House of Hanover

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This article is about the German royal dynasty. For other uses, see Hanover House.
For Hanover College, whose alumni are known as Hanoverians, see Hanover College.
House of Hanover
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover.svg
Country Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Parent house
Titles etc., etc., etc.
Founded 1635 - George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Current head Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover
Dissolution

United Kingdom:
1901 - Death of Queen Victoria ends the British branch in the agnatic line; semi-Salic law ends personal union of Hanover with the United Kingdom in 1837, upon death of her uncle William IV.

Hanover:
1866 - George V of Hanover lost the territory to Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War

Brunswick:
1918 - Ernest Augustus of Brunswick forced to abdicate after German defeat in World War I
Ethnicity German

The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians /ˌhænəˈvɪərɪənz/) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Braunschweig-Lüneburg), the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It succeeded the House of Stuart as monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714 and held that office until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. They are sometimes referred to as the House of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Hanover line.

The House of Hanover is a younger branch of the House of Welf, which in turn is the senior branch of the House of Este.

Queen Victoria was the granddaughter of George III and was an ancestor of most major European royal houses. She arranged marriages for her children and grandchildren across the continent, tying Europe together; this earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover; her son King Edward VII belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father, Albert, Prince Consort. Under semi-Salic law, Victoria could not inherit the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchies unless the entire male line became extinct; those possessions passed to the next eligible male heir, her uncle Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, the Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale—the fifth son of George III.

The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover.

History[edit]

George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover. When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the principalities of Calenberg and Göttingen, and in 1636 he moved his residence to Hanover. His son, Duke Ernest Augustus, was elevated to prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. Ernest Augustus's wife, Sophia of the Palatinate, was declared heiress of the throne of Great Britain (then England and Scotland) by the Act of Settlement of 1701, which decreed Roman Catholics could not accede to the throne. Sophia was at that time the senior eligible Protestant descendant of James I of England.

Hanover monarchs: Great Britain and the United Kingdom[edit]

Ernest Augustus and Sophia's son, George I became the first British monarch of the House of Hanover.[1]:13 The dynasty provided six British monarchs:

Of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland:

Of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland:

George I, George II, and George III also served as electors and dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, informally, Electors of Hanover (cf. personal union). From 1814, when Hanover became a kingdom, the British monarch was also King of Hanover.

In 1837, however, the personal union of the thrones of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended. Succession to the Hanoverian throne was regulated by semi-Salic law (agnatic-cognatic), which gave priority to all male lines before female lines, so that it passed not to Queen Victoria but to her uncle, the Duke of Cumberland.[1]:13,14 In 1901, when Queen Victoria died, her son and heir Edward VII became the first British Monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward taking his family name from that of his father, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.[1]:14

Kings of Hanover after the breakup of the personal union[edit]

British Royalty
House of Hanover
George I
George II
Sophia, Queen in Prussia
George II
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
Princess Amelia
Princess Caroline
Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Cassel
Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Grandchildren
Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick
George III
Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany
Princess Elizabeth of Wales
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn
Princess Louisa of Wales
Prince Frederick of Wales
Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Great-grandchildren
Princess Sophia of Gloucester
Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
George III
George IV
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
William IV
Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Princess Augusta Sophia
Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Princess Sophia
Prince Octavius
Prince Alfred
Princess Amelia
Grandchildren
Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Princess Charlotte of Clarence
Princess Elizabeth of Clarence
Victoria
George V of Hanover
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck
Great-grandchildren
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen
Princess Marie of Hanover
Great-great-grandchildren
Marie Louise, Princess Maximilan of Baden
Prince George William of Hanover
Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Princess Olga of Hanover
Prince Christian of Hanover
Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick
Great-great-great-grandchildren
Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover and Hereditary Prince of Brunswick
Prince George William of Hanover
Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes
George IV
William IV
Victoria

After the death of William IV in 1837, the following kings of Hanover continued the dynasty:

The Kingdom of Hanover came to an end in 1866 when it was annexed by Prussia. The 1866 rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern was settled only by the 1913 marriage of Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia to Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick.

Duchy of Brunswick[edit]

In 1884, the senior branch of the House of Welf became extinct. By semi-Salic law, the House of Hanover would have acceded to the Duchy of Brunswick, but there had been strong Prussian pressure against having George V of Hanover or his son, the Duke of Cumberland, succeed to a member state of the German Empire, at least without strong conditions, including swearing to the German constitution. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death, and if necessary appoint a regent.

The Duke of Cumberland proclaimed himself Duke of Brunswick at the Duke's death, and lengthy negotiations ensued, but were never resolved. Prince Albert of Prussia was appointed regent; after his death in 1906, Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg succeeded him. The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son died in a car accident in 1912; the father renounced Brunswick in favor of his youngest son Ernest Augustus, who married the Kaiser's daughter, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. He was a major-general during the First World War; but he was overthrown as Duke of Brunswick in 1918. His father was also deprived of his British titles in 1919, for "bearing arms against Great Britain".

Claimants[edit]

The later heads of the House of Hanover have been:

see Line of succession to the Hanoverian Throne

The family has been resident in Austria since 1866; it has held courtesy titles since 1919.[citation needed]

List of members[edit]

See List of members of the House of Hanover.

Patrilineal descent[edit]

Patrilineal descent, descent from father to son, is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations, which means that the historically accurate royal house of monarchs of the House of Hanover was the House of Lucca (or Obertenghi, or Este, or Welf).

This is the descent of the primary male heir. For the complete expanded family tree, see List of members of the House of Hanover.

  1. Oberto I, 912–975
  2. Oberto Obizzo, 940–1017
  3. Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan, 970–1029
  4. Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, d. 1097
  5. Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, 1037–1101
  6. Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, 1074–1126
  7. Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, 1108–1139
  8. Henry the Lion, 1129–1195
  9. William of Winchester, Lord of Lunenburg, 1184–1213
  10. Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1204–1252
  11. Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1236–1279
  12. Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1268–1318
  13. Magnus the Pious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1304–1369
  14. Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1328–1373
  15. Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1362–1434
  16. Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1408–1478
  17. Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1439–1471
  18. Heinrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1468–1532
  19. Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1497–1546
  20. William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1535–1592
  21. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1582–1641
  22. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, 1629–1698
  23. George I of Great Britain, 1660–1727
  24. George II of Great Britain, 1683–1760
  25. Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707–1751
  26. George III of the United Kingdom, 1738–1820
  27. Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, 1771–1851
  28. George V of Hanover, 1819–1878
  29. Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 1845–1923
  30. Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, 1887–1953
  31. Ernest Augustus IV, Prince of Hanover, 1914–1987
  32. Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover, b. 1954
  33. Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, b. 1983

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Picknett, Lynn; Prince, Clive; Prior, Stephen; Brydon, Robert (2002), War of the Windsors: A Century of Unconstitutional Monarchy, Mainstream Publishing, ISBN 1-84018-631-3 .
  2. ^ In 1801, the British and Irish kingdoms merged, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Further reading[edit]

  • Fraser, Flora. Princesses: The Six Daughters of George III. Knopf, 2005.
  • Plumb, J. H. The First Four Georges. Revised ed. Hamlyn, 1974.
  • Redman, Alvin. The House of Hanover. Coward-McCann, 1960.
  • Van der Kiste, John. George III’s Children. Sutton Publishing, 1992.

Historiography[edit]

  • Bultmann, William A. "Early Hanoverian England (1714-1760): Some Recent Writings," in Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939 (Harvard University Press, 1966), pp 181-205
  • Snyder, Henry L. "Early Georgian England," in Richard Schlatter, ed., Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966 (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp 167 – 196, historiography

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

House of Hanover
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
New title
Duchy created from the
stem duchy of Saxony
Ruling house of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1235–1692
Duchy raised to Electorate
by Emperor Leopold I for aid
given in the Nine Years' War 
New title
Duchy raised to Electorate
Ruling house of the Electorate of Hanover
1692–1803
Electorate abolished
 Occupied by France in the Napoleonic Wars 
Preceded by
House of Stuart
Ruling house of the Kingdom of Great Britain
1714–1800
Kingdoms merged by
Acts of Union 1800
Ruling house of the Kingdom of Ireland
1714–1800
New title
Union of Great Britain and Ireland
Ruling house of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland

1801–1901
Succeeded by
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
New title
Electorate raised to Kingdom
at the Congress of Vienna
Ruling house of the Kingdom of Hanover
1814–1866
Kingdom abolished
 Annexed by Prussia in the
Austro-Prussian War