House of Kamehameha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kamehameha
Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Hawaii.svg
Country Kingdom of Hawaii
Parent house House of Keoua
Titles King of Hawaii
Kuhina Nui
Aliʻi Nui
Aliʻi o ko Hawaiʻi Pae ʻAina
Ma ka Lokomaikaʻi o ke Akua, Moʻi o ko Hawaiʻi Pae ʻAina

Ma ka Lokomaikaʻi o ke Akua, Moʻi Wahine o ko Hawaiʻi Pae ʻAina
Moi kuʻi, au-puni kuʻi
Konohiki.[nb 1]
Founded 1795
Founder Kamehameha I
Final ruler Kamehameha V
Current head Survives only through collateral lines

The House of Kamehameha (Hale O Kamehameha), or the Kamehameha Dynasty, was the reigning, Royal Family of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, beginning with its founding by Kamehameha I in 1795 and ending with the death of Kamehameha V in 1872.[2][3] The kingdom would continue for another 21 years until its overthrow in 1893 with the fall of the House of Kalakaua.[4]

Origins of the Kamehameha line[edit]

The god Kū-ka-ili-moku was left to Kamehameha I by his uncle Kalaniʻōpuʻu

The origins of the House of Kamehameha can be traced back to half brothers, Kalaniʻōpuʻu and Keōua.[5] Kalaniʻōpuʻu's father was Kalaninuiʻīamamao and Keōua's father was Kalanikeʻeaumoku, both son's of Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku.[5] They shared a common mother, Kamakaʻīmoku. Both brothers served Alapaʻinui, the ruling King of Hawaiʻi island.[5] Hawaiian genealogy notes that Keōua may not have been Kamehameha's biological father, and that Kahekili II might have been the figure's real father.[5][6] Regardless, Kamehameha I's decent from Keawe remains intact through his mother, Kekuʻiʻapoiwa II, a granddaughter of Keawe. Keōua acknowledged him as his son and is recognized by official genealogies.[5]

Kamehameha I, also known as Kamehameha The Great, was born in 1758 during a period when Haley's Comet was visible. Because of omens, a prophecy was announced by priests that a child would be born who would be a "Killer of chiefs". The Aliʻi Nui of the island ordered his death, but the child was hidden and raised in Waipio Valley.[7] He would be named Paiea but would take the name Kamehameha, meaning "The very lonely one" or "The one set alone".[8][9] Kalaniʻōpuʻu, the young Kamehameha's uncle, would raise him after his father's death. Kalaniʻōpuʻu ruled Hawaiʻi as did his grandfather Keawe. He had a number of advisors and priests. When word reached the ruler that chiefs were planning to murder the boy, he told Kamehameha:

"My child, I have heard the secret complaints of the chiefs and their mutterings that they will take you and kill you, perhaps soon. While I am alive they are afraid, but when I die they will take you and kill you. I advise you to go back to Kohala." "I have left you the god; there is your wealth."[5]

The feathered cloak of King Kalaniʻōpuʻu

In 1778 Captain James Cook visited the Hawaiian Islands and returned in 1779.[10] When his ship, Resolution broke a foremast as they were leaving, he was forced to turn back and return to Kealakekua Bay.[11] A fight and theft of blacksmith tools led to a situation on shore where a Hawaiian canoe was confiscated, even after the tools were recovered.[12] Tensions were high with the Hawaiian population and one of Cook's small boats was taken.[13] In retaliation, Cook decided to kidnap King Kalaniʻōpuʻu.[3] As he was being led away from his royal enclosure, his favorite wife, Kānekapōlei began to shout to the townspeople to get their attention.[14][15] Two chiefs, Kalaimanokahoowaha.[nb 2] (also known as Kanaina nui) and a royal attendant named Nuaa, saw her pleading as the King was being led away with his two sons following.[17] As they reached the beach Kanaina, Kānekapōlei and Nuaa were able to convince Kalaniʻōpuʻu to stop and he sat where he stood.[14][18] The crowd began to become aggressive and a rock was thrown and hit Cook. He took out his sword and struck Kanaina broadside without injury, but the chief reacted and immediately seized Cook and held him in his grip[19] when the king's attendant, Nuaa[nb 3] stabbed him from behind.[15][21][22] Before the remains of Cook were returned, the bones of the man were boiled down to strip off the flesh then given to chiefs. Kamehameha received Captain Cook's hair.[23]

Kamehameha I, founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii[edit]

After Kalaniʻōpuʻu's death, Kīwalaʻō would take his father's place as first born and rule the island while Kamehameha would have religious authority. A number of chiefs supported Kamehameha and war soon broke out to overthrow Kīwalaʻō. After a number of battles the king was killed and envoys sent for the last two brothers to meet with Kamehameha. Keōua and Kaōleiokū arrived in separate canoes. Keōua came to shore first where a fight broke out and he and all aboard were killed. Before the same could happen to the second canoe, Kamehameha intervened. By 1795, Kamehameha would conquer all but one of the islands.

For his first royal residence, the new King built the first western-style structure built in the Hawaiian Islands, known as the "Brick Palace".[24] The location became the seat of government for the Hawaiian Kingdom until 1845.[25][26] The king commissioned the structure to be built at Keawa'iki point in Lahaina, Maui.[27] Two foreign, ex-convicts from Australia's Botany Bay penal colony built the home.[28] It was begun in 1798 and was completed after 4 years in 1802.[29][30] The house was intended for Kaʻahumanu,[31] but she refused to live in the structure and resided instead in a traditional Hawaiian-styled home only feet away.[27]

Kamehameha I had many wives but held two the most high regard. Keōpūolani was the highest ranking aliʻi of her time[10] and mother to his sons, Liholiho and Kauikeaouli. Kaʻahumanu was his favorite. Kamehameha I died in 1819 and his son, Liholiho would become the next king.[7]

A new king and new form of government[edit]

Kamehameha II, and the new office of Kuhina Nui[edit]

Kamehameha II in England with Queen and entourage

After Kamehameha I's death, his first born son Liholiho left Kailua for a week and returned to be crowned king. At the lavish ceremony attended by commoners and nobles of the kingdom he approached the circle of chiefs, as Kaʻahumanu, the central figure in the group and Dowager Queen, spoke: "Hear me O Divine one, for I make known to you the will of your father. Behold these chiefs and the men of your father, and these your guns, and this your land, but you and I shall share the realm together" Liholiho agreed officially, which began a unique system of dual-government consisting of a King and co-ruler similar to a co-regent.[14] The new Kamehameha II would share his rule with his stepmopther, Kaʻahumanu. She would defy Hawaiian kapu by dining with the young king, violating the law separating genders during meals and leading to the destruction of the old Hawaiian religion. Kamehameha II died, along with his wife, Queen Kamāmalu in 1824 on a state visit to England where they succumbed to measles. He was King for only 5 years.[7]

When Kamehameha II and his queen died in England, the remains of the couple were returned to Hawaii by Boki. On board the ship, "The Blond" his wife Liliha and Kekūanāoa would be baptized as Christians. Kaʻahumanu would also convert and become a heavy Christian influence on Hawaiian society until her death in 1832.[32] Since the new king was only 12 years old, Kaʻahumanu was now senior ruler and named Boki as her Kuhina Nui.

Boki would leave Hawaii on a fatal trip to find sandlewood to cover a dept and would be lost at sea. His wife, Liliha would be left the governorship of Maui and would unsuccessfully attempt to whip up revolt against Kaʻahumanu, who, upon Boki's departure, had installed Kīnaʻu as a co-governor.[32]

Kaʻahumanu[edit]

Kaʻahumanu with Charles Kanaʻina

Kaʻahumanu was born on Maui around 1777. Her parents were aliʻi chiefs of a lower ranking line. She became Kamehameha's consort when she was fourteen. George Vancouver states: "[O]ne of the finest woman we had yet seen on any of the islands".[33] To wed the young woman, Kamehameha had to consent to make Kaʻahumanu's children his heirs to the Kingdom although, in the end, she produced no issue.[19]

Before his death, Kamehameha selected Kaʻahumanu to rule along with his son. Kaʻahumanu had also adopted the boy.[34] She had the highest political clout in the islands. A portrait artist remarked of her: "This Old Dame is the most proud, unbending Lady in the whole island. As the widow of [Kamehameha], she possesses unbound authority and respect, not any of which she is inclined to lay aside on any occasion whatsoever".[35] She is one of the most influential leaders in Hawaii's history.[36]

Kamehameha III, Kaʻahumanu II, III, moi kuʻi, au-puni kuʻi and the Great Māhele[edit]

Kauikeaouli at the age of 18

Liholiho's death elevated his younger brother, Kauikeaouli to the throne, styled as Kamehameha III at the age of twelve.[37] When Kaʻahumanu died Kauikeaouli was 18.

With the death of the Kuhina Nui, the young king demanded to come into the possession of his full inheritance.[38] He immediately rebelled against the Christian church and suspended all laws except murder and theft, which was a common tradition after the death of a chief. Distilleries were we-opened and the ban of alcohol lifted as was the ban on Hula. For his co-ruler, Kamehameha chose his aikāne (same sex partner), Kaomi.[nb 4], a young, half Tahitian man who had helped to heal the king and had been a close relationship for years.[40][41] The church was outraged.[42] Kaomi was granted true authority which he yielded. Eventually Kamehameha III, under pressure from the church, would remove the young man and would name Liliha to be the next Kuhina Nui. In November 1833, Hoapili (Liliha's father), Kekūanāoa, Kanaina and Kīnaʻu, along with armed royal attendants, including Kilinahe, went to the king's home to persuade him not to pick Liliha as Kuhina Nui. Hoapili begged the king to kill him if he should choose his daughter so the people would not blame him for her elevation. They pleaded with the king to choose Kinau as a true daughter of the House of Kamehameha. The King agreed and when he sent for Liliha to tell her the news, she was found drunk at home.[43]

"The Kamehameha Royal Family." Kamehameha III (center) and his wife, Queen Kalama (right); Kamehameha IV (right rear), Kamehameha V (left rear) and their sister, Victoria Kamāmalu (left)

Kīnaʻu would be succeeded by Kekāuluohi as Kuhina Nui, acting for the true heir to the position, Victoria Kamāmalu, Kīnaʻu's infant daughter. Kekāuluohi would be styled as Kaʻahumanu III.[1] After Kekāuluohi died in 1845, the next Kuhina Nui would be Keoni Ana, the son of John Young, one of Kamehameha I's important foreign advisors.[39] Kauikeaouli named an heir, his nephew, Alexander ʻIolani Liholiho who took the throne styled as Kamehameha IV in 1855.[7]

The third Kamehameha instituted the Great Mahele, which gave up millions of acres of land passed from his brother, who inherited it from Kamehameha I, leaving all to him as the ruler of the kingdom.[7]

Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma[edit]

Alexander ʻIolani Liholiho was the nephew of Kamehameha II and grandson of Kamehameha I. He reigned as Kamehameha IV. Along with his wife Queen Emma, Kamehameha IV would establish the Queen's Medical Center.[44] He was the son of Kīnaʻu, daughter of Kamehameha I and Kekūanāoa, a high ranking warrior chief from the conquest of the islands who became Governor of Oahu.[45][46] He ascended the throne at the age of 21. He was a tall man often described as handsome.[46] His wife was, Emma Naea Rooke, granddaughter of John Young.[47] The couple had one child, a son named Albert Edward Kauikeaouli who died at the age of 4 years old leaving the throne to pass to his uncle.[7]

Kamehameha V and the last Kamehameha king[edit]

Lot Kapuāiwa became king in 1863 styled as Kamehameha V. Lot was a bachelor up to his death in 1872 bringing to an end the Kamehameha Dynasty.[7][48]

On his deathbed, before his passing, he offered the throne to Bernice Pauahi Bishop but she refused it. Finally, Kamehameha V stated: "The throne belongs to Lunalilo; I will not appoint him, because I consider him unworthy of the position. The constitution, in case I make no nomination, provides for the election of the next King; let it be so." He would die the following morning.[49]

Lunalilo[edit]

William Charles Lunalilo was the highest chief in the Hawaiian Kingdom of his time.[50] He became the first elected monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom[48] and would be the last of the Kamehameha dynasty.[50] Lunalilo was the son of Charles Kanaʻina and Miriam Auhea Kekauluohi, a niece of Kamehameha I through her father Kalaimamahu, Kamehameha I's half-brother. Lunalilo was also a member of the House of Keōua.[51] His mother was taken by Kamehameha, after her birth and given to Kaʻahumanu because she could not conceive. Kekauluohi was a punalua child, having dual parentage. Lunalilo was the last Kamehameha King.[52]

Legacy[edit]

The British name of the "Sandwich Islands" was replaced with "Hawaiʻi" due to the influence of the House of Kamehameha.[53]

A good portion of the legacy of the Kamehameha's lies in the lands and fortunes passed down to Bernice Pauahi Bishop.[54] After her death in 1884, her husband, Charles Bishop, acting as one of five trustees and a co-executer of Pauahi's will, began the process of establishing the Kamehameha Schools which was founded in 1887.[55] Charles Bishop would serve as president of the Board of trustees for the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate, a perpetual trust with Kamehameha Schools the sole beneficiary, and gave back to the estate all lands deeded to him during his life and helped fund the first structures of the school out of his own money. In 1889, the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum was founded and endowed by Charles Bishop as a repository for the priceless Hawaiian artifacts from Pauahi's family.[55]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A Konohiki was the title of a chief of lands who had special rights over the men placed there by them that overides family rights.[1]
  2. ^ Kalaimanokahoowaha was a grandson of Alapaʻinui however, because of his father's defeat and his mother's chiefly server line, he became a Kaukau aliʻi and served the ruling chief, Kalaniʻōpuʻu.[16]
  3. ^ It was Nuaa who stabbed Cook.[20]
  4. ^ Kaomi was Kamehameha III's male lover. Possibly the best example of an aikāne.[36] He was made the "engrafted king".[39]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Patrick Vinton Kirch; Marshall Sahlins (1 July 1994). Anahulu: The Anthropology of History in the Kingdom of Hawaii, Volume 1: Historical Ethnography. University of Chicago Press. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-0-226-73365-4. 
  2. ^ Margaret Homans; Adrienne Munich (2 October 1997). Remaking Queen Victoria. Cambridge University Press. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-0-521-57485-3. 
  3. ^ a b Wikipedians. The United States of America. PediaPress. pp. 451–. GGKEY:2CYQCESKTB7. 
  4. ^ Julia Flynn Siler (January 2012). Lost Kingdom: Hawaii's Last Queen, the Sugar Kings and America's First Imperial Adventure. Atlantic Monthly Press. pp. 220–. ISBN 978-0-8021-2001-4. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f George H. Kanahele; George S. Kanahele (1986). Pauahi: The Kamehameha Legacy. Kamehameha Schools Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-87336-005-0. 
  6. ^ Sheldon DIBBLE (1843). History of the Sandwich Islands. [With a map.]. Press of the Mission Seminary. pp. 54–. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Rita Ariyoshi (2009). Hawaii. National Geographic Books. pp. 29–35. ISBN 978-1-4262-0388-6. 
  8. ^ Jim Noles (2009). Pocketful of History: Four Hundred Years of America-One State Quarter at a Time. Perseus Books Group. pp. 296–. ISBN 978-0-7867-3197-8. 
  9. ^ Jake Goldberg; Joyce Hart (2007). Hawai'i. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 128–. ISBN 978-0-7614-2349-2. 
  10. ^ a b Helen Wong; Ann Rayson (1987). Hawaii's Royal History. Bess Press. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-0-935848-48-9. 
  11. ^ Michael Perkins (1 October 2006). Surviving Paradise. Lulu.com. pp. 320–. ISBN 978-1-84728-935-3. 
  12. ^ Jack Kelly (7 April 2011). The True Story of the Death of Captain James Cook. Jack Kelly. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-1-4524-4257-0. 
  13. ^ Phillip Jones. Mariners, Merchants And The Military Too. Lulu.com. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-9565549-4-9. 
  14. ^ a b c Ralph Simpson Kuykendall (1 January 1938). The Hawaiian Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-87022-431-7. 
  15. ^ a b Abraham Fornander; John F. G. Stokes (1880). An Account of the Polynesian Race: Its Origins and Migrations, and the Ancient History of the Hawaiian People to the Times of Kamehameha I.. Trubner & Company. pp. 193–. 
  16. ^ Kanalu G. Terry Young (25 February 2014). Rethinking the Native Hawaiian Past. Routledge. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-1-317-77669-7. 
  17. ^ John Meares (1791). Hawaiian Historical Society. Reprints (1787, 1788 and 1789). pp. 76–. 
  18. ^ Gavan Daws (1968). Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-8248-0324-7. 
  19. ^ a b David Kalakaua (King of Hawaii) (1888). The legends and myths of Hawaii: The fables and folk-lore of a strange people. C.L. Webster & Company. pp. 391–. 
  20. ^ Arthur Grove Day; Carl Stroven (1966). True tales of the South Seas. Appleton-Century. p. 318. 
  21. ^ Sheldon Dibble (1839). History and general views of the Sandwich Islands' mission. Taylor & Dodd. pp. 30–. 
  22. ^ Janet Susan Holman (23 May 2008). The Enlightenment and Captain James Cook: The Lono-Cook-Kirk-Regenesis. AuthorHouse. pp. 173–. ISBN 978-1-4685-3337-8. 
  23. ^ King David Kalakaua (13 December 2013). The Legends and Myths of Hawaii. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 350–. ISBN 978-1-4629-0704-5. 
  24. ^ Lonely Planet; Sara Benson; Amy C Balfour; Adam Karlin, Adam Skolnick, Paul Stiles, Ryan Ver Berkmoes (1 August 2013). Lonely Planet Hawaii. Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 732–. ISBN 978-1-74321-788-7. 
  25. ^ Glenda Bendure; Ned Friary (2008). Lonely Planet Maui. Lonely Planet. pp. 244–. ISBN 978-1-74104-714-1. 
  26. ^ Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger (5 November 2013). The Americas: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. pp. 315–. ISBN 978-1-134-25930-4. 
  27. ^ a b Lahaina Watershed Flood Control Project: Environmental Impact Statement. 2004. p. 214. 
  28. ^ Rich Budnick (1 January 2005). Hawaii's Forgotten History: 1900-1999: The Good...The Bad...The Embarrassing. Aloha Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-944081-04-4. 
  29. ^ Jeanette Foster (17 July 2012). Frommer's Maui 2013. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-1-118-33145-3. 
  30. ^ Patrick Vinton Kirch (1 January 1997). Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 318–. ISBN 978-0-8248-1938-5. 
  31. ^ David Thompson; Lesa M. Griffith; Joan Conrow (14 July 2006). Pauline Frommer's Hawaii. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 284–. ISBN 978-0-470-06984-4. 
  32. ^ a b John Garrett (1 January 1982). To Live Among the Stars: Christian Origins in Oceania. editorips@usp.ac.fj. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-2-8254-0692-2. 
  33. ^ Edward Joesting (1 February 1988). Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-0-8248-1162-4. 
  34. ^ Sherry B. Ortner (1997). Making Gender: The Politics and Erotics of Culture. Beacon Press. pp. 163–. ISBN 978-0-8070-4633-3. 
  35. ^ Sarah Vowell (22 March 2011). Unfamiliar Fishes. Penguin Group US. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-1-101-48645-0. 
  36. ^ a b Alan Robert Akana (18 March 2014). The Volcano Is Our Home. Balboa Press. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-1-4525-8753-0. 
  37. ^ Monica Nucciarone (2009). Alexander Cartwright: The Life Behind the Baseball Legend. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 46–. ISBN 0-8032-3353-1. 
  38. ^ Pan-Pacific Research Institution (1913). The Mid-Pacific Magazine. T.H., A.H. Ford. pp. 341–. 
  39. ^ a b Robert Borofsky (2000). Remembrance of Pacific Pasts: An Invitation to Remake History. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 201–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2301-6. 
  40. ^ Noenoe K. Silva (7 September 2004). Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism. Duke University Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 0-8223-3349-X. 
  41. ^ Malama Meleisea (25 March 2004). The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders. Cambridge University Press. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-0-521-00354-4. 
  42. ^ Susan Y. Najita (22 September 2006). Decolonizing Culture in Pacific Literature: Reading History and Trauma in Contemporary Fiction. Routledge. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-1-134-21172-2. 
  43. ^ Samuel Manaiakalani Kamakau (1961). Ruling chiefs of Hawaii. Kamehameha Schools Press. 
  44. ^ Ann Rayson; Helen Bauer (1997). Hawaiʻi, the Pacific State. Bess Press. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-1-57306-062-2. 
  45. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine. F. Jefferies. 1864. pp. 522–. 
  46. ^ a b Ralph Simpson Kuykendall (1953). The Hawaiian Kingdom: 1854-1874, twenty critical years. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-87022-432-4. 
  47. ^ Stephen Dando-Collins (1 April 2014). Taking Hawaii: How Thirteen Honolulu Businessmen Overthrew the Queen of Hawaii in 1893, With a Bluff. Open Road Media. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-1-4976-1429-1. 
  48. ^ a b Daniel S. Murphree (January 2012). Native America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 269–. ISBN 978-0-313-38126-3. 
  49. ^ United States. Department of State (1895). Foreign Relations of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 986–. 
  50. ^ a b Jean Hobbs (1935). Hawaii: A Pageant of the Soil. Stanford University Press. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-8047-0990-3. 
  51. ^ Elizabeth Kekaaniauokalani Kalaninuiohilaukapu Pratt (1920). History of Keoua Kalanikupuapa-i-nui: Father of Hawaii Kings, and His Descendants, with Notes on Kamehameha I, First King of All Hawaii. T. H. pp. 34–. 
  52. ^ Jon Kamakawiwoʻole Osorio (January 2002). Dismembering L_hui: A History of the Hawaiian Nation to 1887. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2549-2. 
  53. ^ Steven Roger Fischer (15 February 2013). Islands: From Atlantis to Zanzibar. Reaktion Books. pp. 284–. ISBN 978-1-78023-053-5. 
  54. ^ Samuel P. King; Randall W. Roth (1 January 2006). Broken Trust: Greed, Mismanagement, And Political Manipulation at America's Largest Charitable Trust. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 188–. ISBN 978-0-8248-3044-1. 
  55. ^ a b Robert T. Grimm (2002). Notable American Philanthropists: Biographies of Giving and Volunteering. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-1-57356-340-6.