially was the Eurasian Steppe, ca. 4000–3500 BCE. Early cultures with a mythology that would support horse sacrifice and horse burial are those in or bordering those areas—Turkic cultures, Chinese cultures, and Indo-Aryan cultures.
It is claimed that a form of horse burial is attested from the Paleolithic, when the skin of a horse was hung over a pole; some of the animal's bones were left inside the skin to preserve its shape. This supposed "head and hooves" culture, however, is only one explanation for archeological finds from the third millennium BCE. The earliest proven horse burial in the Old World dates back to the fifth or fourth millennium BC and is found in S'ezzhee, in a cemetery on the Volga from the Samara culture. Thousands of years later, Herodotus described the practice among the Scythians. Typically, such burials involved the sacrifice and burial of one or more horses to accompany the remains of high-ranked members or warriors. In China, horse burials (including chariots) are found beginning in the Shang Dynasty (1600–1100 BCE). Remains of the ritual are found in Kazakhstan culture, where a dead person's horse is slaughtered a year after its owner's death, in a ceremony accompanied by horse races. Horse burial and related rituals survived among other peoples as well into recent times, for instance among the Nez Perce people (where skinned and stuffed horses were used as grave monuments) and the Blackfoot Confederacy.
Sites featuring horse burials are found throughout the regions of the world occupied by Indo-Aryan, Turkic, and Chinese peoples. They include Tall al-Ajjul (Gaza strip, dating back to 2100 BC), Central Iran, where horse burials are attested in the second millennium BC, Marlik (in Iran, from the late second millennium BCE), and Gordium (in Phrygia, with horse burials attested possibly after 700 BCE). A horse burial from Bactria provides evidence of the migration in the second millennium BCE of horse cultures from Central Asia into Turkmenistan. A horse burial in Deir el-D'aba, Egypt, evidences the introduction of the horse to Egypt by the Hyksos, in the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (1650–1550 BCE).
Horse burials are part of the Pazyryk burials, where lavishly decked-out horses were killed and sometimes buried in chambers separate from those containing human remains. They were characteristic in pre-Christian Hungary (one horse burial was excavated in Mikulčice, another in Sterlitamak) of the ninth and tenth centuries, especially for rich members of society, where people were buried next to the skin and the skull of a saddled horse; the rest of the horse meat was possibly eaten during a burial ceremony. Roman culture left horse burials throughout their empire, including first-century burials in modern-day Waremme, Belgium and Beuningen, Netherlands.
Among Germanic cultures
Germanic peoples attached great significance to the horse; a horse may have been an acquaintance of the god Wodan, and they may have been (according to Tacitus) confidants of the gods. Scandinavian literature from the 8th to 11th centuries emphasize the importance of horses in Viking society. For example, In Hrafnkel’s saga the horse that is dedicated to the god Freyr was not allowed to be ridden by anyone except the owner. In the mythology recorded by Snorri Sturlusson there are forty-one individual horses that have names which is much more than any other animals, indicating their importance. Horses play a central role in the mythology, not always as a main actor but often as a complimentary or important piece in the stories. The horses are important for the gods by helping with transportation. The gods, the sun, Valkyries, and giants all have horses, and many of them are mentioned in the stories. In Gylfainning, Snorri describes and names the horses of the Aesir. Horses were closely associated with gods, in particular Odin and Freyr, although one study of the Sutton Hoo ship burial suggests that since horses, like ships, were means of transportation they were more transferable to which ever god the person wanted. Most evidence, however, has associated with Odin and Freyr. Horses played a central role in funerary practices, but also were important in other rituals. Horses were prominent symbols of fertility, and there were many horse fertility cults. The rituals associated with these include horse fights, burials, consumption of horse meat, and horse sacrifice. In Heimskringla, the Christian king Hakon the Good was forced to eat horse meat which was probably a ritual to ensure a good harvest. Other rituals for good harvests included stallion fights that were held in the spring, and then the ritual sacrifice of the victorious stallion to the Freyr  Horses have also been recorded as being used in sacrifices. One festival in Sweden held every nine years would sacrifice nine males of every living creature as an offering to placate the gods. Of the animals chosen horses were sacrificed alongside men and dogs. Horse heads were also used for the nidstang ritual that created a severe social stigma. Other rituals include using horses for ritual acts; the Icelandic Freyfaxi describes sacred white horses that were only used to pull a sacred chariot. Also, there are various spells that existed in popular folk culture for treating horses that are “elf-shot”.
Horses had potentially held some of the most important roles in Scandinavian society. Economically they were indispensable in transportation and agriculture, especially plowing, and thus they were associated with status and wealth. They were associated with wealth and were often used as diplomatic gifts between elite families, kings, chiefs, and other important figures. Horses were incredibly important in society and regarded as such. Horse theft was punishable by flogging, exile, or death.
Hengist and Horsa, the mythical ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons, were associated with horses, and references to horses are found throughout Anglo-Saxon literature. Actual horse burials in England are relatively rare and "may point to influence from the continent". A well-known Anglo-Saxon horse burial (from the sixth/seventh century) is Mound 17 at Sutton Hoo, a few yards from the more famous ship burial in Mound 1. A sixth-century grave near Lakenheath, Suffolk, yielded the body of a man next to that of a "complete horse in harness, with a bucket of food by its head."
Horse burials are relatively widespread in Iceland; as of 1999, 115 graves were found that contained the remains of horses. There were so many graves in which the remains of a human female was associated with those of a horse, that it was speculated that a horse burial in association with a male warrior did not occur in Iceland.
Examination of the archaeological record in Norway has revealed some patterns that are comparable to horse burials in other areas. Of the six-hundred graves excavated forty of them are horse burials. Horse burials are found in both Norway and Iceland to occur more frequently with males, but are not exclusive to males. There are some female burials with horses, but a significantly lower number of them are found. Most graves are covered by circular or oval mounds. The grave goods found in Viking burials associated with horses in Norway and Iceland are also pretty similar. For male burials there are usually found weapons and tools, and women are usually found with tools, beads, broaches. Both genders are often found buried with equestrian related riding equipment like horse bits and headstalls.
The actual viking burial rituals were complex and dramatic. One witness Ibn Fadlan Risala describes the ship burial ritual in detail. The burial consisted of days of mourning, sewing special burial clothes, dog sacrifice, running horses then cutting them into pieces and putting them in the ship with the deceased, and burning the whole thing. This shows that horse slaughter was dramatic and memorable; it was noted in this story. Also taking into consideration the economic value of horses, it was probably not a decision taken lightly. Given the public display of the sacrifice, it could not have solely been for personal religious reasons and could have had important social implications as well.
In Chinese culture
Horse burials are well-known from Ancient China as well, beginning with the Shang Dynasty. Particularly notable is the tomb of Duke Jing of Qi (reigned 547–490 BCE), which contained a separate pit with the remains of possibly over 600 horses. Later burials, especially from the T'ang dynasty, featured the well-known pottery horses.
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