Hour record

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the hour record in athletics, see One hour run.
The previous UCI unified hour record holder, Jens Voigt, during his successful attempt on 18 September 2014.

The hour record for bicycles is the record for the longest distance cycled in one hour on a bicycle. There are several records. The most famous is for upright bicycles meeting the requirements of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). It is one of the most prestigious in cycling. Hour-record attempts are made in a velodrome.

The first recorded record was in 1876 when the American Frank Dodds rode 26.508 km (16.471 mi) on a penny-farthing,[1] although there are also claims that the record was first set in 1873 by James Moore in Wolverhampton, riding an Ariel 49" high wheel bicycle. The first officially recognised record was in 1893 following the formation of the International Cycling Association. In 1972, Eddy Merckx set a record of 49.431 km (30.715 mi) that stood for 12 years. The current UCI record is by Matthias Brändle, 51.852 km (32.219 mi);[2] the current record under the International Human Powered Vehicle Association (IHPVA) is held by Francesco Russo at 91.556 km (56.890 mi).

History[edit]

Because of aerodynamics, the hour record has seen innovative equipment, but this has led to debate in cycling over the extent to which records should reflect only the skill, strength and stamina of the cyclist on an upright bike with drop handlebars, or whether changes in bicycle design should be accepted.

On July 7, 1933, Francis Faure set 45.055 km (27.996 mi) riding an aerodynamic recumbent bicycle, but in 1934 the UCI reversed their position and rejected recumbent bicycles. This led to two classes of record. In one, only upright bicycles are permitted; this is administered by the UCI. In the other, any design is allowed, provided the power comes from the rider; this is administered by the International Human Powered Vehicle Association (IHPVA).

UCI hour record[edit]

Eddy Merckx said his hour record attempt was "the hardest ride I have ever done". It was set in 1972 in Mexico City at an altitude of 2,300m (7,550 ft).[2]

Eddy Merckx's 1972 hour record bike

In January 1984, Moser set two records, the second being 51.151 km (31.784 mi). This was the first noted use of disc wheels, which provided aerodynamic benefit.[2] In 1993 and 1994, Graeme Obree, a Scot who built his own bikes, posted two records with his hands tucked under his chest.

The veteran's record set by Francesco Moser on 15 January 1994 (51.840 km)[3] in Mexico City was faster than his more celebrated record in 1984, when he used a bullhorn handlebar, steel airfoil tubing, disk wheels and skinsuit. It was also faster than Obree's first record in 1993. Had Moser ridden Obree's bike before Obree did, Moser might have held the official record at age 42. Moser was riding before UCI rule changes were to be put in effect by May 7 of that year. These were to out-law the Obree praying mantis style. The bike that Boardman used for his attempt was designed by the Lotus car company using ideas from Mike Burrows. The frame was built by the South African company Aerodyne Technology near Cape Town. Boardman eventually rode to the UCI Absolute record of 56.375 km in 1996. The original branding on the frame was replaced by Eddy Merckx branding for the record attempt. Only 450 of these bikes were built.

Moser was inspired by Obree's bike and wanted a copy. The bike Moser rode on his veteran's record had a praying mantis handlebar and Obree-style frame. Moser modified it with a chest pad. But if Obree hadn't broken style and tradition in the first place, this form of time-trial bike would not have been known. However, at that same time, Boardman held the overall record. Later that year, Obree beat both for his second hour record at low-altitude, this time in Bordeaux in France.

In 1996, Boardman set a record using another position pioneered by Obree, his arms out in front in a Superman position. Both were considered controversial by the UCI, and while the records were allowed to stand, the positions were banned.[2] Obree and Boardman made several attempts to top the previous record.

With the increasing gap between modern bicycles and what was available at the time of Merckx's record, the UCI established two records in 1997:

  • UCI Hour Record, which restricts competitors to roughly the same equipment as Merckx, disallowing time trial helmets, disc or tri-spoke wheels, aerodynamic bars and monocoque frames.
  • Best Human Effort, sometimes termed the UCI "Absolute" Record.[2]

All records since 1972, including Boardman's 56.375 km (35.030 mi) in 1996, were downgraded to Best Human Effort. In 2000, Boardman attempted the UCI record on a traditional bike, and rode 49.441 km (30.721 mi), topping Merckx by 10 m (32.8 ft), an improvement of 0.02%.

In 2005 Ondřej Sosenka improved Boardman's performance at 49.700 km (30.882 mi) using a 54×13 gear. At 200 cm (6 ft 6¾ in) tall, Sosenka used an unusual saddle position and a small vertical frame height to stay within UCI regulations.[4] Sosenka failed a doping control in 2001 and then again in 2008, the latter resulting in a career-ending suspension which puts in doubt the validity of his record.

Unified rule change[edit]

Jens Voigt's bike used in setting the first hour record after the unified UCI rule change

In 2014 the UCI unified the two classifications into a single classification in line with regulations for current track pursuit bikes. Records previously removed for Chris Boardman and Graeme Obree would be returned, however the current record would remain at 49.700 km set in 2005 by Ondrej Sosenka, even though that is not the farthest distance.[5][6] Under the new regulations riders may use any bike allowed by the UCI standards for endurance track events in place at the time of the attempt.[7][citation needed] Riders are required to be part of the athlete biological passport program.[8]

Following the change in the rules, German Jens Voigt became the first rider to attempt the hour, on 18 September 2014 at the Velodrome Suisse, Grenchen, Switzerland.[9][10] He set a new record of 51.110 km, beating the previous record set by Sosenka by 1.410 km.[2] On 30 October 2014, Matthias Brändle set a new record of 51.852 km at the World Cycling Center in Aigle, Switzerland.

In December 2014 it was announced that British Paralympian Sarah Storey would be the first women to attempt the record following the unified rule change. She will attempt the record on 28 February 2015 at Lee Valley Velo Park, London.[11]

Records since 1972[edit]

UCI Hour record-holders since 1972, with equipment description[12][13]
Date Rider Age Velodrome Distance (km) Type Equipment
25 October 1972 Belgium Eddy Merckx 27 Agustín Melgar, Mexico City, Mexico 49.431 b Drop handlebar, round steel tubing frame, wire spokes.
19 January 1984 Italy Francesco Moser 32 Agustín Melgar, Mexico City, Mexico 50.808 c Bullhorn handlebar, oval steel tubing frame, disc wheels.
23 January 1984 Italy Francesco Moser 32 Agustín Melgar, Mexico City, Mexico 51.151 c Bullhorn handlebar, oval steel tubing frame, disc wheels.
17 July 1993 United Kingdom Graeme Obree 27 Vikingskipet, Hamar, Norway 51.596 c Graeme Obree-style "praying mantis" handlebar, round steel tubing frame, carbon tri-spoke wheels.
23 July 1993 United Kingdom Chris Boardman 24 Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France 52.270 c Triathlon handlebar, carbon airfoil tubing frame, carbon 4-spoke wheels.
27 April 1994 United Kingdom Graeme Obree 28 Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France 52.713 c Graeme Obree-style "praying mantis" handlebar, round steel tubing frame, carbon tri-spoke wheels.
2 September 1994 Spain Miguel Indurain 30 Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France 53.040 c Wide triathlon handlebar, carbon monocoque aero frame, disc wheels.
22 October 1994 Switzerland Tony Rominger 33 Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France 53.832 c Triathlon handlebar, oval steel tubing frame, disc wheels.
5 November 1994 Switzerland Tony Rominger 33 Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France 55.291 c Triathlon handlebar, oval steel tubing frame, disc wheels.
6 September 1996 United Kingdom Chris Boardman 28 Manchester Velodrome, Manchester, UK 56.375 c Graeme Obree "superman-style" handlebar, carbon monocoque aero frame, 5-spoke front and rear disc wheel.
27 October 2000 United Kingdom Chris Boardman 32 Manchester Velodrome, Manchester, UK 49.441 b Drop handlebar, carbon fibre tubing frame, wire spokes.
19 July 2005 Czech Republic Ondřej Sosenka 29 Krylatskoye, Moscow, Russia 49.700 a/b Drop handlebar, carbon fibre tubing frame, wire spokes.
18 September 2014 Germany Jens Voigt 43 Velodrome Suisse, Grenchen, Switzerland 51.110 a Triathlon handlebar, carbon fibre tubing frame, disc wheels. First record holder under the 2014 unified rules and oldest record holder at 43 years old and one day.[14]
30 October 2014 Austria Matthias Brändle 24 World Cycling Center, Aigle, Switzerland 51.852 a Triathlon handlebar, Scott carbon fibre tubing frame, disc wheels. Second record holder under the 2014 unified rules.

Note: Type of record: (a) UCI unified record (from 2014), (b) UCI hour record (until 2014), (c) UCI best human effort (1972–2014).

IHPVA/WHPVA hour record[edit]

Streamlined human powered vehicles[edit]

The IHPVA/WHPVA record led to fully faired human powered machines, typically streamlined recumbent bicycles. These feature a lower frontal area than a UCI bicycle due to their recumbent seating design of the rider. They enclose the rider and machine in aerodynamic shapes made of carbon fibre, Kevlar or fiberglass to reduce air resistance. The record hour average speeds for these machines – 90 km/h (56 mph) for men and 84 km/h (52 mph) for women – are faster than a UCI rider could perform even in a short 200-meter sprint for 10 seconds, 72 km/h (45 mph), demonstrating their higher level of efficiency and speed.

The IHPVA was started in 1975 by Jack Lambie and California college professor, Dr. Chet Kyle, who challenged his students to build a faster bicycle. The recumbent design (banned in 1934) and the use of additional streamlined devices (banned in 1914) were allowed back into a sanctioned competition.

The IHPVA hour record was first set in 1979 by Olympian Ron Skarin, who went 51.31 km (31.88 mi) on a streamlined upright bicycle designed by Chet and Joyce Kyle. It was 40 years since a streamlined upright had held the record, but this record was short-lived. The following year, Ron Skarin and Eric Hollander went 74.51 km (46.30 mi) on a streamlined recumbent tandem, a 23 km increase on the previous record. The record stood for ten years, and was the last time the record would be held by a tandem. The single-rider record, however, was beaten by Eric Edwards in 1980 at 59.45 km (36.94 mi), and then by Fred Markham in 1989 at 73 km (45.36 mi).

In 1990, Pat Kinch went 75.57 km (46.96 mi) on a streamlined recumbent, narrowly breaking the record set by Skarin and Hollander. Lars Teutenberg exceeded this in 1996, reaching 78.04 km (48.49 mi). Sam Whittingham went 79.13 km (49.17 mi) in 1998, then broke his own record in 2004 when he cycled 84.22 km (52.33 mi) on the GM/Opel test track in Dudenhofen, Germany.

In 2006, Fred Markham, a 1976-80 US Olympic team member, set a record distance of 85.99 km (53.43 mi) on the track at the Nissan Technical Center, near Casa Grande in Arizona.[15] Markham won $18,000 as a share of the $25,000 Dempsey-MacCready One Hour Prize that was to be awarded to the first HPV to surpass 90 km. Although Markham had not exceeded 90 km, the prize time limit had expired and its shares awarded to those that traveled furthest.[16] Both Markham and Whittingham rode vehicles called Varna designed and built by the Bulgarian sculptor George Georgiev, who lives in British Columbia, Canada. Sam Whittingham won back the record one year later at the Nissan Technical Center with 86.75 km, and went on to set a distance of 90.60 km (56.30 mi) in 2009, at the Ford Michigan Proving Grounds.

In August 2011, Francesco Russo travelled 91.56 km (56.89 mi) at the Dekra Test Oval near Klettwitz, Germany. He rode the Eiviestretto bicycle, which he designed and built with earlier record-holder Damjan Zabovnik. The Eiviestretto is a backwards-ridden vehicle with the rider's head pointed in the direction of travel. The rider lies on his back, using a mirror to navigate. The design is based on Eivie III from Damjan Zabovnik, with several improvements.[17]

As of August 2009, 138 one-hour runs using aerodynamic fairings have exceeded Boardman's 56.375 km UCI record. This list is maintained by Mike Mowett, IHPVA Records Committee. Some marks on the list are considered unofficial, but all are recorded hour distances for human powered vehicles.[18]

Unfaired recumbents[edit]

This section refers to recumbent bicycles without additional aerodynamic enclosures. Amongst the various racing associations that host racing events for such bicycles, these are called Stock Recumbents or Unfaired Recumbents.

The hour record for recumbent bicycles without aerodynamic fairings, set by Francis Faure in 1933, was broken in 2007 by Sean Costin, who covered 48.80 km (28.46 mi) on the 382m outdoor concrete velodrome in Northbrook, Illinois. Costin then rode 47.89 km (29.76 mi) on the 250m indoor wooden velodrome at the ADT Event Center in California. He rode a recumbent made by the Polish manufacturer Velokraft (model name NoCom), which he converted to a fixed-gear for the indoor event. Both events were conducted by the World Recumbent Racing Association (WRRA).[19]

On October 24, 2008, Gert-Jan Wijers bettered Costin with 50.39 km (31.31 mi) on the 250m Alkmaar velodrome located near sea-level. Wijers rode a production version of the M5 carbon high-racer recumbent modified with dual disk carbon wheels and a fixed-gear freewheel. Wijers became the first unfaired recumbent rider to exceed 50 km.[20] On May 15, 2009, 26 year old Aurélien Bonneteau set a new WRRA unfaired world record of 50.52 km (31.40 mi) in Bordeaux-Lax, France, at the Guy Lapebie indoor velodrome. Bonneteau was racing an M5 lowracer set up with single speed gearing, both front and rear wheel disks, and a very elliptical chainring.[21]

On the weekend of October 17–18, 2009, a special event called the Apeldoorn Recumbent Record Weekend was held at the Apeldoorn 250 meter indoor wooden Velodrome in the Netherlands. The Unfaired Recumbent One Hour record was broken three times in quick succession this weekend. Gert-Jan Wijers of the Netherlands set a new mark of 51.287 km (31.868 miles) on a M5 Carbon High-Racer recumbent on October 17. The next day October 18, 2009, Niels van de Wal set a new mark of 51.33 km (31.895 miles) on a M5 mid-racer recumbent called the Nadir. This was slightly lower to the ground than the high-racer version. However later in the day, Aurélien Bonneteau set a new Unfaired Recumbent One Hour record of 52.074 km (32.357 miles) this time on the M5 Carbon High-Racer recumbent. These records are recognized by the WRRA World Recumbent Racing Association. Details of the race weekend here:[22]

Barbara Buatois of France set two Ladies Unfaired Recumbent One-Hour records within two weeks in October 2009.[citation needed] She rode a Zockra Le Rapide recumbent. At the Apeldoorn event on October 17, 2009, she rode 46.048 km (28.613 miles), a mark which would have also broken the long-standing men's record of Francis Faure from 1933. Two weeks later, at the Velodrome du Lac in Bordeaux, France, Buatois rode 46.348 km (28.799 miles) on October 31, 2009 for another record. At the October 2011 Apeldoorn event, Janneke Sindram unofficially broke this record with a ride of 46.505 km (28.90 miles). This record is not yet verified by the WRRA. Sindram had reportedly just starting racing that year.[23]

In April 2012, Aurélien Bonneteau announced a May 2012 attempt to better his record. The attempt will take place at the 250 meter Bordeaux wooden velodrome in France, the site of Chris Boardman's and Barbara Buatois's records. Bonneteau will use a carbon fiber recumbent that he has built himself. This recumbent features two 700c-sized wheels similar to the M5 Carbon high-racer, and a single speed and an elliptical chainring. A picture of the bike was posted on a discussion forum.[24]

Women's streamlined one hour record[edit]

In July 2009, at the Ford Michigan Proving Grounds, Barbara Buatois set two world records in one weekend. Buatois, a 32-year-old French woman, first broke the existing women's record on Friday July 17, covering 82.12 km (51.03 mi). This broke the existing women's mark by 12%, and gave her the title of the 6th fastest human to have done the One Hour. However, her 84.02 km (52.20 mi) on late Sunday evening moved her up to the title of the 4th fastest human (man or woman) to have done the One Hour.[18] She rode a vehicle called the Varna Tempest, designed and built by Georgi Georgiev of Canada. The Ford oval is around 8 km, with 60% of the course turns and 40% straightaways. It had been rebuilt and repaved the year prior to these attempts. The elevation of the course is flat at 295 meters above sea level, hence this is considered a low-altitude location (<700 meters) per IHPVA/WHPVA rules. Barbara Buatois went on to set the ladies 200-meter top speed record of 75 mph at Battle Mountain in 2009 and 2010, and also finish the 2010 RAAM Race Across America as the #1 lady finisher. She used a Stock recumbent for this ride across America.

One Hour records (male)[edit]

Hour record-holders and dates:
(a) UCI unified record (from 2014), (b) UCI hour record (until 2014),
(c) UCI best human effort (1972–2014), (d) IHPVA/WHPVA hour record (km)
Date By Location (a) (b) (c) (d)
1873 James Moore Wolverhampton, England 23.331
25 March 1876 Frank Dodds Cambridge University Ground[25][nb 1] 26.508
2 August 1882 Herbert Lydell Cortis England 32.454
1887 Jules Dubois London, England 34.217
11 May 1893 Henri Desgrange Buffalo, Paris 35.325
31 October 1894 Jules Dubois Buffalo, Paris 38.220
30 July 1897 Oscar Van Den Eynde Vincennes, Paris 39.240
3 July 1898 Willie Hamilton Colorado Springs, USA 40.781
24 August 1905 Lucien Petit-Breton Buffalo, Paris 41.110
20 June 1907 Marcel Berthet Paris 41.520
22 August 1912 Oscar Egg Paris 42.122
7 August 1913 Marcel Berthet Paris 42.741
21 August 1913 Oscar Egg Paris 43.525
20 September 1913 Marcel Berthet Paris 43.775
18 August 1914 Oscar Egg Paris 44.247
7 July 1933 Francis Faure Vélodrome du Parc des Princes, Paris 45.055
25 August 1933 Jan Van Hout Roermond 44.588
18 November 1933 Marcel Berthet France 49.990
28 September 1933 Maurice Richard Sint-Truiden, Belgium 44.777
31 October 1935 Giuseppe Olmo Velodromo Vigorelli, Milan 45.090
14 October 1936 Maurice Richard Vigorelli, Milan 45.325
29 September 1937 Frans Slaats Vigorelli, Milan 45.485
3 November 1937 Maurice Archambaud Vigorelli, Milan 45.767
13 March 1938[26] Francois Faure France 50.537
7 November 1942 Fausto Coppi Vigorelli, Milan 45.798
29 June 1956 Jacques Anquetil Vigorelli, Milan 46.159
19 September 1956 Ercole Baldini Vigorelli, Milan 46.394
18 September 1957 Roger Rivière Vigorelli, Milan 46.923
23 September 1959 Roger Rivière Vigorelli, Milan 47.347
30 October 1967 Ferdi Bracke Olympic Velodrome, Rome 48.093
10 October 1968 Ole Ritter Mexico City 48.653
25 October 1972 Eddy Merckx Mexico City 49.431
5 May 1979 Ron Skarin Ontario, Cal. USA 51.310
4 May 1980 Eric Edwards Ontario, Cal. USA 59.450
4 May 1980 Ron Skarin & Eric Hollander* Ontario, Cal. USA 74.510
19 January 1984 Francesco Moser Mexico City 50.808
23 January 1984 Francesco Moser Mexico City 51.151
29 September 1984 Fred Markham Indianapolis, USA 60.350
10 September 1985 Richard Crane Warwickshire, England 66.300
28 August 1986 Fred Markham Vancouver, Canada 67.010
15 September 1989 Fred Markham Adrian, USA 73.000
8 September 1990 Pat Kinch Bedfordshire, England 75.570
17 July 1993 Graeme Obree Hamar, Norway 51.596
23 July 1993 Chris Boardman Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux 52.270
27 April 1994 Graeme Obree Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux 52.713
2 September 1994 Miguel Indurain Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux 53.040
22 October 1994 Tony Rominger Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux 53.832
5 November 1994 Tony Rominger Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux 55.291
27 July 1996 Lars Teutenberg Munich, Germany 78.040
6 September 1996 Chris Boardman Manchester, UK 56.375
29 July 1998 Sam Whittingham Blainville, Canada 79.136
7 August 1999 Lars Teutenberg Dudenhofen, Germany 81.158
27 October 2000 Chris Boardman Manchester, UK 49.441
27 July 2002 Lars Teutenberg Dudenhofen, Germany 82.600
19 November 2003 Sam Whittingham Uvalde, Texas 83.710
31 July 2004 Sam Whittingham Dudenhofen, Germany 84.215
19 July 2005 Ondřej Sosenka Moscow, Russia 49.700 49.700
2 July 2006 Fred Markham Casa Grande, Arizona 85.991
8 April 2007 Sam Whittingham Casa Grande, Arizona 86.752
12 July 2008 Damjan Zabovnik Lausitzring, Germany 87.123
19 July 2009 Sam Whittingham Ford Michigan Proving Grounds, USA 90.598
2 August 2011 Francesco Russo Lausitzring, Germany 91.556
18 September 2014 Jens Voigt Grenchen, Switzerland 51.110[27]
30 October 2014 Matthias Brändle World Cycling Center, Aigle, Switzerland 51.852

* Marked Vector Tandem in 1980

  1. ^ The Historical Dictionary of Cycling.  (Jeroen Heijmans, Bill Mallon) lists three further records after Dodds but before Herbert Cortis. Listed only by surname, 1877, Shopee in Cambridge, 26.960, 1878, Weir, in Oxford, 28.542 and Christie, in 1879, 30.374, also in Oxford.


Cyclingdevelopmenthourrecord.svg

One Hour records (female)[edit]

The corresponding female records are:[13]

UCI unified records (from 2014)
UCI hour records
  • 46.065 km/h Leontien Zijlaard-Van Moorsel (NED), 1 October 2003
  • 45.094 km/h Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli (FRA), December 2000
  • 44.767 km/h Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli (FRA), November 2000
  • 43.501 km/h Anna Wilson-Millward (AUS), October 2000
UCI best hour performance
  • 48.159 km/h Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli (FRA), October 1996
  • 47.411 km/h Yvonne McGregor (GBR), June 1995
  • 47.112 km/h Cathérine Marsal (FRA), April 1995
  • 46.352 km/h Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli (FRA), October 1989
  • 44.933 km/h Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli (FRA), September 1987
  • 44.770 km/h Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli (FRA), September 1986
  • 43.082 km/h Keetie van Oosten-Hage (NED), September 1978
  • 41.471 km/h Maria Cressari (ITA), November 1972
  • 41.347 km/h Elsy Jacobs (LUX), November 1958
  • ...others
IHPVA/WHPVA records
  • 84.02 km/h Barbara Buatois (FRA), 19 July 2009, Ford Michigan Proving Grounds, Romeo, Michigan
  • 82.12 km/h Barbara Buatois (FRA), 17 July 2009, Ford Michigan Proving Grounds, Romeo, Michigan
  • 73.41 km/h Rosmarie Bühler (SUI), August 2004
  • 68.97 km/h Ellen van Vugt (NED), August 2004
  • 68.33 km/h Ellen van Vugt (NED), August 2002
  • 62.26 km/h Corinne van Noordenne (NED), August 2001
  • 57.47 km/h Rosmarie Bühler (SUI), June 2001

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mallon, Jeroen Heijmans, Bill. Historical dictionary of cycling. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0810873699. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Clemitson, Suze (19 September 2014). "Why Jens Voigt and a new group of cyclists want to break the Hour record". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  3. ^ Gallery: Francesco Moser's hour record
  4. ^ Ondřej Sosenka has posted photographs of his record-winning bicycle and other information in Czech at http://www.sosenka.cz
  5. ^ "Hour Record rule change - Athlete's hour to be scrapped - Cycling Weekly". Cycling Weekly. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  6. ^ "UCI changes hour record regulations, allows modern track bikes - VeloNews.com". VeloNews.com. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  7. ^ "How the Hour Record Will Save Cycling - The Cycle Life - OutsideOnline.com". Outside Online. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  8. ^ "Cookson reveals that people have come forward to the CIRC Reform Commission - Cyclingnews.com". Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  9. ^ Giles Richards. "The Agenda: Jens Voigt aims to break one of cycling’s toughest records - Sport - The Observer". the Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "Answered: 11 questions about Jens Voigt's hour record attempt - VeloNews.com". VeloNews.com. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  11. ^ http://velonews.competitor.com/2014/12/news/britains-sarah-storey-tackle-womens-hour-record_356110?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter
  12. ^ "Chronic of the Hour Record". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  13. ^ a b "World Hour Records". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  14. ^ "Voigt: I can't ask for a better goodbye". Cyclingnews.com (Future plc). 10 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "Dempsey-MacCready One Hour Record Attempts". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "Circles in the desert; an hpv hour record attempt". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  17. ^ "Eiviestretto - the World Record Speedbike". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  18. ^ a b "Fastest Human Powered Vehicle databases". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  19. ^ "World Recumbent Racing Association". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  20. ^ "Mission accomplished - 50,392 km in one hour!". M5 Recumbents. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. 
  21. ^ "Aurélien Bonneteau - 1 Hour TT Record". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  22. ^ "Recumbents Discussion forum". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  23. ^ "Recumbents Discussion forum". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  24. ^ "Recumbents Discussion forum". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  25. ^ "March 25 down the years". ESPN.co.uk. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  26. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ZdXCmwpk-SAC&pg=PA381&lpg=PA381&dq=Francois+Faure+1938+hour+record&source=bl&ots=HVI6LHLYLb&sig=vzF5CUwM7GAZ_WpxZy_vygSCKOo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=FVpJVK-fJqr9ygO-poKIBw&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Francois%20Faure%201938%20hour%20record&f=false
  27. ^ UCI. "Men Elite World Records". 

External links[edit]