|Stylistic origins||Boogie, R&B, disco, hi-NRG, New wave, dub, electro, funk, jazz, soul, synthpop|
|Cultural origins||Early 1980s; Chicago|
|Typical instruments||Drum machine, personal computer, sampler, sequencer, synthesizer, turntables, keyboards|
|Derivative forms||Breakbeat hardcore, electroclash, eurobeat, techno|
|Acid house, balearic beat, deep house, diva house, electro swing, funky house, hardbag, liquid funk, microhouse, tribal house, vocal house
|Alternative dance, ambient house, Detroit techno, electro house, eurodance, French house, ghetto house, hip house, Latin house, neo soul, nu-disco, progressive house, tech house, Kuduro|
|Cancún, Chicago, France, Ibiza, Italy, New Jersey, New York, South Africa, United Kingdom|
|Notable artists and DJs|
House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in the American city of Chicago in the early 1980s. It was initially popularized circa 1984 in Chicago, but beginning in 1985, it fanned out to other major cities such as Baltimore, Detroit, Toronto, Mexico City, New York City, San Francisco, Boston, Montreal, Cancún, Manchester, Miami, London, and Paris. It then began to influence popular music in Europe, with songs such as "House Nation" by House Master Boyz and the Rude Boy of House (1987) and "Doctorin' the House" by Coldcut (1988) in the pop charts. Since the early to mid-1990s, house music has been infused in mainstream pop and dance music worldwide.
Early house music was generally dance-based music characterized by repetitive 4/4 beats, rhythms mainly provided by drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized basslines. While house displayed several characteristics similar to disco music, it was more electronic and minimalistic, and the repetitive rhythm of house was more important than the song itself. House music today, while keeping several of these core elements, notably the prominent kick drum on every beat, varies a lot in style and influence, ranging from the soulful and atmospheric deep house to the more minimalistic microhouse. House music has also fused with several other genres creating fusion subgenres, such as euro house, tech house, and electro house.
Many local Chicago house music artists suddenly found themselves with major label deals. House music proved to be a commercially successful genre and a more mainstream pop-based variation grew increasingly popular. Artists and groups such as Madonna, Janet Jackson, Björk, Kanye West, and C+C Music Factory incorporated the genre into their work. After enjoying significant success in the early to mid-90s, house music grew even larger during the second wave of progressive house (1999–2001). The genre has remained popular and fused into other popular subgenres, as the DJ Mag Top 100 DJs poll has been dominated by house DJs since the beginning of the polls. Today, house music remains popular in both clubs and in the mainstream pop scene while retaining a strong foothold on underground scenes across the globe.
- 1 Influences and precursors
- 2 Origins (1980s)
- 3 Regional scenes (1980s–1990s)
- 4 21st century
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Influences and precursors
Some disco songs incorporated sounds produced with synthesizers and drum machines, and some compositions were entirely electronic; examples include Giorgio Moroder's late 1970s productions such as Donna Summer's hit single "I Feel Love" from 1977, Cerrone's "Supernature" (1977), Yellow Magic Orchestra's synth-disco-pop productions from their self-titled album (1978), Solid State Survivor (1979), and several early 1980s disco-pop productions by the Hi-NRG group Lime.
Soul and disco influenced house music, plus mixing and editing techniques earlier explored by disco DJs, producers, and audio engineers like M&M-music, Walter Gibbons, Tom Moulton, Jim Burgess, Larry Levan, Ron Hardy, M & M, and others who produced longer, more repetitive, and percussive arrangements of existing disco recordings. Early house producers like Frankie Knuckles created similar compositions from scratch, using samplers, synthesizers, sequencers, and drum machines.
The electronic instrumentation and minimal arrangement of Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat (1982), an album of Indian ragas performed in a disco style, anticipated the sounds of acid house music, but it is not known to have had any influence on the genre prior to the album's rediscovery in the 21st century.
In the early 1980s, Chicago club & radio DJs were playing various styles of dance music, including older disco records, newer Italo disco, hip hop and electro funk tracks, as well as electronic pop music by Kraftwerk, Telex and Yellow Magic Orchestra, and recent danceable R&B productions in the genre now known as boogie. Some made and played their own edits of their favorite songs on reel-to-reel tape, and sometimes mixed in effects, drum machines, and other rhythmic electronic instrumentation.
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The hypnotic electronic dance song "On and On", produced in 1984 by Chicago DJ Jesse Saunders and co-written by Vince Lawrence, had elements that became staples of the early house sound, such as the Roland TB-303 bass synthesizer and minimal vocals as well as a Roland (specifically TR-808) drum machine and Korg (specifically Poly-61) synthesizer. It also utilized the bassline from Player One's disco record "Space Invaders" (1979). "On and On" is sometimes cited as the 'first house record', though other examples from around that time, such as J.M. Silk's "Music is the Key" (1985), have also been cited.
Starting in 1984, some of these DJs, inspired by Jesse Saunders' success with "On and On", tried their hand at producing and releasing original compositions. These compositions used newly affordable electronic instruments to emulate not just Saunders' song, but the edited, enhanced styles of disco and other dance music they already favored. These homegrown productions were played on Chicago-area radio and in local discothèques catering mainly to African-American and gay audiences. By 1985, although the exact origins of the term are debated, "house music" encompassed these locally produced recordings. Subgenres of house, including deep house and acid house, quickly emerged and gained traction.
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Deep house's origins can be traced to Chicago producer Mr Fingers's relatively jazzy, soulful recordings "Mystery of Love" (1985) and "Can You Feel It?" (1986). It moved house music away from its "posthuman tendencies back towards the lush" soulful sound of early disco music.
Acid house arose from Chicago artists' experiments with the squelchy Roland TB-303 bass synthesizer, and the style's origins on vinyl is generally cited as Phuture's "Acid Tracks" (1987). Phuture, a group founded by Nathan "DJ Pierre" Jones, Earl "Spanky" Smith Jr., and Herbert "Herb J" Jackson, is credited with having been the first to use the TB-303 in the house music context. The group's 12-minute "Acid Tracks" was recorded to tape and was played by DJ Ron Hardy at the Music Box, where Hardy was resident DJ. Hardy once played it four times over the course of an evening until the crowd responded favorably. The track also utilized a Roland TR-707 drum machine.
Club play from pioneering Chiago DJs like Ron Hardy and Lil Louis, local dance music record shops such as Importes, State Street Records, Loop Records, Gramaphone and the popular Hot Mix 5 shows on radio station WBMX-FM helped popularize house music in Chicago and among visiting DJs & producers from Detroit. Trax Records and DJ International Records, Chicago labels with wider distribution, helped popularize house music inside and outside of Chicago. One 1986 house tune called "Move Your Body" by Marshall Jefferson, taken from the appropriately titled "The House Music Anthem" EP, became a big hiot in Chicago and eventually worldwide. By 1986, UK labels were releasing house music by Chicago acts, and by 1987 house tracks by Chicago DJs and producers were appearing on and even topping the UK music chart.
Origins of the term
The term "house music" is widely cited to have originated as a reference to a Chicago nightclub called The Warehouse which existed from 1977 to 1983. The Warehouse was patronized primarily by black and Latino men, who came to dance to music played by the club's resident DJ Frankie Knuckles, a.k.a the "godfather of house". After the Warehouse closed in 1983, the crowds went to Knuckles' new club, The Power Plant. In the Channel 4 documentary Pump Up The Volume, Knuckles remarks that the first time he heard the term "house music" was upon seeing "we play house music" on a sign in the window of a bar on Chicago's South Side. One of the people in the car with him joked, "you know, that's the kind of music you play down at the Warehouse!", and then everybody laughed. South-Side Chicago DJ Leonard "Remix" Roy, in self-published statements, claims he put such a sign in a tavern window because it was where he played music that one might find in one's home; in his case, it referred to his mother's soul & disco records, which he worked into his sets. Farley Jackmaster Funk was quoted as saying "In 1982, I was DJing at a club called The Playground and there was this kid named Leonard 'Remix' Roy who was a DJ at a rival club called The Rink. He came over to my club one night, and into the DJ booth and said to me, 'I've got the gimmick that's gonna take all the people out of your club and into mine - it's called House music.' Now, where he got that name from or what made him think of it I don't know, so the answer lies with him."
Chip E.'s 1985 recording "It's House" may also have helped to define this new form of electronic music. However, Chip E. himself lends credence to the Knuckles association, claiming the name came from methods of labelling records at the Importes Etc. record store, where he worked in the early 1980s: bins of music that DJ Knuckles played at the Warehouse nightclub were labelled in the store "As Heard At The Warehouse", which was shortened to simply "House". Patrons later asked for new music for the bins, which Chip E. implies was a demand the shop tried to meet by stocking newer local club hits.
In a 1986 interview, Rocky Jones, the former club DJ who ran the D.J. International record label, doesn't mention Importes Etc., Frankie Knuckles, or the Warehouse by name, but agrees that "house" was a regional catch-all term for dance music, and that it was once synonymous with older disco music.
Larry Heard, a.k.a. "Mr. Fingers", claims that the term "house" reflected the fact that many early DJs created music in their own homes, using synthesizers and drum machines, including the Roland TR-808, TR-909, and the TB 303 Bassline synthesizer-sequencer. These synthesizers were used to create a house subgenre called acid house.
Juan Atkins, an originator of Detroit techno music, claims the term "house" reflected the exclusive association of particular tracks with particular clubs and DJs; those records helped differentiate the clubs and DJs, and thus were considered to be their "house" records. In an effort to maintain such exclusives, the DJs were inspired to create their own "house" records.
House also had an influence of relaying political messages to people who were considered to be outcasts of society. It appealed to those who didn't fit into mainstream American society and was especially celebrated by many black males. Frankie Knuckles once said that the Warehouse club in Chicago was like "church for people who have fallen from grace" The house producer Marshall Jefferson compared it to "old-time religion in the way that people just get happy and screamin'". Deep house was similar to many of the messages of freedom for the black community.
Regional scenes (1980s–1990s)
Detroit sound: 1986–1989
Detroit techno is an offshoot of Chicago house music. It was developed starting in the late 80s, one of the earliest hits being "Big Fun" by Inner City. Detroit techno developed as the legendary disc jockey The Electrifying Mojo conducted his own radio program at this time, influencing the fusion of eclectic sounds into the signature Detroit techno sound. This sound, also influenced by European electronica (Kraftwerk, Art of Noise), Japanese technopop (Yellow Magic Orchestra), early B-boy Hip-Hop (Man Parrish, Soul Sonic Force) and Italo Disco (Doctor's Cat, Ris, Klein M.B.O.), was further pioneered by Juan Atkins, Derrick May, and Kevin Saunderson, the "godfathers" of Detroit Techno.
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Derrick May a.k.a. "MAYDAY" and Thomas Barnett released "Nude Photo" in 1987 on May's label "Transmat Records", which helped kickstart the Detroit techno music scene and was put in heavy rotation on Chicago's Hot Mix 5 Radio DJ mix show and in many Chicago clubs. A year later, Transmat released what was to become one of techno and house music's classic anthems - the seminal track "Strings of Life". Transmat Records went on to have many more successful releases such as 1988's "Wiggin". As well, Derrick May had successful releases on Kool Kat Records and many remixes for a host of underground and mainstream recording artist.
Kevin Saunderson's company KMS Records contributed many releases that were as much house music as they were techno. These tracks were well received in Chicago and played on Chicago radio and in clubs. Blake Baxter's 1986 recording, "When we Used to Play / Work your Body", 1987's "Bounce Your Body to the Box" and "Force Field", "The Sound / How to Play our Music" and "the Groove that Won't Stop" and a remix of "Grooving Without a Doubt". In 1988, as house music became more popular among general audiences, Kevin Saunderson's group Inner City with Paris Gray released the 1988 hits "Big Fun" and "Good Life", which eventually were picked up by Virgin Records. Each EP / 12 inch single sported remixes by Mike "Hitman" Wilson and Steve "Silk" Hurley of Chicago and Derrick "Mayday" May and Juan Atkins of Detroit. In 1989, KMS had another hit release of "Rock to the Beat" which was a theme in Chicago dance clubs.
UK: 1986–early 1990s
With house music already massive on the 80s dance-scene it was only a matter of time before it would penetrate the UK pop charts. The record generally credited as the first house hit in the UK was Farley "Jackmaster" Funk's "Love Can't Turn Around" which reached #10 in the UK singles chart in September 1986.
In January 1987, Chicago artist Steve "Silk" Hurley's "Jack Your Body" reached number one in the UK, showing it was possible for house music to cross over. The same month also saw Raze enter the top 20 with "Jack the Groove", and several further house hits reached the top ten that year. Stock Aitken Waterman's productions for Mel and Kim, including the number-one hit "Respectable", added elements of house to their previous europop sound, and session group Mirage scored top-ten hits with "Jack Mix II" and "Jack Mix IV", medleys of previous electro and europop hits rearranged in a house style. Key labels in the rise of house music in the UK included:
- Jack Trax, which specialised in licensing US club-hits for the British market (and released an influential series of compilation albums)
- Rhythm King, which was set up as a hip hop label but also issued house records
- Jive Records' Club Records imprint
The tour in March 1987 of Knuckles, Jefferson, Fingers Inc. (Heard) and Adonis as the DJ International Tour boosted house in the UK. Following the number-one success of MARRS' "Pump Up The Volume" in October, the years 1987 to 1989 also saw UK acts like The Beatmasters, Krush, Coldcut, Yazz, Bomb The Bass, S-Express, and Italy's Black Box opening the doors to a house-music onslaught on the UK charts. Early British house- music quickly set itself apart from the original Chicago house sound; many of the early hits were based on sample montage, rap was often used for vocals (far more than in the US), and humor was frequently an important element.
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One of the early anthemic tunes, "Promised Land" by Joe Smooth, was covered and charted within a week by the Style Council. Europeans embraced house, and began booking legendary American house DJs to play at the big clubs, such as Ministry of Sound, whose resident, Justin Berkmann brought in Larry Levan.
The house scene in cities such as Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield and London were also provided with many underground Pirate Radio stations and DJs alike which helped bolster an already contagious, but otherwise ignored by the mainstream, music genre. The earliest and influential UK house and techno record labels such as Warp Records and Network Records (otherwise known as Kool Kat records) helped introduce American and later Italian dance music to Britain as well as promoting select UK dance music acts.
But house was also being developed on Ibiza, although no house artists or labels were coming from this tiny island at the time. By the mid-1980s a distinct Balearic mix of house was discernible. Several clubs like Amnesia with DJ Alfredo were playing a mix of rock, pop, disco and house. These clubs, fueled by their distinctive sound and Ecstasy, began to have an influence on the British scene. By late 1987, DJs like Trevor Fung, Paul Oakenfold and Danny Rampling were bringing the Ibiza sound to UK clubs like the Hacienda in Manchester, and in London clubs such as Shoom in Southwark, Heaven, Future and Spectrum.
In the U.S., the music was being developed to create a more sophisticated sound, moving beyond just drum loops and short samples. In Chicago, Marshall Jefferson had formed the house group Ten City Byron Burke, Byron Stingily & Herb Lawson(from "intensity"). New York–based performers such as Mateo & Matos and Blaze had slickly produced disco house tracks. In Detroit a proto-techno music sound began to emerge with the recordings of Juan Atkins, Derrick May and Kevin Saunderson.
Atkins, a former member of Cybotron, released Model 500 "No UFOs" in 1985, which became a regional hit, followed by dozens of tracks on Transmat, Metroplex and Fragile. One of the most unusual was "Strings of Life" by Derrick May, a darker, more intellectual strain of house. "Techno-Scratch" was released by the Knights Of The Turntable in 1984 which had a similar techno sound to Cybotron. The manager of the Factory nightclub, Tony Wilson, also promoted acid house culture on his weekly TV show. The Midlands also embraced the late 1980s house scene with illegal parties and more legal dance clubs such as The Hummingbird.
US: late 1980s–early 1990s
Back in America the scene had still not progressed beyond a small number of clubs in Chicago, Detroit, and New York. However, many independent Chicago-based record labels were making appearances on the Dance Chart with their releases. In the UK, any house song released by a Chicago-based label was routinely considered a must play at many clubs playing house music. Paradise Garage in New York City was still a top club. The emergence of Todd Terry, a pioneer of the genre, was important in America. His cover of Class Action's Larry Levan mixed "Weekend" demonstrated the continuum from the underground disco to a new house sound with hip-hop influences evident in the quicker sampling and the more rugged bass-line.
In the late 1980s, Nu Groove Records prolonged, if not launched the careers of Rheji Burrell & Rhano Burrell, collectively known as Burrell (after a brief stay on Virgin America via Timmy Regisford and Frank Mendez), along with basically every relevant DJ and Producer in the NY underground scene. The Burrell's are responsible for the "New York Underground" sound and are the undisputed champions of this style of house. Their 30+ releases on this label alone seems to support that fact. In today's market Nu Groove Record releases like the Burrells' enjoy a cult-like following and mint vinyl can fetch $100 U.S. or more in the open market.
The early 1990s additionally saw the rise in mainstream US popularity for house music. Pop recording artist Madonna released the house single "Vogue" in 1990, which became an international hit single and topped the US charts. The single is credited as helping to bring house music mainstream.
Influential gospel/R&B-influenced Aly-us released "Time Passes On" in 1993 (Strictly Rhythm), then later, "Follow Me" which received radio airplay as well as being played in clubs. Another U.S. hit which received radio play was the single "Time for the Perculator" by Cajmere, which became the prototype of ghetto house sub-genre. Cajmere started the Cajual and Relief labels (amongst others). By the early 1990s artists such as Cajmere himself (under that name as well as Green Velvet and as producer for Dajae), DJ Sneak, Glenn Underground and others did many recordings. The 1990s saw new Chicago house artists emerge such as DJ Funk, who operates a Chicago house record label called Dance Mania. Ghetto house and acid house were other house music styles that were also started in Chicago.
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In Britain, further experiments in the genre boosted its appeal. House and rave clubs like Lakota, Cream emerged across Britain, hosting house and dance scene events. The 'chilling out' concept developed in Britain with ambient house albums such as The KLF's Chill Out and Analogue Bubblebath by Aphex Twin. The Godskitchen superclub brand also began in the midst of the early 90's rave scene. After initially hosting small nights in Cambridge and Northampton, the associated events scaled up in Milton Keynes, Birmingham and Leeds.
A new indie dance scene also emerged in the 90's. In New York, bands such as Deee-Lite furthered house's international influence. Two distinctive tracks from this era were the Orb's "Little Fluffy Clouds" (with a distinctive vocal sample from Rickie Lee Jones) and the Happy Mondays' "Wrote for Luck" ("WFL") which was transformed into a dance hit by Vince Clarke.
In England, one of the few licensed venues The Eclipse attracted people from up and down the country as it was open until the early hours.
The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 was a government attempt to ban large rave dance events featuring music with "repetitive beats". There were a number of abortive "Kill the Bill" demonstrations. The Spiral Tribe at Castle Morten was probably the nail in the coffin for illegal raves, and forced through the bill, which became law, in November 1994.
The music continued to grow and change, as typified by Leftfield with "Release the Pressure", which introduced dub and reggae into the house sound, although Leftfield had prior releases, such as "Not forgotten" released in 1990 on Sheffield's Outer Rhythm records.
A new generation of clubs like, Liverpool's Cream and the Ministry of Sound were opened to provide a venue for more commercial sounds. Major record companies began to open "superclubs" promoting their own acts. These superclubs entered into sponsorship deals initially with fast food, soft drinks, and clothing companies. Flyers in clubs in Ibiza often sported many corporate logos. A new sub-genre, Chicago hard house, was developed by DJs such as Bad Boy Bill, DJ Lynnwood, DJ Irene, Richard "Humpty" Vission and DJ Enrie, mixing elements of Chicago house, funky house and hard house together.
Additionally, Producers such as George Centeno, Darren Ramirez, and Martin O. Cairo would develop the Los Angeles Hard House sound. Similar to gabber or hardcore techno from the Netherlands, this sound was often associated with the "rebel" culture of the time. These 3 producers are often considered "ahead of their time" since many of the sounds they engineered during the late 20th century became more prominent during the 21st century.
Towards the end of the 1990s and into the 2000s, producers like Daft Punk, Stardust, Cassius, St. Germain and DJ Falcon began producing a new sound out of Paris's house scene. Together, they laid the groundwork for what would be known as the French house movement. By combining the harder-edged-yet-soulful philosophy of Chicago house with the melodies of obscure funk, state-of-the-art production techniques and the sound of analog synthesizers, they began to create the standards that would shape practically all house music.
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Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley proclaimed August 10, 2005 to be "House Unity Day" in Chicago, in celebration of the "21st anniversary of house music" (actually the 21st anniversary of the founding of Trax Records, an independent Chicago-based house label). The proclamation recognized Chicago as the original home of house music and that the music's original creators "were inspired by the love of their city, with the dream that someday their music would spread a message of peace and unity throughout the world". DJs such as Frankie Knuckles, Marshall Jefferson, Paul Johnson and Mickey Oliver celebrated the proclamation at the Summer Dance Series, an event organized by Chicago's Department of Cultural Affairs.
This short loop demonstrates the style of a modern electro house track, including a house beat and "dirty" bass.
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It was during this decade that vocal house became firmly established, both in the underground and as part of the pop market, and labels such as Defected Records, Roule and Om were at the forefront of championing the emerging sound. In the mid-2000s, fusion genres such as electro house and fidget house emerged. This fusion is apparent in the crossover of musical styles by artists such as Dennis Ferrer and Booka Shade, with the former's production style having evolved from the New York soulful house scene and the latter's roots in techno.
Numerous live performance events dedicated to house music were founded during the course of the decade, including Shambhala Music Festival and major industry sponsored events like Miami's Winter Music Conference. The genre even gained popularity in the Middle East in cities such as Dubai & Abu Dhabi and at events like Creamfields.
2010s saw multiple new sounds in house music developed by numerous DJs. Sweden knew a prominence of snare-less "Swedish progressive house" with the emergence of Sebastian Ingrosso, Axwell, Steve Angello (These three formed a trio called Swedish House Mafia), Avicii, Alesso, etc. Netherlands brought together a concept of "Dirty Dutch", electro house subgenre characterized by very abrasive leads and darker arpeggios, with prominent DJs Chuckie, Hardwell, Laidback Luke, Afrojack, R3hab, Bingo Players, Quintino, Alvaro, Cedric Gervais, 2G, etc. Elsewhere, fusion genres derivative of 2000s progressive house returned to prominence, especially with the help of DJs Calvin Harris, Eric Prydz, Mat Zo, Above & Beyond and Fonzerelli in Europe, Deadmau5, Kaskade, Steve Aoki, Porter Robinson and Wolfgang Gartner in the US and Canada. The growing popularity of such artists led to the emergence of electro house and progressive house sounds (big room house) in popular music, such as Lady Gaga's single "Marry the Night" and the will.i.am and Britney Spears single "Scream and Shout". Big room house found increasing popularity since 2010, particularly through international dance music festivals such as Tomorrowland, Ultra Music Festival, and Electric Daisy Carnival.
- Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000). "The club DJ: a brief history of a cultural icon". UNESCO Courier (UNESCO): 47. "Around 1986/7, after the initial buzz surrounding house music in Chicago, it became clear that the major recording companies and media institutions were reluctant to market this music, associated with gay African Americans, on a mainstream level. House artists turned to Europe, chiefly London but also cities such as Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, Zurich, and Tel Aviv. ... A third axis leads to Japan where, since the late 1980s, New York club DJs have had the opportunity to play guest-spots."
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- Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000). "Youth's sonic forces: The club DJ: a brief history of a cultural icon". UNESCO Courier (UNESCO): 28. "House music, in particular, is often held up as a kind of banner of cultural diversity owing to its origins in black and Latino discos, where it ﬁrst found its audience. One could point to the 1980s, when African American producers / DJs, like Frankie Knuckles, Marshall Jefferson or DJ Pierre, began refining the all night dance floor workouts at underground gay and mixed clubs in New York, New Jersey and Chicago, like the legendary Warehouse from which house music derives its name. Or there is DJ Larry Levan, whose residence at New York's Paradise Garage not only defined a distinct sub-genre of its own ("garage" is slower and more gospel oriented than "house") but set the tone for today's raves—no alcohol, heavy drug use, a mixed, "up for it crowd" and loud, pulsating music for 15-hour stretches without a break."
- Melville, Caspar (July–August 2000). "Mapping the meanings of dance music". UNESCO Courier (UNESCO): 40. "house music was born in the black-latino urban gay clubs of the U.S."
- Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000). "The club DJ: a brief history of a cultural icon". UNESCO Courier (UNESCO): 46. "Another New York DJ, Frankie Knuckles, moved to Chicago, following an invitation to become the resident DJ at the Warehouse, a gay black club."
- George, Nelson (1986-06-21). "House Music: Will It Join Rap And Go-Go?". Billboard 99 (25): 27. Retrieved 2011-04-14. "The initial audience started out black and gay in Chicago, but the music has since attracted Hispanics and whites as well."
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- Chip E. (interviewee); Hindmarch, Carl (director) (2001). Pump Up The Volume. Channel Four. "If you were a DJ in Chicago, if you wanted to have 'the' records, there was only one place to go and that was Importes. This is where Importes was. People come in, they're looking for 'Warehouse music', and we would put, you know, 'As heard at the Warehouse' or 'As played at the Warehouse', and then eventually we just shortened that down to - because people also just in the vernacular, they started saying 'yeah, what's up with that 'House music' - now at this time they were talkin' about the old, old classics, the Salsoul, the Philly classics and such - so we put on the labels for the bins, we'd say 'House music'. And people would start comin' in eventually and just start askin', 'yeah, where's the new House music?'"
- George, Nelson (1986-06-21). "House Music: Will It Join Rap And Go-Go?". Billboard 99 (25): 27. Retrieved 2011-04-14. "The term 'house music' has become a generic phrase for modern dance-oriented music," says Jones. "At one time the phrase 'old house music' was used to refer to old disco music. Now 'house' is used to describe the new music.""
- Cowen, Andrew (1999-10-30). "SOUNDS AMAZING!; MUSIC LIVE Andrew Cowen previews the giant show at the NEC which offers great new ideas for musicians of all styles and all levels.". The Birmingham Post (UK). Retrieved 2007-08-11.
- Trask, Simon (December 1988). Future Shock (Juan Atkins Interview). Music Technology Magazine. Retrieved 2008-04-05. "The word 'house' comes from a record that you only hear in a certain club. The DJs would search out an import that was as obscure as possible, and that would be a house record. You'd hear a certain record only at the Powerplant, and that was Frankie Knuckles' house record. "But you couldn't really be guaranteed an exclusive on an import, 'cos even if there were only 10 or 15 copies in the country, another DJ would track one down. So the DJs came up with the concept of making their own house records. It was like 'hey, I know I've got an exclusive because I made the record."
- Simon Reynolds (19 June 2013). Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture. Routledge. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-136-78317-3.
- "Best selling singles of the 80s". Pure80spop.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
- "Chart Archive - 1980s Singles". EveryHit.com. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Bush, John. "Rockin' Robin - Bobby Day : Listen, Appearances, Song Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
- "CHICAGO MAYOR DECLARES "HOUSE UNITY DAY"". Remix (Penton Media, Inc.). 2005-08-03.
- Bidder, Sean (2002). Pump Up the Volume: A History of House Music, MacMillan. ISBN 0-7522-1986-3
- Bidder, Sean (1999). The Rough Guide to House Music, Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-432-5
- Brewster, Bill, & Frank Broughton 2000 Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey, Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3688-5 and in UK: 1999 / 2006, Headline.
- Kai Fikentscher 2000 "'You Better Work!' Underground Dance Music in New York City". Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6404-4
- Hewitt, Michael. Music Theory for Computer Musicians. 1st Ed. U.S. Cengage Learning, 2008. ISBN 978-1-59863-503-4
- Kempster, Chris (Ed) (1996). History of House, Castle Communications. ISBN 1-86074-134-7 (A reprinting of magazine articles from the 1980s and 90s)
- Mireille, Silcott (1999). Rave America: New School Dancescapes, ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-383-6
- Reynolds, Simon (1998). Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture, (UK title, Pan Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-35056-0), also released in U.S. as Generation Ecstasy : Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture (U.S. title, Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0-415-92373-5)
- Rizza Corrado, Trani Marco, "I love the nightlife"' Wax Production (Roma), 2010
- Shapiro, P., (2000), Modulations: A History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound, ISBN 1-891024-06-X.
- Snoman, Rick (2009). The Dance Music Manual: Tools, Toys, and Techniques — Second Edition: Chapter 11: House. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Press. p. 231–249.
- Rietveld, Hillegonda C. (1998). This is our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies, Ashgate. ISBN 1-85742-242-2
- House music at the Open Directory Project
- The History of House (2004) HouseKeeping: Funky House DJs from the UK
- Excerpt taken From the book, What Kind Of House Party Is This?
- History of House History of House music and legal MP3 DJ mixes.