The Houli culture (Chinese: 后李文化; pinyin: Hou li wen hua, 6500-5500 BC) was a Neolithic culture in Shandong, China. The people of the culture lived in square, semi-subterranean houses. Archaeological evidence shows that domesticated dogs and pigs were used. The type site at Houli was discovered in the Linzi District of Shandong and was excavated from 1989 to 1990. The culture was followed by the Beixin culture.
Evidence of the earliest rice cultivation in the Yellow River basin came from carbonized rice grains from the Yuezhuang site in Jinan, Shandong. The carbonized rice was dated using AMSradiocarbon dating to 7050±80. Archaeologists also excavated millet from the Yuezhuang site.