House of Bonaparte

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House of Bonaparte
Arms of the French Empire2.svg
Country French Empire
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Spain
Kingdom of Westphalia
Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom of Naples
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Titles Emperor of the French
Emperor in Elba
King of Italy
King of Spain
King of Holland
King of Westphalia
King of Naples
King of Rome (courtesy title only)
Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Founded 1804
Founder Napoleon I, Emperor of the French
Final ruler Napoleon III, Emperor of the French
Current head Disputed:
Charles, Prince Napoléon or
Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon
Dissolution 1815: Bourbon Restoration
1870: Defeat in Franco-Prussian War
Ethnicity Corsican (originally Tuscany)
later French
Cadet branches Prince Canino Line (extinct)
Prince Napoléon Line

The House of Bonaparte was an imperial and royal European dynasty founded by Napoleon I in 1804, a French military leader who rose to notability out of the French Revolution and transformed the French Republic into the First French Empire within five years of his coup d'état. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories during the Napoleonic Wars. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, founding the dynasty.

The House of Bonaparte formed the Imperial House of France during the French Empire together with some non-Bonaparte family members. In addition to holding the title of Emperor of the French, the Bonaparte dynasty held various other titles and territories during the Napoleonic Wars, including their ancestral Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Kingdom of Holland and the Kingdom of Naples. The dynasty was in a position of power for around a decade until the Napoleonic Wars began to take their toll. Making very powerful enemies such as Austria, United Kingdom, Russia and Prussia, as well as royalist (particularly Bourbon) restorational movements in France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Sardinia, the dynasty eventually collapsed under its own weight.

During the reign of Napoleon I, the Imperial Family consisted of the Emperor's immediate relations – his wife, son, siblings and some other close relatives, namely Joachim Murat, Joseph Fesch and Eugène de Beauharnais.

Between the years 1852 and 1870 there was a Second French Empire, again a member of the Bonaparte dynasty would rule; Napoleon III the son of Louis Bonaparte. However after the Franco-Prussian War, the dynasty was again ousted from the Imperial Throne. Since that time there has been a series of pretenders, supporters of the Bonaparte family's claim to the Throne of France are known as Bonapartists. Current head Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon is ironically from a Bourbon mother.

Italian Origins[edit]

The Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family were from minor Italian nobility who held most of their property in the hill town of San Miniato near Florence, Italy. The name derives from Italian, buona, "good" and parte, "part" or "side".

After settling in Florence the family enjoyed a relationship with the then ruling Medici family. Jacopo Buonaparte was a friend and advisor to Medici Pope Clement VII. Jacopo was also a witness to and wrote an account of the sack of Rome, which is one of the most important historical documents recounting that event.[1] Two of Jacopo's nephews, Pier Antonio Buonaparte and Giovanni Buonaparte, however, took part in the 1527 Medici rebellion, after which they were banished from Florence and later were restored by Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence. Jacopo's brother Benedetto Buonaparte maintained political neutrality.[2]

The family later separated into two branches; One stayed in San Miniato, and the other moved to Sarzana. Buonaparte-Sarzana, Nobili di Sarzana had been compelled to leave Florence due to the defeat of the Ghibellines. A member of the Sarzana branch and ancestor to Napoleon, Francesco Buonaparte came to Corsica in 16th century and the island was in Genoese possession.

The Buonaparte tomb lies in the Church of San Francesco in San Miniato.

The last member of the Italian branches was a canon named Gregoire Bonaparte, who died in 1803 leaving Napoleon as heir.[3]

Imperial House of France[edit]

Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1801), by Jacques-Louis David.
Imperial coat of arms
The Four Napoleons

Napoleon is the most prominent name associated with the Bonaparte family because he conquered much of the Western world during the early part of the 19th century. He was elected as First Consul of France on 10 November 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, and president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. He was crowned Emperor of the French and ruled from 1804–1814, 1815.

Following his conquest of most of Western Europe, Napoleon I made his elder brother Joseph (1768–1844) king first of Naples (1806–1808) and then of Spain (1808–1813), his third brother Louis (1778–1846) King of Holland (1806–1810) (subsequently forcing his abdication after his failure to subordinate Dutch interests to those of France) and his youngest brother Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860) King of Westphalia, the short-lived realm created from some of the states of northwestern Germany (1807–1813).

Napoleon's son Napoléon François Charles Joseph (1811–1832) was created King of Rome (1811–1814) and was later styled Napoléon II by loyalists of the dynasty, though he only ruled for two weeks after his father's abdication. Louis-Napoléon (1808–1873), son of Louis, was President of France in 1848–1852 and Emperor in 1852–1870, reigning as Napoleon III; his son, Napoléon, Prince Imperial (1856–1879) died fighting the Zulus in Natal, South Africa. With his death, the family lost much of its remaining political appeal, though claimants continue to assert their right to the imperial title. A political movement for Corsican independence surfaced in the 1990s which included a Bonapartist restoration in its programme.

Crowns held by the family[edit]

Emperors of the French[edit]

Kings of Holland[edit]

  • Louis I (1806–1810)
  • Louis II (1810), also Grand Duke of Berg (1809–1813)

King of Naples[edit]

King of Westphalia[edit]

King of Spain[edit]

Grand Duchess of Tuscany[edit]

The family tree[edit]

French Monarchy -
Bonaparte Dynasty
Grandes Armes Impériales (1804-1815)2.svg

Napoleon I
Children
   Napoleon II
Siblings
   Joseph, King of Spain
   Lucien, Prince of Canino
   Elisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
   Louis, King of Holland
   Pauline, Princess of Guastalla
   Caroline, Queen of Naples
   Jérôme, King of Westphalia
Nephews and nieces
   Princess Zénaïde
   Princess Charlotte
   Prince Charles Lucien
   Prince Louis Lucien
   Prince Pierre Napoléon
   Prince Napoléon Charles
   Prince Napoléon Louis
   Napoleon III
   Prince Jérôme Napoléon
   Prince Jérôme Napoléon Charles
   Prince Napoléon
   Princess Mathilde
Grandnephews and -nieces
   Prince Joseph
   Prince Lucien Cardinal Bonaparte
   Prince Roland
   Princess Jeanne
   Prince Jerome
   Prince Charles
   Napoléon (V) Victor
   Maria Letizia, Duchess of Aosta
Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Princess Marie
   Princess Marie Clotilde
   Napoléon (VI) Louis
Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Napoléon (VII) Charles
   Princess Catherine
   Princess Laure
   Prince Jérôme
Great Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Princess Caroline
   Jean Christophe, Prince Napoléon
Napoleon II
Napoleon III
Children
   Napoléon (IV), Prince Imperial

Carlo-Maria (Ajaccio, 1746–Montpellier, 1785) married Maria Letizia Ramolino (Ajaccio, 1750–Rome, 1836) in 1764. He was a minor official in the local courts. They had eight children:

  1. Joseph Bonaparte (Corte, 1768–Florence, 1844), King of Naples, then King of Spain, married Julie Clary, sister of Napoleon's childhood sweetheart, Désirée, who was to become the wife of General Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (later Charles XIV of Sweden)
  2. Napoléon (I) Bonaparte (1769–1821) Emperor of the French
  3. Lucien Bonaparte (1775–1840) Roman Prince of Canino and Musignano
  4. Maria-Anna Elisa Bonaparte (1777–1820), Grand-Duchess of Tuscany, married Félix Bacciochi Levoy, Prince of Lucca
    • Marie-Laetitia Bonaparte Bacciochi Levoy
  5. Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846), King of Holland, married Hortense de Beauharnais, Napoleon's stepdaughter
  6. Maria Paola or Marie Pauline Bonaparte (1780–1825) Princess and Duchess of Guastalla, married in 1797 to French General Charles Leclerc and later married Camillo Borghese, 6th Prince of Sulmona.
  7. Maria Annunziata Caroline Bonaparte (1782–1839) married Joachim Murat, Marshal of France, Grand Duke of Berg, then King of Naples
  8. Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860), King of Westphalia


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carlo Buonaparte
(1746–1785)
 
Letizia Ramolino
(1750–1836)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5
 
4
 
6
 
7
 
 
 
 
 
8
 
Lucien Bonaparte
(1775–1840)
m.(2) Alexandrine de Bleschamp
 
 
Joseph Bonaparte
(1768–1844)
m. Julie Clary
 
Marie Louise of Austria
(1791–1847)
 
Napoléon I
(1769–1821)
 
Joséphine de Beauharnais
(1763–1814)
 
Alexandre de Beauharnais
(1760–1794)
 
 
 
 
 
Elisa Bonaparte
(1777–1820)
m. Félix Bacciochi
 
Pauline Bonaparte
(1780–1825)
m.(1) Charles Leclerc
m.(2) Camillo Borghese
 
Caroline Bonaparte
(1782–1839)
m. Joachim Murat
 
Betsy Patterson
(1785–1879)
 
Jérôme Bonaparte
(1784–1860)
 
Catharina of Württemberg
(1783–1835)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Napoléon II
(1811–1832)
 
 
Eugène de Beauharnais
(1781–1824)
m. Augusta of Bavaria
 
Hortense de Beauharnais
(1783–1837)
 
Louis Bonaparte
(1778–1846)
 
4 children
 
 
 
 
 
Achille Murat
(1801–1847)
m. Catherine Willis Gray
 
 
Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte
(1805–1870)
m. Susan May Williams
 
Jérôme Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
(1814–1847)
 
Mathilde Bonaparte
(1820–1904)
m. Anatoly Demidov, Prince of San Donato
 
Prince Napoléon Bonaparte
(1822–1891)
m. Marie Clothilde of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte
(1803–1857)
 
Zénaïde Bonaparte
(1801–1854)
 
Julie Joséphine Bonaparte
(b.&d. 1796)
 
Charlotte Bonaparte
(1802–1839)
 
Napoléon Louis Bonaparte
(1804–1831)
 
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
(1802–1807)
 
Napoléon III
(1808–1873)
m.Eugénie de Montijo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II
(1830–1893)
m. Caroline Edgar
 
Charles Bonaparte
(1851–1921)
m. Ellen Channing Day
 
Napoléon V Victor
(1862–1926)
m. Clémentine of Belgium
 
Napoléon Louis Joseph Jérôme Bonaparte
(1864–1932)
 
Maria Letizia Bonaparte
(1866–1926)
m. Amadeo of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Joseph Lucien Bonaparte
(1824–1865)
 
Lucien Cardinal Bonaparte
(1828–1895)
 
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
(1839–1899)
 
10 others
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Napoléon IV Eugène
(1856–1879)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marie Clothilde Bonaparte
(1912–1996)
 
Napoléon VI Louis
(1914–1997)
m. Alix de Foresta
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zénaïde Bonaparte
(1860–1862)
 
Mary Bonaparte
(1870–1947)
 
Eugénie Bonaparte
(1872–1949)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Napoléon VII Charles
(b. 1950)
 
Catherine Elisabeth Bonaparte
(b. 1950)
 
Laure Clémentine Bonaparte
(b. 1952)
 
Jérôme Xavier Bonaparte
(b. 1957)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Caroline Bonaparte
(b. 1980)
 
Jean-Christophe Napoléon
(b. 1986)
 
Sophie Cathérine Bonaparte
(b. 1992)

Bonaparte arms[edit]

The arms of the Bonaparte family were: Gules two bends sinister between two mullets or. In 1804 Napoleon I changed the arms to Azure an imperial eagle or. The change applied to all members of his family except for his brother Lucien and his nephew, the son from Jerome's first marriage.

2011 DNA research[edit]

According to a study in 2011, Napoleon Bonaparte, and therefore all the Bonaparte (males only), belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (E-M34*). This haplogroup, rare in Europe, has its highest concentration in Ethiopia and in the Near East (Jordan, Yemen). According to the authors of the study, "Probably Napoléon also knew his remote oriental patrilineal origins, because Francesco Buonaparte (the Giovanni son), who was a mercenary under the orders of the Genoa Republic in Ajaccio in 1490, was nicknamed The Maure of Sarzane ".[4]

Living Members[edit]

The headship of the family is in dispute between Charles, Prince Napoléon, born 1950, great-great-grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte by his second marriage; and his son Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon (born 1986) who was appointed heir in the will of his grandfather Louis, Prince Napoléon. The only other male member of the family is Charles' recently married brother, Prince Jérôme Napoléon (born 1957). There are no remaining descendants in the male line from any other of Napoleon's brothers. There are, however, numerous descendants of Napoleon's illegitimate, but recognized son Walewski from his union with Marie, Countess Walewski. Of these include the Wattier family and its union with the Bonaparte family. The later descendants were the Peschongs and Herrs. A descendant of Napoleon's sister Caroline Bonaparte is actor René Auberjonois.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jacopo Bonaparte: Sac de Rome. Écrit EN 1527 par Jacques Bonaparte. Témoin oculaire, hrsgg. by Bonaparte, Napoléon Louis, Florenz 1850
  2. ^ Joshua F. Drake, The Part-books of a Florentine Ex-Patriate: new light on Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Ms. Magl. XIX 164–7, Early Music (OUP), Vol. 33, no. 4 (Oct. 2005), pp. 639–646. [1]
  3. ^ Burke, Sir Bernard (1869). Vicissitudes of Families. Great Britian: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dye. 
  4. ^ Haplogroup of the Y Chromosome of Napoléon the First, Lucotte 2011

External links[edit]

House of Bonaparte
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as King of France
Ruling House of the French Empire
1804–1814
Succeeded by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as King of France
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Orléans
Ruled as King of the French
Ruling House of the French Empire
1852–1870
Empire Abolished
Third French Republic Declared
Preceded by
House of Habsburg
Ruled as Nominal King of Italy
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Italy
1805–1814
Succeeded by
House of Habsburg
Ruled as King of Lombardy-Venetia
Preceded by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as Kings of Spain and Naples
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Naples
1806–1808
Succeeded by
House of Murat
(In Naples
Reverted back to Spanish Bourbons in 1815)

House of Bourbon
(In Spain)
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Spain
1808–1813
Preceded by
New Creation
Succeeded the Batavian Republic
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Holland
1806–1810
Kingdom Abolished
Part of the French Empire
Kingdom of the Netherlands created in 1815
Preceded by
New Creation
Formed from the territories ceded by Prussia in Peace of Tilsit
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Westphalia
1807–1813
Kingdom Abolished
Dissolved after Battle of Leipzig
Status quo of 1806 restored