Hotel Rwanda

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Hotel Rwanda
Hotel Rwanda movie.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Terry George
Produced by Terry George
Written by Keir Pearson
Terry George
Starring Don Cheadle
Sophie Okonedo
Joaquin Phoenix
Nick Nolte
Music by Afro Celt Sound System
Rupert Gregson-Williams
Andrea Guerra
Cinematography Robert Fraisse
Edited by Naomi Geraghty
Production
  company
Lions Gate Entertainment
United Artists
Distributed by United Artists
Lions Gate Entertainment
Release date(s)
  • December 22, 2004 (2004-12-22) (Limited)
  • February 4, 2005 (2005-02-04) (Wide)
Running time 121 minutes
Country United Kingdom
South Africa
Italy
Language English
Budget $17,500,000[1]
Box office $33,882,243[2]

Hotel Rwanda is a 2004 American historical drama film directed by Terry George. It was adapted from a screenplay written by both George and Keir Pearson. Based on real life events in Rwanda during the spring of 1994, the film stars Don Cheadle as hotelier Paul Rusesabagina, who attempts to rescue his fellow citizens from the ravages of the Rwandan Genocide. Sophie Okonedo and Nick Nolte also appear in principal roles. The film, which has been called an African Schindler's List, documents Rusesabagina's acts to save the lives of his family and more than a thousand other refugees, by granting them shelter in the besieged Hôtel des Mille Collines.[3] Hotel Rwanda explores genocide, political corruption, and the repercussions of violence.[4]

The film was a co-production between United Artists and Lions Gate Films. It was commercially distributed by United Artists theatrically and by MGM Home Entertainment for home media. As an independent film, it had an initial limited release in theaters; but it was nominated for multiple awards, including Academy Award nominations for Best Actor, Best Supporting Actress, and Best Original Screenplay. The film also won a number of awards including those from the Berlin and Toronto International Film Festivals. On January 11, 2005, the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was released by the Commotion label. It features songs written by several recording artists including Wyclef Jean and Deborah Cox. The film score was composed by Rupert Gregson-Williams, Andrea Guerra, and the Afro Celt Sound System.

Hotel Rwanda premiered in theaters in limited release in the United States on December 22, 2004 and in wide release on February 4, 2005 grossing $23,530,892 in domestic ticket sales. It earned an additional $10,351,351 in business through international release to top out at a combined $33,882,243 in gross revenue. The film was technically considered a moderate financial success after its theatrical run, and was met with positive critical reviews before its initial screening in cinemas. The Blu-ray Disc edition of the film featuring special documentaries along with selected scenes and audio commentary, was released in the United States on May 10, 2011.

Plot[edit]

Tensions between the Hutu and Tutsi peoples lead to a war in Rwanda, where corruption and bribes between politicians are routine. Paul Rusesabagina (Cheadle), the manager of the Sabena owned Hôtel des Mille Collines, is Hutu, but his wife Tatiana (Okonedo), is Tutsi. His marriage is a source of friction with Hutu extremists, most prominently Georges Rutaganda (Kae-Kazim), a friendly goods supplier to the hotel who is also the local leader of Interahamwe, a brutal anti-Tutsi militia.[4]

The characters Rusesabagina and Colonel Oliver negotiating through a political impasse.

As the political situation in the country worsens, Paul and his family observe neighbors being killed in ethnic violence. Paul curries favor with people of influence, bribing them with money and alcohol, seeking to maintain sufficient influence to keep his family safe. When civil war erupts and a Rwandan Army officer threatens Paul and his neighbors, Paul barely negotiates their safety, and brings everyone to the hotel. More refugees come to the hotel from the overburdened United Nations camp, the Red Cross, and orphanages. Paul must divert the Hutu soldiers, care for the refugees, be a source of strength to his family, and maintain the appearance of a functioning luxury hotel as the situation becomes more violent.[4]

The UN Peacekeeping forces, led by Canadian Colonel Oliver (Nolte), are unable to take assertive action against the Interahamwe since they are forbidden to intervene in the genocide. The foreign nationals are evacuated, but the Rwandans are left behind. When the UN forces attempt to evacuate a group of refugees, including Paul's family, they are ambushed and must turn back. In a last-ditch effort to save the refugees, Paul pleads with the Rwandan Army General, Augustin Bizimungu (Mokoena) for assistance. However, when Paul's bribes no longer work, he blackmails the General with threats of being tried as a war criminal. Soon after, the family and the hotel refugees are finally able to leave the besieged hotel in a UN convoy. They travel through retreating masses of refugees and militia to reach safety behind Tutsi rebel lines.[4]

The film's epilogue displays a series of graphics stating that Rusesabagina saved 1,268 Rwandan refugees at the Hôtel des Mille Collines, and now lives in Belgium with his family. It also notes that Rutaganda and General Bizimungu were tried and convicted by the UN for war crimes in 2002, as almost a million people died by the time the genocide ended in July 1994.[4]

Cast[edit]

Don Cheadle and Sophie Okonedo who portrayed Paul and Tatiana Rusesabagina.
Don Cheadle as Paul Rusesabagina
Sophie Okonedo as Tatiana Rusesabagina
Nick Nolte as Colonel Oliver (based on Roméo Dallaire)
Joaquin Phoenix as Jack Daglish
Fana Mokoena as General Augustin Bizimungu
Cara Seymour as Pat Archer
Jean Reno as Sabena Airlines President Mr. Tillens (uncredited)
Tony Kgoroge as Gregoire
Desmond Dube as Dube
Hakeem Kae-Kazim as Georges Rutaganda
Leleti Khumalo as Fedens
Antonio Lyons as Thomas Mirama

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Former UNAMIR Force Commander Roméo Dallaire

The film is set in 1994 during the Rwandan Genocide, in which an estimated 800,000 people, mainly Tutsi, were killed by Hutu extremists.[5] During that year, Rwanda's population of seven million was composed of two major ethnic groups: Hutu (approximately 85%), and Tutsi (14%). In the early 1990s, Hutu extremists within Rwanda's political elite blamed the entire Tutsi minority population for the country's economic and political problems. Tutsi civilians were also accused of supporting a Tutsi-dominated rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front.[6]

On April 6, 1994, a plane carrying President Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot down.[7] Following that incident, the genocide began. Hutu extremists belonging to the Interahamwe militia launched plans to destroy the entire Tutsi civilian population. Tutsi and people suspected of being Tutsi were killed in their homes and as they tried to flee the country. It is estimated that some 200,000 people participated in the perpetration of the Rwandan genocide.[6] Hotelier Paul Rusesabagina of the Belgian owned luxury Hôtel des Mille Collines, used his power and influence to personally save both Tutsi and moderate Hutu refugees. Rusesabagina regularly bribed Rwandan Hutu soldiers and kept militias outside the hotel's property during the hundred days of killing.[8] Following the carnage, Rusesabagina survived along with his wife and four children, as well as most of the refugees he sheltered.[8]

Sharing his thoughts about the lack of international intervention during the crisis, director George commented, "It's simple, ... African lives are not seen as valuable as the lives of Europeans or Americans."[8] Attempting to share the horrors of the genocide, George sought to bring the story of Rusesabagina portrayed as a humanitarian during the relentless acts of violence. Alternately however, Rusesabagina himself has come under criticism in the past under allegations he extorted money from hotel guests for rooms and food.[9] Additionally, it was also reported that the UN headquarters in Kigali received information that Rusesabagina had provided a Rwandan army commander with a list of hotel guests and their room numbers. The UN observers managed to change the room numbers of those most threatened.[9]

The character of the Canadian Lieutenant-General is based on Senator Romeo Dallaire, now retired from the Canadian Armed Forces. His own experiences were written in his biography, Shake Hands with the Devil. The book was later adapted into two feature films; a documentary, and a 2007 dramatic motion picture.

Filming[edit]

Principal filming was shot on location in Kigali, Rwanda and Johannesburg, South Africa.[4] Paul Rusesabagina was consulted during the writing of the film. Although the character of Colonel Oliver played by Nolte is fictional in nature, the role was inspired by the UN force commander for UNAMIR, Roméo Dallaire.

The producers of the film partnered with the United Nations Foundation to create the International Fund for Rwanda, which supported United Nations Development Programme initiatives assisting Rwandan survivors.[10] "The goal of the film is not only to engage audiences in this story of genocide but also to inspire them to help redress the terrible devastation," said George.[11]

Soundtrack[edit]

The original motion picture soundtrack for Hotel Rwanda, was released by the Commotion label on January 11, 2005. It features songs written by veteran musicians Wyclef Jean and Deborah Cox among others. The soundtrack also features the singing debut of musical artist Dorothee Munyaneza. The music for the film was composed by Rupert Gregson-Williams, Andrea Guerra and the Afro Celt Sound System; while being edited by Michael Connell.[12]

Hotel Rwanda: Music From The Film
Film score by Afro Celt Sound System and Rupert Gregson-Williams
Released 1/11/2005
Length 49:25
Label Commotion
Hotel Rwanda: Music From The Film
No. Title Length
1. "Mama Ararira Pt. 1/Mama Ararira We!, Pt. 2"   3:41
2. "Mwali We!"   1:09
3. "Million Voices"   4:23
4. "Interahamwe Attack"   2:48
5. "Nobody Cares"   4:12
6. "Umqombothi (African Beer)"   4:53
7. "The Road to Exile"   4:47
8. "Whispered Song"   3:06
9. "Finale"   3:02
10. "Ambush"   2:49
11. "Ne Me Laisse Pas Seule Ici"   3:33
12. "Mwari Sigaramahoro"   2:22
13. "Olugendo Lw'e Bulaya"   5:54
14. "Children Found"   1:57
15. "Icyibo"   0:49
Total length:
49:25

Marketing[edit]

Novel[edit]

A paperback novel published by Newmarket Press entitled Hotel Rwanda: Bringing the True Story of an African Hero to Film, was released on February 7, 2005. The book dramatizes the events of the Rwandan Genocide in 1994, as depicted in the film. It expands on the ideas of how hotelier Paul Rusesabagina, sheltered and saved more than 1,200 people in the hotel he managed in Kigali.[13] Rusesabagina's real life experience encouraged director George to produce the film. The book summarizes three years of research, articles that chronicle the historical events, and the ensuing aftermath. A brief history and timeline, the making of the film, and the complete screenplay written by Keir Pearson and Terry George are covered in thorough detail.[14]

Release[edit]

Home media[edit]

DVD box cover artwork for Hotel Rwanda

Following its cinematic release in theaters, the film was released in VHS video format on April 12, 2005.[15] The Region 1 Code widescreen edition of the film was also released on DVD in the United States on April 12, 2005. Special features for the DVD include; "A Message for Peace: Making Hotel Rwanda" documentary, "Return to Rwanda" documentary, Selected scenes commentary by Don Cheadle, Audio commentary by director Terry George and real-life subject of the film–Paul Rusesabagina, along with select commentary by musician Wyclef Jean.[16] Supplementally, the Blu-ray Disc version of the film was released on May 10, 2011.[17] The film is available in other media formats such as Video on demand as well.[18]

Reception[edit]

Critical response[edit]

Among mainstream critics in the U.S., the film received almost exclusively positive reviews.[19] Rotten Tomatoes reported that 90% of 189 sampled critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 8.0 out of 10.[20] At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average out of 100 to critics' reviews, the film received a score of 79 based on 40 reviews.[19]

As Rusesabagina, Cheadle is simply terrific. Not only does he assume a totally believable African accent and manner, he convinces us with every move and gesture that he's a resourceful Everyman elevated to genuine heroism by a struggle to do the right thing.

—William Arnold, writing in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer[21]

Michael Rechtshaffen, writing in The Hollywood Reporter, said actor "Cheadle impressively carries the entire picture, delivering the kind of note-perfect performance that's absolutely deserving of Oscar consideration."[22] Roger Ebert in the Chicago Sun-Times called it a "riveting drama", while exclaiming "The film works not because the screen is filled with meaningless special effects, formless action and vast digital armies, but because Cheadle, Nolte and the filmmakers are interested in how two men choose to function in an impossible situation. Because we sympathize with these men, we are moved by the film."[23] In the San Francisco Chronicle, Mick LaSalle wrote that the film was a "harrowing experience", and that "it documents for a mass audience what it was like. It's useful, in that it shows how it can happen. It's even hopeful, in that it shows that it's possible—not guaranteed, but possible—for people to maintain their humanity in the face of unhinged barbarism."[24] Claudia Puig of USA Today, said the film was "one of the year's most moving and powerful films, anchored by a magnificent performance by Don Cheadle." She declared, "Hotel Rwanda emerges as an African version of Schindler's List."[25] The film however, was not without its detractors. Dave Sterrit of The Christian Science Monitor, felt that although the subject matter was crucially important, he commented that "the movie dilutes its impact with by-the-numbers filmmaking, and Cheadle's one-note performance displays few of his acting gifts."[26] Left equally unimpressed was Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly. Commenting on the character significance of the U.N. personnel, she said it was "a bad day for narrative, if not for diplomacy, when there is only one 3-D character among the entire U.N. lot, clad in their blue helmets, and that role is rasped by Nick Nolte with moral remorse rather than his more usual hint of dissolution." In her overall summation, she wrote "Hotel Rwanda is a strange history lesson that leaves us more overlectured than properly overwhelmed."[27] Michael Atkinson of The Village Voice, added to the negativity by saying the film was "told to us secondhand, or glimpsed in distant scuffles" and "Like the majority of movies about the last century of holocausts, Hotel Rwanda is as earnest and tasteful as its creators. To capture the white-hot terror of social calamity, someone a little more lawless and fierce might be called for."[28]

Writing for The New York Times, Stephen Holden said the film was "a political thriller based on fact that hammers every button on the emotional console."[29] He commended how the film "offers a devastating picture of media-driven mass murder left unchecked" while also praising "Mr. Cheadle's magnificent, understated portrayal".[29] James Berardinelli writing for ReelViews, called the film "powerful" and noted that it didn't "pull as many punches as its detractors would have us believe."[30] Berardinelli also said the film was "brutal and shocking when it needs to be, but it also has great emotional scope and power. We find ourselves enmeshed in Paul's struggle, sharing his despair at the warfare tearing apart his country, his frustration and anger at the U.N.'s inability to act, and, eventually, his hope for a better tomorrow."[30] Describing some pitfalls, Jeff Vice of the Deseret News said the "decision by the filmmakers to show things from that limited viewpoint—to show how isolated and fearful the characters were of the chaos going on around them—the film feels a little dishonest and diminished. It's never quite as effective as "The Killing Fields" or "Schindler's List" in that the film's overall impact is not as great and it doesn't linger in the memory."[31] Vice however was quick to admit "Hotel Rwanda does have its share of powerful moments; in particular, a scene in which Paul and another hotel employee unknowingly—due to fog—drive into a mass grave." He also expressed satisfaction with the acting saying, "Cheadle brings a needed intensity to the film; his character's fear and compassion are quite vivid. Nolte is also good in his limited screen time, as is Joaquin Phoenix, who plays a news cameraman."[31]

[A] flat, cramped staging which, combined with d.p. Robert Fraisse's harsh overlighting, gives the film the feel of a cheap backlot production, even though it was shot on location.

—Scott Foundas, writing for Variety[32]

Eleanor R. Gillespie of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, stated that Hotel Rwanda was an "unforgettable film" as well as being "a doubly unforgettable performance by Don Cheadle."[33] Although mentioning "The parallels with Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List are obvious", she praised individual cinematic elements that made the film unique, such as "the revelation of a dark, bumpy road paved with thousands of corpses. Or in a little girl's heartwrenching plea, 'Please don't let them kill me. I promise I won't be Tutsi anymore'."[33] She concluded her review with Cheadle's noteworthy performance, saying he gave "one of the best performances (if not the best) of last year—an Oscar-worthy portrait of a man who kept his head clear and his humanity intact in the midst of a man-made hell."[33] Similarly, David Ansen wrote in Newsweek that "two performances carry the film. Cheadle, in his richest role since "Devil in a Blue Dress", burrows deep inside this complex man, who discovers in himself a strength he never knew he possessed, as he faces the disillusionment of all the "civilized" notions he believes in. As his strong, committed wife, Tatiana, Sophie Okonedo, barely resembling the saucy hooker she played in "Dirty Pretty Things", is a revelation."[34] However, in the Arizona Daily Star, Phil Villarreal was not moved by the lead acting of Cheadle or Nolte. He thought the characters were "cardboardish" and went further saying the "uplifting moments of rescue seem antiseptic and set up."[35] Critic Leonard Maltin though, wrote that Hotel Rwanda was a "Powerful film" which he thought avoided being "overly didactic by focusing on one compelling character, believably brought to life by Cheadle."[36]

Accolades[edit]

The film was nominated and won several awards in 2004–06.[37][38] Various critics included the film on their lists of the top 10 best films of 2004. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times named it ninth best, Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle named it eighth best, and Desson Thomson of The Washington Post named it tenth best.[39] The film is also listed by the American Film Institute as one of the 100 most inspirational movies of all time.[40]

Award Category Nominee Result
77th Academy Awards[41] Best Actor Don Cheadle Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Sophie Okonedo Nominated
Best Original Screenplay Keir Pearson, Terry George Nominated
American Film Institute Awards 2004[42] Top Audience Award ———— Won
Discover Screenwriting Award 2004[43] Discover Screenwriting Award Keir Pearson, Terry George Nominated
2005 Berlin International Film Festival[44] In Competition ———— Won
2005 Bet Awards[45] Best Actor Don Cheadle Nominated
Black Reel Awards of 2005[46] Best Actor in a Drama Don Cheadle Nominated
Best Actress in a Drama Sophie Okonedo Won
59th British Academy Film Awards[47] Best Original Screenplay Keir Pearson, Terry George Nominated
Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards 2004[48] Best Picture ———— Nominated
Best Actor Don Cheadle Nominated
Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards 2005[49] Best Actor Don Cheadle Nominated
Best Picture ———— Nominated
2005 David Di Donatello Awards[50] Best Foreign Film ———— Nominated
2005 18th European Film Awards[51] Best Composer Rupert Gregson-Williams, Andrea Guerra Won
62nd Golden Globe Awards[52] Best Picture - Drama ———— Nominated
Best Actor - Drama Don Cheadle Nominated
Best Original Song Jerry Duplessis, Andrea Guerra, Wyclef Jean Nominated
Golden Satellite Awards 2004[53] Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Don Cheadle Won
Best Motion Picture Drama ———— Won
Best Original Song Jerry Duplessis, Andrea Guerra, Wyclef Jean Won
Best Original Screenplay Keir Pearson, Terry George Nominated
2006 Grammy Awards[54] Best Song Written For Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Jerry Duplessis, Andrea Guerra, Wyclef Jean Nominated
2005 Humanitas Prize[55] Humanitas Prize Keir Pearson, Terry George Won
2005 3rd Irish Film & Television Awards[56] Best Director Terry George Won
Best Script for Film Keir Pearson, Terry George Won
31st Japan Academy Prize Ceremony[57] Best Foreign Language Film ———— Nominated
London Film Critics Circle Awards 2005[58] Best British Director Terry George Nominated
Best Actor Don Cheadle Nominated
Best British Supporting Actress Sophie Okonedo Nominated
2005 MovieGuide Awards[59] Most Inspiring Movie Acting Don Cheadle Nominated
2005 36th NAACP Image Awards[60] Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture Don Cheadle Nominated
Outstanding Motion Picture ———— Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture Sophie Okonedo Nominated
2006 Nastro d'Argento Silver Ribbon Award Best Score Andrea Guerra Nominated
2004 National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Awards[61] Top Ten Films ———— Won
Online Film Critics Society Awards 2004[62] Best Actor Don Cheadle Nominated
2004 Political Film Society Awards[63] Exposé ———— Nominated
Human Rights ———— Nominated
Peace ———— Nominated
Producers Guild of America Awards 2004[64] Stanley Kramer Award ———— Won
2006 Robert Awards[65] Best Non-American Film Terry George Nominated
San Diego Film Critics Society Awards 2004[66] Body of Work Don Cheadle Won
11th Screen Actors Guild Awards[67] Best Ensemble Acting ———— Nominated
Best Actor Don Cheadle Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Sophie Okonedo Nominated
Southeastern Film Critics Association Awards 2004[68] Best Picture ———— Nominated
2004 Toronto International Film Festival[69] People's Choice Award Terry George Won
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Awards 2004[70] Best Actor Don Cheadle Nominated
World Soundtrack Awards 2005[71] Best Original Song Written for a Film Jerry Duplessis, Andrea Guerra, Wyclef Jean Nominated
Writers Guild of America Awards 2004[72] Best Original Screenplay Keir Pearson, Terry George Nominated

Box office[edit]

The film premiered in cinemas on December 22, 2004 in limited release throughout the U.S. During its limited opening weekend, the film grossed $100,091 in business showing at 7 locations. Its official wide release was screened in theaters on February 4, 2005.[2] Opening in a distant 14th place, the film earned $2,316,416 showing at 823 cinemas. The film Boogeyman soundily beat its competition during that weekend opening in first place with $19,020,655.[73] The film's revenue dropped by 11.8% in its second week of release, earning $2,043,249. For that particular weekend, the romantic comedy Hitch unseated Boogeyman to open in first place with $43,142,214 in revenue, while Hotel Rwanda remained in 14th place not challenging a top ten position.[74] During its final weekend in release, the film opened in 62nd place grossing $23,176 in business.[75] The film went on to top out domestically at $23,530,892 in total ticket sales through an 18-week theatrical run. Internationally, the film took in an additional $10,351,351 in box office business for a combined worldwide total of $33,882,243.[2] For 2004 as a whole, the film would cumulatively rank at a box office performance position of 99.[76]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

Footnotes
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  4. ^ a b c d e f Terry George. (2004). Hotel Rwanda [Motion picture]. United States: United Artists.
  5. ^ "Rwanda: How the genocide happened". BBC News. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "Genocide in Rwanda". unitedhumanrights.org. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  7. ^ "Rwanda genocide: Kagame 'cleared of Habyarimana crash' ". BBC News. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c Stefan Lovgren (9 December 2004). " 'Hotel Rwanda' Portrays Hero Who Fought Genocide". National Geographic News. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Linda Melvern (17 November 2011). "Hotel Rwanda – without the Hollywood ending". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  10. ^ "United Nations welcomes establishment of international fund for Rwanda". un.org. 4 April 2005. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
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  13. ^ (7 February 2005). Hotel Rwanda: Bringing the True Story of an African Hero to Film. Newmarket Press. ISBN 978-1-557-04670-3.
  14. ^ "Hotel Rwanda Bringing the True Story of An African Hero to Film". Newmarket Press. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
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  31. ^ a b Vice, Jeff (10 February 2005). Hotel Rwanda. Deseret News. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
  32. ^ Foundas, Scott (15 September 2004). Hotel Rwanda. Variety. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
  33. ^ a b c Gillespie R. Eleanor, (December 2004). Hotel Rwanda. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
  34. ^ Ansen, David (20 December 2004). Hotel Rwanda: A Hero Will Rise. Newsweek. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
  35. ^ Villarreal, Phil (19 January 2005). Hotel Rwanda. Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
  36. ^ Maltin, Leonard (August 5, 2008). Leonard Maltin's 2009 Movie Guide. Signet. p. 632. ISBN 978-0-452-28978-9.
  37. ^ "Hotel Rwanda: Awards & Nominations". MSN Movies. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  38. ^ "Hotel Rwanda (2004)". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  39. ^ "Metacritic: 2004 Film Critic Top Ten Lists". Metacritic. CNET Networks, Inc. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  40. ^ "AFI's 100 years 100 cheers: America's Most Inspiring Movies". American Film Institute. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  41. ^ "Nominees & Winners for the 77th Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  42. ^ "AFI Fest 2004 November 4-14". AFI.com. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  43. ^ "4th Discover Screenwriting Award". American Screenwriters Association. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  44. ^ "Hotel Rwanda". Berlin International Film Festival. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  45. ^ "BET Awards 2005". BET.com. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  46. ^ "Hotel Rwanda". Black Reel Awards. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  47. ^ "British Academy of Film and Television Arts". BAFTA.org. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  48. ^ "The 10th Critics' Choice Awards Winners And Nominees". BFCA.org. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
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  50. ^ "Nominees - Candidates". daviddidonatello.it. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  51. ^ "European Film Awards 2005". europeanfilmawards.eu. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  52. ^ "Hotel Rwanda". GoldenGlobes.org. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  53. ^ "2005 (January)". International Press Academy. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  54. ^ "2005 48th Annual Grammy Awards". Grammy.com. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  55. ^ "Past Winners". humanitasprize.org. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  56. ^ "Winners 2005". The Irish Film & Television Academy. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  57. ^ "Japan Academy Prize - Nominees and Winners". japan-academy-prize.jp. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  58. ^ "Hotel Rwanda". The Critics' Circle. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  59. ^ "Awards". MovieGuideAwards.com. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  60. ^ "36th NAACP Image Awards". Emmys.com. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
  61. ^ "Awards for 2004". National Board of Review. Retrieved 2010-06-04. 
  62. ^ "2005 Online Film Critics Society Awards". Alt Film Guide. Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
  63. ^ "Previous Political Film Society Award Winners". Political Film Society. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 
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Further reading
  • Prunier, Gerard (2008). Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-37420-9. 
  • Melvern, Linda (2006). Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide. Verso. ISBN 978-1-844-67542-5. 
  • Ilibagiza, Immaculee (2009). Led By Faith: Rising from the Ashes of the Rwandan Genocide. Hay House. ISBN 978-1-401-91888-0. 
  • Gourevitch, Philip (1999). We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. Picador. ISBN 978-0-312-24335-7. 
  • Lawrence, Tracey (2009). My Father, Maker of the Trees: How I Survived the Rwandan Genocide. Baker Books. ISBN 978-0-801-01320-1. 
  • Cruden, Alex (2010). Rwandan Genocide (Perspectives on Modern World History). Greenhaven Press. ISBN 978-0-737-75007-2. 
  • Wallis, Andrew (2007). Silent Accomplice: The Untold Story of France's Role in the Rwandan Genocide. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-845-11247-9. 
  • Waugh, Colin (2004). Paul Kagame and Rwanda: Power, Genocide and the Rwandan Patriotic Front. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-786-41941-8. 
  • Laband, John (2006). Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Africa: From Slavery Days to Rwandan Genocide. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-33540-2. 
  • Twagilimana, Aimable (2003). The Debris of Ham: Ethnicity, Regionalism, and the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-761-82585-2. 
  • Taylor, Christopher (2001). Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994. Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1-859-73278-6. 
  • Kroslak, Daniela (2007). The Role of France in the Rwandan Genocide. Hurst & Company. ISBN 978-1-850-65882-5. 
  • Keane, Fergal (1997). Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-140-24760-2. 
  • Barnett, Michael (2003). Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-801-48867-2. 
  • Willoquet-Maricondi, Paula (2010). Framing the World: Explorations in Ecocriticism and Film (Under the Sign of Nature). University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-813-93005-7. 
  • O'Halloran, Kevin (2010). Pure Massacre: Aussie Soldiers Reflect on the Rwandan Genocide. Big Sky Publishing. ISBN 978-0-980-32518-8. 
  • Destexhe, Alain (1995). Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-814-71873-5. 
  • Chishugi, Leah (2010). A Long Way from Paradise: Surviving the Rwandan Genocide. Virago Press. ISBN 978-1-844-08657-3. 

External links[edit]