The Hospital for Sick Children
|The Hospital for Sick Children|
The Hospital for Sick Children from University Avenue
|Location||Toronto, Ontario, Canada|
|Care system||Public Medicare (Canada) (OHIP)|
|Affiliated university||University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine|
|Emergency department||Level I trauma center|
|Helipad||TC LID: CNW8|
|Lists||Hospitals in Canada|
The Hospital for Sick Children (also known as SickKids Hospital) is a major paediatric centre for the Greater Toronto Area, serving patients up to age 18. Located on University Avenue in Downtown Toronto, SickKids is part of the city’s Discovery District. SickKids is a teaching hospital for the University of Toronto.
SickKids is one of six free-standing[clarification needed] children's hospitals in Canada, the others being Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Ottawa, Alberta Children's Hospital in Calgary, BC Children's Hospital in Vancouver, McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton and IWK Health Centre in Halifax.
SickKids has built an integrated environment of patient care, research and learning. Nine centres within the hospital specialize in bone health, brain and behaviour, cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart, pain, image-guided care, genetic medicine, and transplantation. In 2009–2010, SickKids admitted 14,000 in-patients who stayed for an average of 7.1 days. The operating room treated 11,000 cases; there were 58,000 visits to the emergency department and 215,000 visits to the hospital’s ambulatory clinics. SickKids has about 370 beds and provides the highest level of complex and specialized paediatric family-centred care.
The SickKids Research Institute is the largest child health research institute in Canada. It employs almost 2,000 people, or a quarter of the SickKids workforce. The Research Institute is known for its groundbreaking research in stem cells, childhood cancer, cystic fibrosis and other diseases, and is home to the Database of Genomic Variations, known as the Toronto Database.
The Learning Institute was established in 2007 to support all forms of learning, from formal training of health-care workers, to the education of patients and families and the transfer of knowledge to the community. SickKids shares its knowledge globally through SickKids International.
Since 1972, the hospital has been equipped with a rooftop helipad (CNW8). It is one of two downtown Toronto hospitals with a helipad (the other being St. Michael's Hospital) and one of three in Toronto (the third being at Sunnybrook Hospital).
Initiatives at SickKids have included:
- The Ontario Poison Control Centre
- Motherisk, launched by Gideon Koren in 1985
- Safe Kids Canada
- The electronic Child Health Network of Ontario
SickKids Corporate Ventures facilitates the transfer of knowledge developed by physicians, scientists and professionals into products and programs. Its 130 licences for intellectual property technologies generate about $2 million annually.
SickKids Research Institute is a group of scientists under the leadership of Dr. Janet Rossant, Chief of Research. They will all be housed under one roof in The SickKids Research & Learning Tower. Construction of the 21-storey building started in 2010 and is scheduled for completion in 2013. The $400-million project is supported by Canada Foundation for Innovation, a $200-million fundraising campaign led by SickKids Foundation, and long-term borrowing.
In 1875 Elizabeth McMaster and several other women from Toronto set up a children's hospital on Avenue Road. Starting in April the hospital admitted forty-four patients and treated sixty-seven as outpatients.
In 1876 the hospital moved to larger facilities. In 1891 the hospital moved from rented premises to a building constructed for it at College and Elizabeth Streets where it would remain for sixty years. This old building, known as the Victoria Hospital for Sick Children, is now the Toronto area headquarters of Canadian Blood Services. In 1951 the hospital moved to its present University Avenue location, on the grounds where Canadian star Mary Pickford's childhood home once stood. The hospital underwent its last major expansion in 1993 with the construction of a glass-roofed atrium on the east side of the main building.
- 1883: The hospital opened the first fresh air sanitarium in Toronto, and likely Canada, for the treatment of tuberculosis and other ailments.
- 1892: A school was opened. This is the first time a school has been set up within a hospital.
- 1908: SickKids installed the first milk pasteurization plant in Canada and leads the fight for compulsory pasteurization.
- 1918: First research laboratory at SickKids was established. In the 1930s, the laboratory enriches milk with Vitamin D to combat rickets that plagues many of the patients admitted to the hospital.
- 1930: Frederick Tisdall, Theodore Drake and Alan Brown invented the pre-cooked cereal, Pablum, which provided infants with nutrition and generated funds for establishment of SickKids Research Institute in 1954.
- 1963: Dr. William Thornton Mustard developed the Mustard procedure used to help correct heart problems in blue babies.
- 1973: SickKids Foundation was established to raise funds for SickKids.
- 1979: Dr. Robert B. Salter invented continuous passive motion used for reconstructive joint surgery.
- 1980-81: A series of baby deaths at the hospital prompt a 1984 royal commission of inquiry under Justice Samuel Grange but attempts to hold staff criminally responsible for the deaths ultimately failed.
- 1989: The gene responsible for cystic fibrosis, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, was discovered by Dr. Tsui Lap-chee and other SickKids scientists. Although a cure for CF has not been found, the life span of CF patients has since improved considerably.
- 1996: A team led by Dr. Lori J. West conducted the first intentional ABO-incompatible heart transplant in infants. As a result, mortality for infants on the heart transplantation waiting list at SickKids would be cut from 58% to 7% in the study group, with the results published in a seminal 2001 study.
- 1997: The Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society Data Center, a US-based organization, was established at SickKids. Almost 6000 patients with congenital heart disease have been enrolled in various research studies leading to many improvements in care of such patients worldwide.
- 1998: The Centre for Applied Genomics was established with Tsui Lap-chee as director and Stephen W. Scherer as associate director.
- 2007: Mondial Energy Inc. (now known as GEMCO Solar) installed the first hospital-based solar thermal energy system on the rooftop of SickKids Hospital. The system is used to heat up the hospital’s hot water supply for domestic use, reducing energy costs.
- 2009: SickKids researchers identified eight genes, which, when mutated, cause medulloblastoma, the most common childhood brain cancer. In 2010, the disease was identified as four distinctly different strains that can be treated in different ways.
- 2010: SickKids partnered with Hamad Medical Corporation and Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital to advise on the creation of a state-of-the-art children’s hospital in Doha, Qatar.
- 2013: "HSC Research and Development Limited," a legal entity controlled by SickKids in Toronto, was one of multiple patent holders suing to prevent introduction of a less-expensive generic version of a test for susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancers.
Philanthropy is a critical source of funding for SickKids, separate from the funding received from government and granting agencies.
In 2011/2012, SickKids Foundation spent $61.3 million. Of that amount, the Foundation granted $59.3 million directly to the hospital and $2 million to national, international and other initiatives.
- At a Glance: Care, SickKids website, Annual Report 2009-10, accessed November 21, 2010.
- At a Glance: Research, SickKids website, Annual Report 2009-10, accessed November 21, 2010.
- At a Glance: Learning, SickKids website, Annual Report 2009-10, accessed November 21, 2010.
- "Opened first hospital rooftop heliport for emergency transfer of patients (1972)". Sickkids.ca. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 17 October 2013 to 0901Z 12 December 2013
- SickKids - Corporate Ventures, About Us, accessed November 21, 2010.
- "To Give". SickKids Foundation Annual Report, 2009-10. p.4-5.
- "SickKids History". Hospital for Sick Children. 2005-12-15. Archived from the original on 2006-09-08. Retrieved 2006-09-14.
- Hospital - About SickKids - History and milestones - Milestones - 1875–1900, accessed November 21, 2010.
- Hospital - About SickKids - History and milestones - Milestones - 1901–1925, accessed November 21, 2010.
- Hospital - About SickKids - History and milestones - Milestones - 1926–1950, accessed November 21, 2010.
- Hospital - About SickKids - History and milestones - Milestones - 1951–1975, accessed November 21, 2010.
- Hospital - About SickKids - History and milestones - Milestones - 1976–2000, accessed November 21, 2010.
- Justice Samuel Grange. Report Of The Royal Commission Of Inquiry Into Certain Deaths At The Hospital For Sick Children And Related Matters. : Ontario.. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- Brian Bethune (Thursday, December 22, 2011). "The baby killer at Toronto’s Sick Kids was rubber: The real culprit for a wave of deaths in the early 1980s was a compound found in seals on IVs and syringes". Maclean's.
- Klein, A. A., Lewis, C. J., & Madsen, J. C. (2011). Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Guide. p.116. Cambridge University Press.
- West, L. J., Pollock-Barziv, S. M., Dipchand, A. I., Lee, K.-J. J., Cardella, C. J., Benson, L. N., et al. (2001). ABO-incompatible (ABOi) heart transplantation in infants. New England Journal of Medicine, 344(11), 793–800. doi:10.1056/NEJM200103153441102
- Everitt, M. D., Donaldson, A. E., Casper, T. C., Stehlik, J., Hawkins, J. A., Tani, L. Y., et al. (2009). Effect of ABO-incompatible listing on infant heart transplant waitlist outcomes: analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 28(12), 1254–1260. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2009.06.024
- The Congenital Heart Surgeons Society Data Center: unique attributes as a research organization
- Hospital - About SickKids - Past News - Canada’s first hospital-based solar thermal energy site to be installed at SickKids, accessed August 13, 2012.
- Genetic research narrows in on cause of childhood brain cancer
- Hospital - About SickKids - History and milestones - Milestones - 2000–present, accessed November 21, 2010.
- Helping to improve the lives of kids with chronic conditions in the Middle East
- "SickKids Hospital dragged into U.S. breast cancer gene suit". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
- SickKids Foundation annual report 2011–2012, accessed 12 April 2013.
- SickKids Foundation Fact Book 2011–2012. SickKids , 2009–2010. p. 3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hospital for Sick Children.|
- The Hospital for Sick Children website
- SickKids Foundation website
- Sickkids Research & Learning Centre website