House of Baux

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Original coat of arms of the House of Baux (Lords of Baux). Some authors, and local tradition, with a hagiographic aim, fancifully claimed that the family was descended from Balthazar, one of the three Magi (the 16-rayed star symbolizing the star of Bethlehem). Some, that they descended from the first kings of Armenia, the star signifying that they directly knew Jesus. The motto of the family was ‘Au Hasard Baltasar', as well as 'Jamais Vassal’ and ‘Semper Ardentius

The House of Baux is a French noble family from the south of France. It was one of the richest and most powerful families of Medieval Provence, known as the 'Race d’Aiglon'. They were independent Lords as castellan of Les Baux and Arles and wielded very considerable authority at local level. They held important fiefs and vast lands (Vienne, vicomte de Marseilles, Berry, Bruges, Montpellier, the principality of Orange).[1]

In Provençal, the word “Baux” ( "li Baou" in provencal) means escarpment/cliff, and refers to the natural fortress on which the family built their castle, the Château des Baux and the village that surrounded it. The word is also seen in Bau-maniere, Bau-baisse, Bau-mirane, Bau-Cous-temple. In provencal to be from les Baux, des Baux, was "de Baucio". The natural defense provided by the escarpment, the raised and protected mountain valley that allowed them to have a protected food supply, and the natural ridge of the Alpilles that allowed them to control all the approaches to the citadel of Les Baux and the surrounding countryside, including the passage up and down the Rhone, and the approaches from the Mediterranean, made that the fortress impervious to the military technology of the time.

Les Baux-de-Provence seen from the side, showing the natural fortress created by the escarpment. Without gunpowder, it was impregnable.

The family of des Baux exists today in Naples in the person of several noble families ("del Balzo") descended from younger sons who followed Charles of Anjou south.[2] After the death of Alix of Baux, the last sovereign of Baux, the chateaux and town were seized by King Rene, who gave it to his 2nd wife, Queen Jeanne of Laval. When Provence was united with the crown, almost 150 yrs of royal governors followed, including the lords, later counts and princes de Manville. Les Baux became a centre for Protestantism. Its unsuccessful revolt against the crown led Cardinal Richelieu in 1632 to order that the castle and its walls should be demolished. This was accomplished with the aid of cannon.

Lords of Baux[edit]

The earliest definite ancestor was one Pons (Poncius) (name could designate a trader from Greece) "Iuvenis" (the younger, meaning there was an older?). Pons The Younger was mentioned in 3 legal acts:[3]

  • 1st in the act of donation of 14 May 971 donating Montmajour to Boson & his wife Folcoare,
  • 2nd in 975 in the act of donation of land to St Etienne d'Arles, now called St. Trophime (Arch. du chap. d'Arles, liv. autent. f. 22)
  • 3rd with his wife Profecte in an act of donation in 981

The family descent then is:

This branch of the House of Baux was declared extinct in 1426. The domains were inherited by Counts of Provence.

See also: Rulers of Baux

Lords of Berre, Meyragues, Puyricard and Marignane[edit]

From this branch originated the family branches of the Lords of Berre, Lords of Meyrargues and Puyricard, who went extinct in 1349, and lords of Marignane, acquired by House of Valois-Anjou, as well as the Dukes of Andria.

Princes of Orange[edit]

When a branch of the lords of Baux married the heiress of the princes of Orange, they quartered their arms with those of the princes of Orange.

In 1417 the House of Ivrea or House of Châlon-Arlay succeeded as princes of Orange.

A brother of William I started the branch of the Lords of Courbezon (House of Baux-Courbezon), which went extinct in 1393. Another brother started the line of Lords of Suze, Solerieux and Barri (House of Baux-Suze-Solerieux-Barri), which went extinct and reverted afterwards to the counts of Orange.

Family Genealogy[edit]

The ancestors of the Lords of Baux[edit]

The ancestors of the Lords of Baux:[4]

Leibulf de Provence (vers 750-835)
  x Odda ?
  |
  | → Leibulf des Baux (middle of the 9th century).[5]
        x ??
        |
        | →  Pons d’Arles (end of the 9th century)
              x Blismodis de Mâcon[6]
              |
              | → Humbert, Bishop of Vaison-la-Romaine (890-933)
                   |
              | → Ison d’Arles (890-942),
                    x Princess ? of Benevento
                    |
                    | →  Lambert Ursus seigneurs de Reillanne
                    |     x Galburge de Bénévent
                    |     |
                    |     | →  Seigneurs de Reillanne
                    |
                    | →  Pons de Marseille (910-979), 
                         x   Judith de Bretagne,[a] daughter d'Alain II de Bretagne
                         |
                         | → Honoratus de Marseille(930-978), Bishop of Marseille
                         |
                         | →  William of Marseille (935-1004)
                         |    x Bellilde, daughter d’Arlulf de Marseille
                         |    |
                         |    | →  Vicomtes de Marseille
                         |                                 
                         x  Belletrude[b]
                         |
                         | →  (hyp) Pons de Fos (vers 945-1025)
                               x Profecta de Marignane
                               |
                               | →  Seigneurs de Fos
                               |
                               | →  (hyp) Hugues des Baux (981-1060) Blason Baux de Provence.svg
                                   x Inauris de Cavaillon (?)
                                   |
                                   | → Guillaume Hugues de Baux (1060–1095)Blason Baux de Provence.svg
                                        x Vierne
                                        |
                                        | → Raymond-Raimbaud des Baux (1095–1150)Blason Baux de Provence.svg
                                             x Étiennette de Gévaudan Aragon Arms.svg
                                             |
                                             | → Bertrand des Baux Blason Baux-Orange.svg
                                                  x Thiburge II d'Orange Blason Raymond IV des Baux.svg

Simplified Family Tree of the Lords of Baux[edit]

The family tree of the lords of Baux (per the references cited in the adjacent footnote, rather than footnote each person, as they are from all these sources): [7]


Pons the Younger "Iuventus", 945-1025
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hugh,981-1060, Lord of Baux
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Geoffrey I of Provence, 1013-1062,Count of Provence
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
William Hugo ,c. 1026 - c. 1105, Lord of Baux
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
William Bertrand, 1051-1094, Count of Provence Gerberga,1094-1118,Countess of Provence
 
Gilbert, Viscount of Gévaudan, Count of Arles,d.ca. 1110
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Raymond I, 1095-1150, Lord of Baux
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
Stephanie, d. c. 1160
The younger daughter. This marriage was the start of the Baussenque Wars over the succession to Provence
 
 
Dulcia, Countess of Provence, c. 1090–1127
 
Ramon Berenguer III "the Great", Count of Barcelona, c. 1082–1131
Aragon Arms.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hugh II, 1150-1170
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Iudicarus of Arborea, Sardinia, Vcte. des Baux to 1384
Bertrand I, Lord of Baux, 1130-1181
Count & from 1163 Prince of Orange
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
Tiburge d'Orange, died 1189
daughter & heiress of Raimbaud II d'Orange, Count of Orange
Blason Raymond IV des Baux.svg
 
Counts of Provence
Provence Arms.png
Armoiries Anjou Jérusalem.svgLorraine Arms 1430.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hugh III of Baux, 1173- 1240
Lord of Baux
Vcte of Marseille
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Bertrand II of Baux, died 1201
co-Prince of Orange
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
William I of Baux,?-1218
Prince of Orange
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Barrale Viscountess of Marseille died 1234
d.& heiress of Barral, Vcte of Marseilles & Maria of Montpellier, d. of Eudocia Commena (d.<1201)
Blason Marseille (vicomté).svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Barral I of Baux,1217-1270
Lord of Baux
Vcte of Marseille
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Raymond II of Baux,d.1236
Vcte of Marseille
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Raymond I of Baux, 1202-1282
co-Prince of Orange
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
William II of Baux,1218-1239
co-Prince of Orange
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Bertrand II of Baux,1244-1305
Lord of Baux
Vcte of Marseille
1st Count d'Avellino (Naples) 1278
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Bertrand III of Baux, Sg Meyrargues et Puyricard +1266
Line of Sg de Meyrargues et de Puyricard, ended 1352 in the male line.
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Gilbert of Baux, Sg sg de Marignane
Line of sg de Marignane, line continues to this day in Provence
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
William of Baux,[a] Sg de Berre +1265/1266
dukes d'Andria(Naples). "del Balzo" (Naples) exists, lines 1. dukes of Capriglianode, and 2. dukes of Presenzano
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
Raymond of Baux, Vcte of Berre
No descendants
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
Bertrand IV of Baux, died 1314
4th-Prince of Orange
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
William IV of Baux, d. <1281
co-Prince of Orange
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
William III of Baux, died 1256/7
co-Prince of Orange, Sg Courthézon
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
Raymond II of Baux, died 1256/7
co-Prince of Orange, sg Courthézon, et Suze, Séguret, Sérignan, Camaret
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
m.1273 Eléonore de Genève
Lu blason.jpg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Raymond I of Baux,1268-1321
Lord of Baux
Vcte of Marseille
Count d'Avellino (Naples),Sénéchal de Provence 1315, Régent de Naples en 1295
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Hugh, assassinated Milan 1302, Sg de Loriol, Sénéchal of Piémont, Vicaire Général Lombardy, no descendants
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Barral II of Baux, 1301-1331, Sg de Loreto
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Agoult de Baux, d.1346/7, Sg. de Caromb, Brantes, Le Barroux, St Léger, Sénéchal Beaucaire, and Nimes 1340, Toulouse/Albi 1342, Cap. gén. en Languedoc
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
 
 
 
Raymond IV of Baux, died 1340
5th Prince of Orange
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
 
 
 
Bertrand III of Baux,[b] died 1305
co-Prince of Orange, Sg Courthézon
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
Raymond III of Baux,[c] d.ca.1339
co-Prince of Orange, 2nd sg de Suze, & Bari
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hugh II of Baux, 1311-1351
Lord of Baux
Vcte of Marseille
Count d'Avellino (Naples), Sénéchal de Provence 1343,Grand Admiral of Naples
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
 
Bertrand des Baux, d. 1355, Seig of Caromb
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Dragobert des Baux, 1327/8-1340, sg de Villefranche
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Raymond des Baux, 1328-1381, Sg of Caromb, & c.
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
Amiel des Baux, d. 1375, Sg of Caromb, & c.
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
Raymond V of Baux, died 1393
6th Prince of Orange
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
Bertrand of Baux d.1380
Sg. of Gigondas, Suze,Condorcet
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
Guiges of Baux d.1390
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
Guillaume of Baux d.1390
Sg of Camaret, Travaillan, Condorcet
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
m. Jeanne de Genève[8]
Lu blason.jpg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antoine of Baux, d. 1374, Sg of Aubagne
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
Robert of Baux,d.1354
Lord of Baux
Vcte of Marseille
Count d'Avellino
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Raymond II of Baux, 1331-1372
Lord of Baux
Vcte of Marseille
Count d'Avellino
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
Francis of Baux, d. 1390, Sg of Aubagne
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mary of Baux-Orange, died 1417
7th Princess of Orange
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
William of Baux, d. 1427Sg. of St-Roman de Malegarde
Blason Baux-Orange.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John III of Châlon, lord of Arlay, died 1418
Blason gueules-bande or.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John of Baux, 1372-1375
posthumous child
 
Alix of Baux,[d] 1367-1426
last sovereign Lady of the indep. state of Baux
Countess d'Avellino
Blason Baux de Provence.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Châlon & Nassau Princes of Orange
Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg

[9]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Line of the dukes d'Andria and Nardo, counts of Squillace, princes of Tarento (in Naples) and Achaïa (Greece). Elder branch ended in 1530 in the male line. A younger branch survives in Naples as the "del Balzo" in multiple branches, as dukes of Capriglianode, another as counts del Balzo (died out 1932) and another as the dukes of Presenzano.del Balzo di Presenzano, Gioacchino. "GENEALOGY Maison del Balzo/des Baux, with bibliography cited there". Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  2. ^ a b Sg Courthézon, gave his rights to the principality to Raymond IV for this lordship. One male line died out c.1372, the other two lead to the counts d'Alessano,and counts d'Alessano, including the Orsini des Baux, died out by 1550.del Balzo di Presenzano, Gioacchino. "GENEALOGY Maison del Balzo/des Baux, with bibliography cited there". Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  3. ^ Gave his rights to his brother. Male line died out c. 1409. del Balzo di Presenzano, Gioacchino. "GENEALOGY Maison del Balzo/des Baux". Retrieved 2012-08-28.  del Balzo di Presenzano, Gioacchino. "GENEALOGY Maison del Balzo/des Baux, with bibliography cited there". Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  4. ^ She was married to Odon de Villars and Conrad IV de Furstemberg. Her uncle, on her mother's side, Raymond de Turenne used the fortress of Baux to wage war on the counts of Provence. On her death, the lordship of Baux was seized by King Rene, the count of Provence and given to his wife, Jeanne of Laval, thus ending its independence."Alix des Baux". *Paulet, l'Abbe L. (1986). Les Baux et Castillon: Histoire des communes des Baux, de Paradou, de Maussane, et de Mouries. , Place de l'Eglise, 13200 Raphele-les-Arles: Marcel Petit. 
  1. ^ Grew 1947, p. 5(specifically & on to pg 16).
  2. ^ del Balzo, Gioacchino. "GENEALOGY Maison del Balzo/des Baux". Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  3. ^
    • Paulet, l'Abbe L. (1986). Les Baux et Castillon: Histoire des communes des Baux, de Paradou, de Maussane, et de Mouries. , Place de l'Eglise, 13200 Raphele-les-Arles: Marcel Petit. 
  4. ^ Genealogy works:
    • Georges de Manteyer, La Provence du premier au douzième siècle, études d'histoire et de géographie... (1908),
    • Juigné de Lassigny, Généalogie des vicomtes de Marseille...,
    • Fernand Cortez, Les grands officiers royaux de Provence au moyen-âge listes chronologiques...,
    • Papon, de Louis Moréri, du marquis de Forbin, Monographie de la terre et du château de Saint-Marcel, près Marseille: du Xe au XIXe siècle... ("Monograph of the land and the castle of Saint-Marcel, near Marseille, from the tenth to the nineteenth century ..."), Marseille, 1888
    • J. Berge, Origines rectifiées des maisons féodales Comtes de Provence, Princes d'Orange ..., France-Riviera, 1952
    • Poly, Jean-Pierre, La Provence et la société féodale (879-1166), Paris: Bordas, 1976,
    • Jacques Saillot, Le Sang de Charlemagne...
    Sources also on the Vicomtes de Marseille:
    • Édouard Baratier, Ernest Hildesheimer et Georges Duby, Atlas historique...
    • and the table of Henry de Gérin-Ricard, Actes concernant les vicomtes de Marseille et leurs descendants...
  5. ^ *Cook, Theodore Andrea, Sir, 1867-1928 (1905). Twenty-five great houses of France; the story of the noblest French chateaux. London: Offices of "Country Life" [etc.] p. 127. "The first Count of Les Baux, whose name alone we know, was Leibulf, whose son Pons, or Poncius, owned large lands in Argence Old Provence" 
  6. ^ Blismodis de Mâcon
  7. ^
    • Grew, Marion Ethel (1947). The House of Orange. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. 
    • Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press. 
    • de Pontbriant, A. (1891). Histoire de la principaute d'Orange: suivre de lettres inedites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc. Avignon: Seguin freres. 
    • Paulet, l'Abbe L. (1986). Les Baux et Castillon: Histoire des communes des Baux, de Paradou, de Maussane, et de Mouries. , Place de l'Eglise, 13200 Raphele-les-Arles: Marcel Petit. 
    • Schwennicke, Detlev (1989). Europäiche Stammtafeln, Stammtafeln der Europäichen Staaten, Neue Folge, Volume III, Part 4, Das feudale Frankreich und sein Einfluß auf die Welt des Mittelalters. Marburg: Verlag J.A. Stargardt. pp. 745, 748, 751, & 752. 
    • "biographies on personages below in French Wikipedia (and English) Wikipedia". 
    • "Princes of Orange, 1171-1584AD". 
    Genealogy works:
    • Gioacchino del Balzo di Presenzano, http://www.delbalzo.net/genealogia2.htm GENEALOGY Maison del Balzo/des Baux extensive bibliography
    • G.Noblemaire, Histoire de la Maison des Baux,Parigi: 1912 and 1975
    • J.Dunbabin, Charles I of Anjou,London/New York: 1998
    • E.Leonard,Les Angevins de Naples,Paris: 1954
    • Almanach of Gotha, 1888-1943
    • F. Mazel,La Noblesse et l’Eglise en ProvenceFin X – debut XIV siecle,L’Exemple des familles d’Agoult-Simiane,des Baux et de Marseilles,CTHS – Paris: 2002
    • H.Aliquot et R.Merceron,Armorial d’Avignon et Du Comtat Venaissin, Avignon:1987
    • Cambridge Medieval History, Volumes I – IX, Cambridge: 1911
    • Cambridge Medieval History, Vol II,III, IV ,Revised Edition 1996 -2003
    • Cambridge Modern History, Volumes I-XII , Cambridge: 1962-63
  8. ^ Grew 1947, p. 16.
  9. ^
    • Paulet, l'Abbe L. (1986). Les Baux et Castillon: Histoire des communes des Baux, de Paradou, de Maussane, et de Mouries. , Place de l'Eglise, 13200 Raphele-les-Arles: Marcel Petit. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Grew, Marion Ethel (1947). The House of Orange. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. 

External links[edit]