|House mouse range|
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail. It is one of the most numerous species of the genus Mus. Although a wild animal, the house mouse mainly lives in association with humans.
The house mouse has been domesticated as the pet or fancy mouse, and as the laboratory mouse, which is one of the most important model organisms in biology and medicine. The complete mouse reference genome was sequenced in 2002. It is the mammal by far the most commonly genetically altered for scientific research.
- 1 Characteristics
- 2 Taxonomy and subspecies
- 3 Behaviour
- 4 Social behaviour
- 5 Senses and communication
- 6 Life cycle and reproduction
- 7 Life expectancy
- 8 Mice and humans
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
House mice have an adult body length (nose to base of tail) of 7.5–10 cm (3.0–3.9 in) and a tail length of 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in). The weight is typically 10–25 g (0.4–0.9 oz). In the wild they vary in color from light to dark agouti (light to dark brown) but domesticated fancy mice and laboratory mice are produced in many colors ranging from white to champagne to black. They have short hair and some, but not all, sub-species have a light belly. The ears and tail have little hair. The hind feet are short compared to Apodemus mice, only 15–19 mm (0.59–0.75 in) long; the normal gait is a run with a stride of about 4.5 cm (1.8 in), though they can jump vertically up to 45 cm (18 in). The voice is a high-pitched squeak. House mice thrive under a variety of conditions: they are found in and around homes and commercial structures, as well as in open fields and agricultural lands.
New-born males and females can be distinguished on close examination as the anogenital distance in males is approximately double that of the female. From the age of about 10 days females have five pairs of mammary glands and nipples; males have no nipples. When sexually mature, the most striking and obvious difference is the presence of testicles on the males. These are large compared to the rest of the body and can be retracted into the body.
The tail, which is used for balance, has only a thin covering of hair as it is the main peripheral organ of heat loss in thermoregulation along with — to a lesser extent — the hairless parts of the paws and ears. Blood flow to the tail can be precisely controlled in response to changes in ambient temperature using a system of arteriovenous anastomoses to increase the temperature of the skin on the tail by as much as 10 °C to lose body heat. Tail length varies according to the environmental temperature of the mouse during post-natal development and so mice living in colder regions tend to have shorter tails. The tail is also used for balance when the mouse is climbing or running, or as a base when the animal stands on its hind legs (a behaviour known as "tripoding"), and to convey information about the dominance status of an individual in encounters with other mice.
Taxonomy and subspecies
- Mus musculus castaneus (southern and southeastern Asia)
- Mus musculus domesticus (western Europe, southwestern Asia, Americas, Africa, and Oceania)
- Mus musculus musculus (eastern Europe and northern Asia)
Two additional subspecies have been recognized more recently:
Many more names have been given to house mice, but are now regarded as synonyms of other subspecies. Some populations are hybrids of different subspecies, including the Japanese house mouse (M. m. molossinus).
House mice usually run, walk, or stand on all fours, but when eating, fighting, or orienting themselves, they rear up on their hind legs with additional support from the tail - a behaviour known as "tripoding". Mice are good jumpers, climbers, and swimmers, and are generally considered to be thigmotactic, i.e. usually attempts to maintain contact with vertical surfaces.
Mice are mostly crepuscular or nocturnal; they are averse to bright lights. The average sleep time of a captive house mouse is reported to be 12.5 hours per day. They live in a wide variety of hidden places near food sources, and construct nests from various soft materials. Mice are territorial, and one dominant male usually lives together with several females and young. Dominant males respect each other's territory and normally enter another's territory only if it is vacant. If two or more males are housed together in a cage, they will often become aggressive unless they have been raised together from birth.
House mice primarily feed on plant matter, but are omnivorous. They will eat their own faeces to acquire nutrients produced by bacteria in their intestines. House mice, like most other rodents, do not vomit.
Mice are generally afraid of rats which often kill and eat them, a behavior known as muricide. Despite this, free-living populations of rats and mice do exist together in forest areas in New Zealand, North America and elsewhere. House mice are generally poor competitors and in most areas cannot survive away from human settlements in areas where other small mammals, such as wood mice, are present. However, in some areas (such as Australia), mice are able to coexist with other small rodent species.
The social behaviour of the house mouse is not rigidly fixed into species-specific patterns but is instead adaptable to the environmental conditions, such as the availability of food and space. This adaptability allows house mice to inhabit diverse areas ranging from sandy dunes to apartment buildings.
House mice have two forms of social behaviour, the expression of which depends on the environmental context. House mice in buildings and other urbanized areas with close proximity to humans are known as commensal. Commensal mice populations often have an excessive food source resulting in high population densities and small home ranges. This causes a switch from territorial behaviour to a hierarchy of individuals. When populations have an excess of food, there is less female-female aggression, which usually occurs to gain access to food or to prevent infanticide. Male-male aggression occurs in commensal populations, mainly to defend female mates and protect a small territory. The high level of male-male aggression, with a low female-female aggression level is common in polygamous populations. The social unit of commensal house mouse populations generally consists of one male and two or more females, usually related. These groups breed cooperatively, with the females communally nursing. This cooperative breeding and rearing by related females helps increase reproductive success. When no related females are present, breeding groups can form from non-related females.
In open areas such as shrubs and fields, the house mouse population is known as noncommensal. These populations are often limited by water or food supply and have large territories. Female-female aggression in the noncommensal house mouse populations is much higher, reaching a level generally attributed to free-ranging species. Male aggression is also higher in noncommensal populations. In commensal populations, males come into contact with other males quite frequently due to high population densities and aggression must be mediated or the risk of injury becomes too great.
Both commensal and noncommensal house mouse males aggressively defend their territory and act to exclude all intruders. Males mark their territory by scent marking with urine. In marked territories, intruders showed significantly lower aggression than the territory residents. House mice show a male-biased dispersal; males generally leave their birth sites and migrate to form new territories whereas females generally stay and are opportunistic breeders rather than seasonal.
Senses and communication
The visual apparatus of mice is basically similar to that of humans but differs in that they are dichromats and have only two types of cone cells whereas humans are trichromats and have three. This means that mice do not perceive some of the colors in the human visual spectrum. However, the ventral area of the mouse retina has a much greater density of ultraviolet-sensitive cones than other areas of the retina, although the biological significance of this structure is unknown. In 2007, mice genetically engineered by scientists at the University of California to produce the third type of cone were shown to be able to distinguish a range of colors similar to that perceived by tetrachromats.
House mice also rely on pheromones for social communication, some of which are produced by the preputial glands of both sexes. The tear fluid and urine of male mice also contains pheromones, such as major urinary proteins. Mice detect pheromones mainly with the vomeronasal organ (Jacobson's organ), located at the bottom of the nose.
The urine of house mice, especially that of males, has a characteristic strong odor. At least 10 different compounds, such as alkanes, alcohols, etc., are detectable in the urine. Among them, five compounds are specific to males, namely 3-cyclohexene-1-methanol, aminotriazole (3-amino-s-triazole), 4-ethyl phenol, 3-ethyl-2,7-dimethyl octane and 1-iodoundecane.
Odours from adult males or from pregnant or lactating females can speed up or retard sexual maturation in juvenile females and synchronise reproductive cycles in mature females (i.e. the Whitten effect). Odours of unfamiliar male mice may terminate pregnancies, i.e. the Bruce effect.
Mice can sense surfaces and air movements with their whiskers which are also used during thigmotaxis. If mice are blind from birth, super-normal growth of the vibrissae occurs presumably as a compensatory response, or if the vibrissae are absent, the use of vision is intensified.
Life cycle and reproduction
Female house mice have an estrous cycle about four to six days long, with estrus itself lasting less than a day. If several females are held together under crowded conditions, they will often not have an estrus at all. If they are then exposed to male urine, they will come into estrus after 72 hours.
Male house mice court females by emitting characteristic ultrasonic calls in the 30 kHz–110 kHz range. The calls are most frequent during courtship when the male is sniffing and following the female; however, the calls continue after mating has begun, at which time the calls are coincident with mounting behaviour. Males can be induced to emit these calls by female pheromones. The vocalizations appear to differ between individuals and have been compared to bird songs because of their complexity. While females have the capability to produce ultrasonic calls, they typically do not do so during mating behaviour.
Following copulation, female mice will normally develop a copulation plug which prevents further copulation. This plug stays in place for some 24 hours. The gestation period is about 19–21 days, and they give birth to a litter of 3–14 young (average six to eight). One female can have 5 to 10 litters per year, so the mouse population can increase very quickly. Breeding occurs throughout the year. (However, animals living in the wild do not reproduce in the colder months, even though they do not hibernate.)
The pups are born blind and without fur or ears. The ears are fully developed by the fourth day, fur begins to appear at about six days and the eyes open around 13 days after birth; the pups are weaned at around 21 days. Females reach sexual maturity at about six weeks of age and males at about eight weeks, but both can copulate as early as five weeks. If the infants live in high temperatured area from birth, they will become less-haired.
House mice usually live less than one year in the wild, due to a high level of predation and exposure to harsh environments. In protected environments, however, they often live two to three years. The Methuselah Mouse Prize is a competition to breed or engineer extremely long-lived laboratory mice. As of 2005[update], the record holder was a genetically engineered mouse that lived for 1,819 days (4 years, 358 days). Another record holder that was kept in an enriched environment but did not receive any genetic, pharmacological, or dietary treatment lived for 1,551 days (4 years, 90 days).
Mice and humans
House mice usually live in proximity to humans, in or around houses or fields. Originally native to Asia (probably northern India), they spread to the Mediterranean Basin about 8000 BC, only spreading into the rest of Europe around 1000 BC. This time lag is thought to be because the mice require agrarian human settlements above a certain size. They have since been spread to all parts of the globe by humans.
Many studies have been done on mouse phylogenies to reconstruct early human movements. For example, one study suggests the possibility of a previously unsuspected early link between Northern Europe and Madeira on the basis of the origin of Madeiran mice. House mice were thought to be the primary reason for the taming of the domestic cat.
The first written reference to mice kept as pets occurs in the Erya, the oldest extant Chinese dictionary, from a mention in an 1100 BC version. Human domestication led to numerous strains of "fancy" or hobby mice with a variety of colours and a docile temperament. Domestic varieties of the house mouse are bred as a food source for some carnivorous pet reptiles, birds, arthropods, and fish.
Mice and diseases
House mice can sometimes transmit diseases, contaminate food and damage food packaging. Although the American CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) gives a list with diseases transmitted by rodents, only few of the diseases are transmitted through the house mouse. These are not commonly reported infections in humans and most infections are mild and are often never diagnosed.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) can be transmitted by mice but is not a commonly reported infection in humans, though most infections are mild and are often never diagnosed. There is some concern that women should not to be infected with LCMV during pregnancy.
The domestic mouse is not a dangerous vector of human plague (bubonic plague) because it is much less infested with fleas than the rat, and because the flea which it naturally harbours exhibits little tendency to attack man in default of its natural host.
Rickettsialpox, caused by the bacterium Rickettsia akari and similar to chickenpox, is spread by mice in general, but is very rare and generally mild and resolves within 2–3 weeks if untreated. There are no known deaths resulting from the disease. Murine typhus (also called endemic typhus) is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia typhi, and is transmitted by the fleas that infest rats. While rat fleas are the most common vectors, cat fleas and mouse fleas are less common modes of transmission. Endemic typhus is highly treatable with antibiotics. Most people recover fully, but death may occur in the elderly, severely disabled or patients with a depressed immune system.
Mice have become an invasive species on islands to where they have spread during the period of European exploration and colonisation.
New Zealand had no land mammals other than the lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) prior to human occupation, and the house mouse is one of many species that have been introduced. Mice are responsible for a reduction in native bird species since they eat some of the same foods as birds. They are also known to kill lizards and have a large effect on native insects.
Gough Island in the South Atlantic is used by 20 species of seabird for breeding, including almost all of the world's Tristan albatross (Diomedea dabbenena) and Atlantic petrel (Pterodroma incerta). Until house mice arrived on the island in the 19th century with sailors, the birds did not have any mammalian predators. The mice have since grown unusually large and have learned to attack albatross chicks, which can be nearly 1 m tall, but are largely immobile, by working in groups and gnawing on them until they bleed to death.
In the grain belt of south-eastern Australia, the introduced species Mus domesticus breed so successfully that every three years or so they reach plague proportions, achieving densities of 1000 per hectare causing massive disruption to communities, and losses to agriculture of A$36 million annually.
In folk culture
Importance of mice as a house and agricultural pest resulted in a development of a variety of mice-related rituals and stories in world's cultures. Already the ancient Egyptians had a story about "The mouse as vizier".
Many Southern Slavs had a traditional annual "Mouse Day" celebration. In the eastern Balkans (most of Bulgaria, Macedonia, the Torlak districts of Serbia), the "Mouse Day" (Bulgarian: Миши ден, Мишин ден) was celebrated on October 9 of the Julian calendar (corresponds to October 27 of the Gregorian calendar in the 20th and 21st centuries), the next day after the feast of St Demetrius. In the western Balkans (Bosnia, Croatia) the Mouse Day would usually be celebrated in the spring, during the Maslenitsa week or early in the Lent.
- Musser G, Amori G, Hutterer R, Kryštufek B, Yigit N & Mitsain G (2008). Mus musculus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
- Gregory SG, Sekhon M, Schein J, Zhao S, Osoegawa K, Scott CE, Evans RS et al. (2002-08-15). "A physical map of the mouse genome". Nature 418 (6899): 743–750. doi:10.1038/nature00957. PMID 12181558.
- Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium, Waterston RH, Lindblad-Toh K, Birney E, Rogers J, Abril JF, Agarwal P et al. (2002-12-05). "Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome". Nature 420 (6915): 520–562. doi:10.1038/nature01262. PMID 12466850.
- "GA mouse welfare assessment". National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research. Retrieved 29 July 2013.[dead link]
- Berry 1970, p. 222
- Berry 1970, p. 221
- Baker RO, Bodman GR, Timm RM (1994). "Rodent-Proof Construction and Exclusion Methods". In Hygnstrom SE, Timm RM, Larson GE. Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
- Lyneborg L (1971). Mammals of Europe. Blandford Press.
- Lawrence MJ, & Brown RW (1974). Mammals of Britain Their Tracks, Trails and Signs. Blandford Press.
- Hotchkiss AK, Vandenbergh JG; Vandenbergh (July 2005). "The anogenital distance index of mice (Mus musculus domesticus): an analysis". Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 44 (4): 46–8. PMID 16050669.
- Mayer JA, Foley J, De La Cruz D, Chuong CM, Widelitz R; Foley; de la Cruz; Chuong; Widelitz (November 2008). "Conversion of the nipple to hair-bearing epithelia by lowering bone morphogenetic protein pathway activity at the dermal-epidermal interface". The American Journal of Pathology 173 (5): 1339–48. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2008.070920. PMC 2570124. PMID 18832580.
- Greene, E.C. (1935). "Anatomy of the rat". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 27: 3. doi:10.2307/1005513. JSTOR 1005513.
- Siegel, M.I. (2005). "The tail, locomotion and balance in mice.". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 33 (1). doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330330113.
- Buck, C.W, Tolman N. and Tolman, W. (1925). "The tail as a balancing organ in mice". Journal of Mammalogy 6 (4): 267–271. doi:10.2307/1373415. JSTOR 1373415.
- Le Bars, Daniel; Gozario, M. Cadden, S.W. (1 December 2001). "Animal models of nociception". Pharmacological Reviews (American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics) 53 (4): 597–652. PMID 11734620. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Berry 1970, p. 225
- Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Rodrigo A. Medellín, ed. (2005). Contribuciones mastozoológicas en homenaje a Bernardo Villa. México, D.F. : UNAM, Instituto de Biología. pp. 160–161.
- Terszowski G, G et al. (2006-04-14). "Evidence for a Functional Second Thymus in Mice". Science 312 (5771): 284–7. doi:10.1126/science.1123497. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 16513945.
- Mitchell-Jones AJ, Amori G, Bogdanowicz W, Krystufek B, Reijnders PJH, Spitzenberger F, Stubbe M, Thissen JBM, Vohralik V, & Zima J (1999). The Atlas of European Mammals. T. & A. D. Poyser. ISBN 0-85661-130-1.
- Musser & Carleton 2005
- Prager EM, Orrego C and Sage RD (1998). "Genetic variation and phylogeography of Central Asian and other house mice, including a major new mitochondrial lineage in Yemen". Genetics 150 (2): 835–861. PMC 1460354. PMID 9755213.
- Bonhomme F, Miyashita N, Boursot, Catalan J and Moriwaki K (1989). "Genetic variation and polyphyletic origin in Japanese Mus musculus". Heredity 63 (3): 299–308. doi:10.1038/hdy.1989.102. PMID 2613534.
- Holland, Jennifer (July 2011). "40 Winks?". National Geographic 220 (10): 24.
- Tattersall FH, Smith RH & Nowell F (1997). "Experimental colonization of contrasting habitats by house mice". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 62: 350–8.
- Moro D and Morris K (2000). "Movements and refugia of Lakeland Downs short-tailed mice, Leggadina lakedownensis, and house mice, Mus domesticus, on Thevenard Island, Western Australia". Wildlife Research 27: 11–20. doi:10.1071/WR99016.
- Frynta, Daniel; Slábová, Markéta; Váchová, Hana; Volfová, Radka; Munclinger, Pavel (2005). "Aggression and commensalism in house mouse: a comparative study across Europe and the near east". Aggressive Behaviour 31 (3): 283–293. doi:10.1002/ab.15555.
- Gray, Samantha; Jane Hurst (1997). "Behavioural mechanisms underlying the spatial dispersion of commensal Mus domesticus and grassland Mus spretus". Animal Behavior 53 (3): 511–524. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0301.
- Wolff, RJ (1985). "Mating behaviour and female choice: their relation to social structure in wild caught house mice (Mus musculus) housed in a semi-natural environment". Journal of Zoology, London 207: 43–51. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1985.tb04914.x.
- Szenczi, Peter; Oxana Ba´nszegi, Zita Groo´, and Vilmos Altba¨cker; Groó, Zita; Altbäcker, Vilmos (2012). "Development of the social behavior of two mice species with contrasting social systems". Aggressive Behavior 38 (4): 288–297. doi:10.1002/ab.21431.
- Dobson, Stephen; Claude Baudoin (2002). "Experimental tests of spatial association and kinship in monogamous mice (Mus spicilegus) and polygynous mice (Mus musculus domesticus)". Canadian Journal of Zoology 80 (6): 980–986. doi:10.1139/z02-055.
- Gerlach, G (1996). "Emigration mechanisms in feral house mice: A laboratory investigation of the influence of social structure, population density, and aggression". Behavioral and Ecological Sociobiology 39 (3): 159–170. doi:10.1007/s002650050277.
- Smee, Lucy Odling (22 March 2007). "Mice made to see a rainbow of colours". Nature. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Calderone J.B., Jacobs G.H.; Jacobs (1995). "Regional variations in the relative sensitivity to UV light in the mouse retina". Visual Neuroscience 12 (3): 463–468. doi:10.1017/s0952523800008361. PMID 7654604.
- Yokohyama S., Shi Y.S.; Shi (2000). "Genetics and evolution of ultraviolet vision in vertebrates". FEBS Letters 486 (2): 167–172. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(00)02269-9. PMID 11113460.
- Neitz M., Neitz J.; Neitz (2001). "The uncommon retina of the common house mouse". Trends in Neuroscience 24 (5): 248–249. doi:10.1016/s0166-2236(00)01773-2.
- Kimoto, H; Haga, S; Sato, K; Touhara, K (Oct 2005). "Sex-specific peptides from exocrine glands stimulate mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons". Nature 437 (7060): 898–901. doi:10.1038/nature04033. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 16208374.
- Chamero, P et al. (December 2007). "Identification of protein pheromones that promote aggressive behaviour". Nature 450 (7171): 899–902. doi:10.1038/nature05997. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 18064011.
- Achiraman S & Archunan G, S; Archunan, G (Dec 2002). "Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus musculus): bioassay of identified compounds". J Biosci 27 (7): 679–86. doi:10.1007/BF02708376. ISSN 0250-5991. PMID 12571373.
- Rauschecker J.P., Tian B., Korte M. et al. (1992). "Crossmodal changes in the somatosensory vibrissa barrel system of visually deprived animals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 89 (11): 5063–5067. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.11.5063.
- Sokolov, V.E., Tikhonova, G.N. and Tikhonov, I.A., (1996). Role of sense systems in the behavior of Ryukyu mice. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya 2: 169–175
- Holy, TE; Guo, Z (December 2005). "Ultrasonic songs of male mice". PLoS Biol 3 (12): e386. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030386. PMC 1275525. PMID 16248680.
- Anon. "Mouse Husbandry, Breeding and Development". University of Carolina, Irvine, Transgenic Mouse Facility Guidelines. University of Carolina. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "Latest Mprize Winners". Andrzej Bartke Mprize for Longevity. Methuselah Foundation. 2003–2013. Retrieved 2013-04-02.
- Connor, Steve (31 Oct 2004). "Oldest mouse in captivity wins top science award". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 30 July 2013.
- "Reversal Prize". Methuselah Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- Boursot P, Din W, Anand R, Darviche D, Dod B, Von Deimling F, Talwar GP and Bonhomme F (1996). "Origin and radiation of the house mouse: mitochondrial DNA phylogeny". Journal of Evolutionary Biology 9 (4): 391–415. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.1996.9040391.x.
- Cucci T, Vigne J-D and Auffray J-C (2005). "First occurrence of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943) in the Western Mediterranean: a zooarchaeological revision of subfossil occurrences". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84 (3): 429–445. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00445.x.
- Gündüz I, Auffray J-C, Britton-Davidian J, Catalan J, Ganem G, Ramalhinho MG, Mathias ML and Searle JB (2001). "Molecular studies on the colonization of the Madeiran archipelago by house mice". Molecular Ecology 10 (8): 2023–9. doi:10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01346.x. PMID 11555245.
- "The History Of Fancy Mice". American Fancy Rat and Mouse Association. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- the Rat and Mouse Club of America
- See: The centre for Food Security and Public Health. Institute for International Co-operation and in Animal Biologics. Iowa State University. Ames, Iowa. 2010. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/lymphocytic_choriomeningitis.pdf
- Three weeks before presentation a mouse had bitten her finger. (…) Infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus after contact with rodents can cause viral meningitis. The acquired form of the disease is known to be self-limiting in immunocompetent patients. See: http://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/meningitis-na-muizenbeet/abstract
- Interim Guidance for Minimizing Risk for Human Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection Associated with Rodents See: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm54d729a1.htm
- Jamieson, D. J.; Kourtis, A. P.; Bell, M; Rasmussen, S. A. (2006). "Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: An emerging obstetric pathogen?". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 194 (6): 1532–6. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2005.11.040. PMID 16731068.
- Bonthius, D. J. (2012). "Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: An underrecognized cause of neurologic disease in the fetus, child, and adult". Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 19 (3): 89–95. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2012.02.002. PMID 22889536.
- A History of Bubonic Plague in the British Isles, page 15 by J. F. D. Shrewsbury, Camebridge University Press, 1970.
- See (only Dutch, from the Dutch equivalent of the US CDC): http://www.rivm.nl/Documenten_en_publicaties/Professioneel_Praktisch/Richtlijnen/Infectieziekten/LCI_richtlijnen/LCI_richtlijn_Leptospirose
- King, Caroline, ed. (1995). The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Auckland, N.Z.: Oxford University Press in association with the Mammal Society, New Zealand Branch. ISBN 0195583205.
- Wanless RM, Angel A, Cuthbert RJ, Hilton GM & Ryan PG; Angel; Cuthbert; Hilton; Ryan (2007). "Can predation by invasive mice drive seabird extinctions?". Biology Letters 3 (3): 241–4. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0120. PMC 2464706. PMID 17412667.
- Anon. "Mice: a case study". Biotechnology Australia. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- The mouse as vizier, sourced to: Emma Brunner-Traut, Tiergeschichten aus dem Pharaonenland, Mainz, Zabern, 2000.
- Plotnikova, Anna Arkadievna (Анна Аркадьевна Плотникова) (2004), Этнолингвистическая география Южной Славии (Ethnolinguistic Geography of the South Slav Lands) (in Russian), Moscow: Indrik, pp. 64–68, ISBN 5857592879
- Berry, R.J. (1970). "The natural history of the house mouse". Field Studies (Field Studies Council) 3: 219–262. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Superfamily Muroidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 894–1531. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
- Nyby J. (2001). "Ch. 1 Auditory communication in adults". In Willott, James F. Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 3–18.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mus musculus.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Mus musculus|
- House mouse at the National Center for Biotechnology Information
- Ensembl Mus musculus genome browser, from the Ensembl Project
- Vega Mus musculus genome browser, includes NOD mouse sequence and annotation
- Pictures, movies and applets showing the anatomy of Mus musculus, from www.digimorph.org
- Michael Purdy: "Researchers add mice to list of creatures that sing in the presence of mates"-Study of male mouse "song" with mouse song recording (MP3), by Washington University Medical School
- Arkive Photographs.Short text.
- High-Resolution Brain Maps and Brain Atlases of Mus musculus
- Nature Mouse Special 2002
- Biology of Laboratory Rodents by David G. Besselsen
- House Mouse Fact Sheet from the National Pest Management Association with information on habits, habitat and health threats
- Comprehensive house mouse information, including pictures, by the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- 'Fancy Mice', includes much behavioral and physiological information
- Some information on muricide
- Vocalizations during copulation