House of Representatives of the Philippines

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House of Representatives of the Philippines
Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas
16th Congress of the Philippines
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type Lower house of the Congress of the Philippines
Term limits 3 terms (9 years)
Leadership
Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.[1], Liberal
Since July 22, 2013
Deputy Speakers Since July 22, 2013
Majority Floor Leader Neptali Gonzales II, Liberal
Since July 22, 2012
Minority Floor Leader Ronaldo Zamora, Magdiwang/UNA
Since July 23, 2013
Structure
Seats 294 representatives
234 from geographical districts
58 party-list representatives
Philippine House of Representatives composition.svg
Political groups

Majority Bloc (253)

Minority Bloc (19)

Independent Minority Bloc (15)

Independent Bloc (1)

  •      UNA (1)

Unclassified (4)

  •      Lakas (1)
  •      Vacancies (3)
committees See list
Length of term 3 years
Authority Article VI, Constitution of the Philippines
Elections
Voting system Parallel voting
Last election May 13, 2013
Next election May 9, 2016
Redistricting Districts are redistricted by Congress after each census (has never been done since 1987)
By statute (most frequent method).
Meeting place
2011 Philippine State of the Nation Address.jpg
Batasang Pambansa Complex
Batasan Hills, Quezon City,
Philippines
Website
House of Representatives of the Philippines

The House of Representatives of the Philippines (Filipino: Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas; also known in its Spanish name Camara de Representantes de Filipinas) is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines. The Senate is the upper house. The House is often informally called Congress. Members of the house are called Congressmen (mga kinatawan or mga konggresista) and their title is Representative. Congressmen are elected to a three-year term and can be reelected, but cannot serve more than three consecutive terms. Around eighty percent of congressmen are district representatives, representing a particular geographical area. There are 234 legislative districts in the country, each composed of about 250,000 people. There are also party-list representatives elected through the party-list system who constitute not more than twenty percent of the total number of representatives.

Aside from having its concurrence on every bill in order to be passed for the president's signature to become a law, the House of Representatives has the power to impeach certain officials, and all money bills must originate from the lower house.

The House of Representatives is headed by Speaker, currently occupied by Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. of Quezon City. The official headquarters of the House of Representatives is at the Batasang Pambansa (literally, national legislature) located at the Batasan Hills in Quezon City in Metro Manila. The building is often simply called Batasan; the word has also became a metonym to refer to the House of Representatives.

History[edit]

Joint session of the Philippine Legislature, Manila. November 15, 1916
Philippine legislature before 1924
Party control of the lower house. Notice the one-party dominance of the Nacionalistas from 1907 to 1941, the two-party system with the emergence of the Liberal Party in 1946, the return of one-party dominance by the KBL from 1978 to 1984, and the multiparty system from 1987 to the present.
Same as above, but in cumulative seat totals, instead of percentages.

When the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from September 1900 to October 1907. The President of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission.

Philippine Assembly[edit]

The Philippine Bill of 1902 was a basic law for the Insular Government and created a bicameral, or two-chamber, Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in October 1907. Through the leadership of Speaker Sergio Osmeña and Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. Osmeña and Quezon led the Nacionalista Party, with a platform of independence from the United States, into successive electoral victories against the Progresista Party and later the Democrata Party, which first advocated United States statehood, then opposed immediate independence.

Jones Act of 1916[edit]

In 1916, the Jones Act or the Philippine Autonomy Act changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established. The Nacionalistas continued their electoral dominance at this point, although they were split into two factions led by Osmeña and Quezon; the two reconciled in 1924, and controlled the Assembly via a virtual dominant-party system.

Commonwealth and independence[edit]

The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was adopted.

Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines in 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. The "Liberal bloc" of the Nacionalistas permanently split from their ranks, creating the Liberal Party. These two will contest all of the elections in what appeared to be a two-party system. The party of the ruling president wins the elections in the House of Representatives; in cases where the party of the president and the majority of the members of the House of Representatives are different, a sufficient enough number will break away and join the party of the president, thereby ensuring that the president will have control of the House of Representatives.

Martial Law[edit]

This set up continued until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law and abolished Congress. He would rule by decree even after the 1973 Constitution abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral Batasang Pambansa parliamentary system of government, as parliamentary election would not occur in 1978. Marcos' Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL; New Society Movement) won all of the seats except those from the Central Visayas ushering in an era of KBL dominance, which will continue until the People Power Revolution overthrew Marcos in 1986.

1987 Constitution[edit]

The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. One deviation from the previous setup was the introduction of the mid-term election; however, the dynamics of the House of Representatives resumed its pre-1972 state, with the party of the president controlling the chamber, although political pluralism ensued that prevented the restoration of the old Nacionalista-Liberal two-party system. Instead, a multi-party system evolved.

Corazon Aquino who nominally had no party, supported the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP; Struggle of the Democratic Filipinos). With the victory of Fidel V. Ramos in the 1992 presidential election, many representatives defected to his Lakas-NUCD party; the same would happen with Joseph Estrada's victory in 1998, but he lost support when he was ousted after the 2001 EDSA Revolution that brought his vice president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to power. This also meant the restoration of Lakas-NUCD as the top party in the chamber. The same would happen when Benigno Aquino won in 2010, which returned the Liberals into power.

The presiding officer is the Speaker. Unlike the Senate President, the Speaker usually serves the entire term of Congress, although there had been instances when the Speaker left office due to conflict with the president: examples include Jose de Venecia, Jr.'s resignation as speaker in 2008 when his son Joey de Venecia exposed alleged corrupt practices by First Gentleman Mike Arroyo, and Manny Villar's ouster occurred after he allowed the impeachment of President Estrada in 2000.

Officers[edit]

The members of the House of Representatives who are also its officers are also ex officio members of all of the committees and has a vote.

Speaker[edit]

The Speaker is the head of the House of Representatives. He presides over the session; decides on all questions of order, subject to appeal by any member; signs all acts, resolutions, memorials, writs, warrants and subpoenas issued by or upon order of the House; appoints, suspends, dismisses or disciplines House personnel; and exercise administrative functions.

The speaker is elected by majority of all the members of the house, including vacant seats. The speaker is traditionally elected at the convening of each Congress. Before a speaker is elected, the House's sergeant-at-arms sits as the "Presiding Officer" until a speaker is elected. Compared to the Senate President, the unseating of an incumbent speaker is rarer.

The incumbent speaker is Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. (Liberal) of Quezon City's 4th congressional district.

Deputy Speakers[edit]

There was a position of speaker pro tempore for congresses prior the reorganization of the officers of the House of Representatives during the 10th Congress in 1995. The speaker pro tempore was the next highest position in the House after the speaker.

The position was replaced by the deputy speakers in 1995. Originally, there was one Deputy Speaker for each island group of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Then, in 2001 during the 12th Congress, a Deputy Speaker "at large" was created. On the next Congress, another "at large" deputy speakership was created, along with a Deputy Speaker for women. In the 15th Congress starting in 2010, all six deputy speakers are "at large".

The deputy speakers perform the speaker's role when the speaker is absent. Currently in the 16th Congress, the deputy speakers represent the chamber at-large.

The Deputy Speakers are:

Majority Floor Leader[edit]

The majority leader, aside from being the spokesman of the majority party, is to direct the deliberations on the floor. The Majority Leader is also concurrently the Chairman of the Committee on Rules. The majority leader is elected in a party caucus of the ruling majority party.

The incumbent majority floor leader is Neptali M. Gonzales, Jr. (Liberal) of Mandaluyong's Lone congressional district.

Minority Floor Leader[edit]

The minority leader is the spokesman of the minority party in the House and is an ex-officio member of all standing Committees. The minority leader is elected in party caucus of all Members of the House in the minority party, although by tradition, the losing candidate for speaker is named the minority leader.

The incumbent minority floor leader is Ronaldo Zamora (Magdiwang/UNA) of San Juan's Lone District.

Secretary General[edit]

The secretary general enforces orders and decisions of the House; keeps the Journal of each session; notes all questions of order, among other things. The secretary general presides over the chamber at the first legislative session after an election, and is elected by a majority of the members.

Marilyn Barua-Yap is the Secretary General of the House of Representatives.

Sergeant-at-Arms[edit]

The Sergeant-at-Arms is responsible for the maintenance of order in the House of Representatives, among other things. Like the secretary general, the sergeant-at-arms is elected by a majority of the members.

Retired Brigadier General Nicasio J. Radovan, Jr. is the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Representatives.

District representation[edit]

Congressional districts

There are two types of representatives in the chamber: representatives from congressional districts and party-list representatives. Eighty percent of representatives shall come from congressional districts, with each district returning one representative. Although each district should have a population of at least 250,000 people, all provinces have at least one legislative district, regardless of population, whose residents vote for their own congressman; several cities have representation on their own independent of provinces, although they should have at least a population of 250,000. For provinces that have more than one legislative district, the provincial districts are identical to the corresponding legislative district, with the exclusion of cities that do not vote for provincial officials.

The representatives from the districts comprise at most 80% of the members of the House; therefore, for a party to have a majority of seats in the House, the party needs to win at least 60% of the district seats. No party since the approval of the 1987 constitution has been able to win a majority of seats, hence coalitions are not uncommon.

Legislative districts in provinces[edit]

Note: Some independent cities are grouped with provinces for purposes of representation to the House of Representatives.

Legislative districts in cities[edit]

Party-list representation[edit]

The party-list system is the name designated for party-list representation. Under the 1987 Constitution, the electorate can vote for certain party-list organizations in order to give voice to significant minorities of society that would otherwise not be adequately represented through geographical district. From 1987-1998, party-list representatives were appointed by the President.

Since 1998, each voter votes for a single party-list organization. Organizations that garner at least 2% of the total number of votes are awarded one representative for every 2% up to a maximum of three representatives. Thus, there can be at most 50 party-list representatives in Congress, though usually no more than 20 are elected because many organizations do not reach the required 2% minimum number of votes.

After the 2007 election, in a controversial decision, the Supreme Court ordered the COMELEC to change how it allocates the party-list seats. Under the new formula only one party will have the maximum 3 seats. It based its decision on a formula contained in the VFP vs. COMELEC decision. In 2009, in the BANAT vs. COMELEC decision, it was changed anew in which parties with less than 2% of the vote were given seats to fulfill the 20% quota as set forth in the constitution.

Aside from determining which party won and allocating the number of seats won per party, another point of contention was whether the nominees should be a member of the marginalized group they are supposed to represent; in the Ang Bagong Bayani vs. COMELEC decision, the Supreme Court not only ruled that the nominees should be a member of the marginalized sector, but it also disallowed major political parties from participating in the party-list election. However, on the BANAT decision, the court ruled hat since the law didn't specify who belongs to a marginalized sector, the court allowed anyone to be a nominee as long as the nominee as a member of the party (not necessarily the marginalized group the party is supposed to represent).

Redistricting[edit]

Congressional district population map, as of August 1, 2007. Note the underrepresentation of areas concentrated around central and southern Luzon and central Mindanao.

Congress is mandated to reapportion the legislative districts within three years following the return of every census.[2] Since its restoration in 1987, no general apportionment law has been passed, despite the publication of four censuses in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2007.[3] The increase in the number of representative districts since 1987 were mostly due to the creation of new provinces, cities, and piecemeal redistricting of certain provinces and cities.

Most populous legislative districts[edit]

Rank Legislative district Populationa
1 2nd District of Quezon City 1,611,488
2 1st District of Caloocan City 1,093,424
3 1st District of Rizal 953,080
4 1st District of Laguna 862,376
5 2nd District of Rizal 854,019
6 2nd District of Laguna 795,395
7 1st District of South Cotabato 774,456
8 1st District of Maguindanao 695,622
9 4th District of Batangas 680,553
10 1st District of Bulacan 670,237
^a Based on the 2010 Census figures.[4]

Underrepresentation[edit]

Persons per representative per province or city in the House of Representatives: Provinces (blue) and cities (red) are arranged in descending order of population from Cavite to Batanes (provinces) and from Quezon City to San Juan (cities).
Persons per representative from 1903 to 2007 (year of last census). The last appropriation act was the ordinance to the 1987 constitution, which was based on the 1980 census.

Because of not having nationwide reapportioning every after the census since the Constitution was made, many populous provinces and cities are underrepresented. Each legislative district is supposed to have a population of 250,000.[5]

Province/City Population
(2007 census)
Number of legislative districts
Currently Proposed
Cavite 2,856,765 7 11
Bulacan 2,826,926 4 11
Quezon City 2,679,450 4 10
Pangasinan 2,645,395 6 10
Laguna 2,473,530 4 9
Cebu 2,439,005 6 9
Negros Occidental 2,370,269 6 9
Batangas 2,245,869 4 8
Pampanga 2,226,444 4 8
Quezon 1,882,900 4 7
Nueva Ecija 1,853,853 4 7
Caloocan 1,381,610 2 5
Davao City 1,366,153 3 5
Philippines 88,574,614 229 354

Source: Excerpts from Most populous provinces and their legislative districts researched by: Jesus F. Llanto of Newsbreak[6]

With 354 representatives elected from congressional districts, there should be 88 party-list representatives, or a total of 442.

Powers[edit]

The House of Representatives is modeled after the United States House of Representatives; the two chambers of Congress have roughly equal powers, and every bill or resolution that has to go through both houses needs the consent of both chambers before being passed for the president's signature. Once a bill is defeated in the House of Representatives, it is lost. Once a bill is approved by the House of Representatives on third reading, the bill is passed to the Senate, unless an identical bill has also been passed by the lower house. When a counterpart bill in the Senate is different from the one passed by the House of Representatives, either a bicameral conference committee is created consisting of members from both chambers of Congress to reconcile the differences, or either chamber may instead approve the other chamber's version.

Just like most lower houses, money bills, originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may still propose or concur with amendments, same with bills of local application and private bills. The House of Representatives has the sole power to initiate impeachment proceedings, and may impeach an official by a vote of one-third of its members. Once an official is impeached, the Senate tries that official.

Seat[edit]

The 2nd Philippine Legislature convened at the The Mansion in Baguio in 1921.

The Batasang Pambansa Complex (National Legislature) at Quezon City is the seat of the House of Representatives since its restoration in 1987; it took its name from the Batasang Pambansa, the national parliament which convened there from 1978 to 1986.

The Philippine Legislature was inaugurated at the Manila Grand Opera House at 1907, then it conducted business at the Ayuntamiento in Intramuros, Manila, across the University of Santo Tomas. Governor-General Leonard Wood summoned the 2nd Philippine Legislature at Baguio and convened at the The Mansion in Baguio for three weeks. The legislature returned to the Ayutamiento, as the Manila Legislative Building was being constructed; it first convened there on July 26, 1926. The House of Representatives continued to occupy the second floor until 1945 when the area was shelled during the Battle of Manila. The building was damaged beyond repair and Congress convened at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse at Manila until the Legislative Building can be occupied again in 1949. Congress stayed at the Legislative Building, by now called the Congress Building, until President Marcos shut Congress and ruled by decree starting in 1972.[7]

Marcos then oversaw the construction of the new home of parliament at Quezon City, which convened in 1978. The parliament, called the Batasang Pambansa continued to sit there until the passage of the 1986 Freedom Constitution. The House of Representatives inherited the Batasang Pambansa Complex in 1987.

Batasang Pambansa Complex[edit]

The Batasang Pambansa Complex, now officially called the House of Representatives Building Complex, is at the National Government Center, Constitution Hills, Quezon City. Accessible via Commonwealth Avenue, the complex consists of four buildings. The Main Building hosts the session hall; the North and South wings, inaugurated on December 1977, are attached to it. The newest building, the Ramon Mitra, Jr. Building, was completed in 2001. It houses the Legislative Library, the Committee offices, the Reference and Research Bureau, and the Conference Rooms.[8]

Current composition[edit]

The members of the House of Representatives, aside from being grouped into political parties, are also grouped into the "majority bloc," "minority bloc" and "independents" (different from the independent in the sense that they are not affiliated into a political party). Originally, members who voted for the winning Speaker belong to the majority and members who voted for the opponent are the minority. The majority and minority bloc are to elect amongst themselves a floor leader. While members are allowed to switch blocs, they must do so in writing. Also, the bloc where they intend to transfer shall accept their application through writing. When the bloc the member ought to transfer refuses to accept the transferring member, or a member does not want to be a member of either bloc, that member becomes an independent member. A member that transfers to a new bloc forfeits one's committee chairmanships and memberships, until the bloc the member transfers to elects the member to committees.

The membership in each committee should be in proportion to the size of each bloc, with each bloc deciding who amongst them who will go to each committee, upon a motion by the floor leader concerned to the House of Representatives in plenary. The Speaker, Deputy Speakers, floor leaders, deputy floor leaders and the chairperson of the Committee on Accounts can vote in committees; the committee chairperson can only vote to break a tie.

To ensure that the representatives each get their pork barrel, most of them will join the majority bloc, or even to the president's party, as basis of patronage politics (known as the Padrino System locally); thus, the House of Representatives always aligns itself with the party of the sitting president.

The majority bloc sits to the right side of the speaker, facing the House of Representatives.

Party standings
Philippine House of Representatives composition.svg
Current party standing.
Party Total %
Liberal 113 38.7%
NPC 39 13.4%
NUP 26 8.9%
Nacionalista 20 6.8%
Lakas 14 4.8%
UNA 9 3.1%
LDP 2 0.7%
CDP 1 0.3%
KABAKA 1 0.3%
Kambilan 1 0.3%
KBL 1 0.3%
PPP 1 0.3%
Unang Sigaw 1 0.3%
United Negros Alliance 1 0.3%
Independents 5 1.7%
Party-list 55 18.8%
Totals 289 99.0%

Latest election[edit]

1+

For the party-list result, see Philippine House of Representatives party-list election, 2013.
e • d Summary of the May 13, 2013 Philippine House of Representatives election results for representatives from congressional districts
Party/coalition Popular vote Breakdown Seats
Total % Swing Entered Up Gains Holds Losses Wins Elected %[hd 1] +/−[hd 2]
Liberal (Liberal Party) 10,557,265 38.27% Increase 18.34% 160 93 22 85 8 4 111 37.7% Increase 18
Bukidnon Paglaum (Hope for Bukidnon) 100,405 0.36% Increase 0.36% 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3% Steady
Kusug Agusanon (Progressive Agusan) 71,436 0.26% Increase 0.26% 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3% Steady
KKK (Struggle for Peace, Progress and Justice) 54,425 0.20% Increase 0.16% 2 [hd 3] 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
Akbayan (Akbayan Citizens' Action Party) 34,239 0.12% Increase 0.12% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
Liberal Party coalition 10,817,770 39.22% Increase 19.45% 165 95 22 86 8 4 113 38.7% Increase 18
UNA (United Nationalist Alliance) 3,140,381 11.38% Increase 11.38% 55 11 3 5 6 0 8 2.7% Decrease 3
PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party – People's Power) 281,320 1.02% Increase 0.30% 13 [hd 4] 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses) 144,030 0.52% Decrease 1.98% 11 [hd 5] 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
KABAKA (Partner of the Nation for Progress) 94,966 0.34% Increase 0.14% 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3% Steady
Magdiwang (Magdiwang Party) 23,253 0.08% Decrease 0.05% 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0.3% Increase 1
1-Cebu (One Cebu) 21,936 0.08% Increase 0.08% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
United Nationalist Alliance coalition 3,127,769 11.34% Increase 7.79% 82 12 3 7 4 0 10 3.4% Decrease 2
Kambilan (Shield and Fellowship of Kapampangans) 96,433 0.35% Increase 0.35% 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.3% Increase 1
Unang Sigaw (First Cry of Nueva Ecija–Party of Change) 94,952 0.35% Increase 0.34% 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.3% Increase 1
United Negros Alliance 91,467 0.33% Increase 0.33% 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3% Steady
Hugpong (Party of the People of the City) 65,324 0.24% Increase 0.24% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
Sulong Zambales (Forward Zambales) 60,280 0.22% Increase 0.22% 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0.0% Decrease 1
PPP (Party of Change for Palawan) 57,485 0.21% Increase 0.21% 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.3% Increase 1
BALANE (New Force of Nueva Ecija Party) 39,372 0.14% Increase 0.14% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
Tingog Leytenon (Positive Leyte) 34,025 0.12% Increase 0.13% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
AZAP (Forward Zamboanga Party) 15,881 0.06% Increase 0.06% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
Ompia (Ompia Party) 1,682 0.01% Increase 0.01% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
Unaffiliated local parties 556,901 2.02% Increase 1.84% 10 2 3 1 1 0 4 1.4% Increase 2
NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition) 4,800,907 17.40% Increase 1.44% 71 40 4 34 6 4 42 14.4% Increase 2
NUP (National Unity Party) 2,394,631 8.68% Increase 8.68% 34 30 0 24 6 0 24 8.2% Decrease 6
Nacionalista (Nationalist Party) 2,340,994 8.49% Decrease 2.86% 44 20 4 13 7 0 17 5.8% Decrease 3
Lakas (People Power-Christian Muslim Democrats) 1,472,464 5.34% Decrease 32.07% 24 18 0 13 5 1 14 4.8% Decrease 4
Aksyon (Democratic Action) 97,982 0.36% Decrease 0.09% 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
KBL (New Society Movement) 94,484 0.34% Decrease 0.12% 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3% Steady
LDP (Struggle of the Democratic Filipinos) 90,070 0.33% Decrease 0.15% 4 1 1 1 0 0 2 0.7% Increase 1
CDP (Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines) 68,281 0.25% Increase 0.25% 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3% Steady
Ang Kapatiran (Aliance for the Common Good) 19,019 0.07% Decrease 0.06% 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
PMM (Workers' and Farmers' Party) 10,396 0.04% Decrease 2.59% 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
PLM (Party of the Laboring Masses) 10,196 0.04% Increase 0.04% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
Makabayan (Patriotic Coalition of the People) 3,870 0.01% Increase 0.01% 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
DPP (Democratic Party of the Philippines) 1,071 0.00% Increase 0.00% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0% Steady
Independent 1,665,324 6.04% Decrease 0.91% 172 4 4 1 3 1 6 2.1% Increase 2
Vacancy 5 0 0 5 0 0.0% Decrease 5
Total 27,584,741 100% N/A 628 229 43 181 43 10 234 80.1% Increase 5
Valid votes 27,584,741 86.94% Decrease 4.59%
Invalid votes 4,148,957 13.08% Increase 4.25%
Turnout
Registered voters (without overseas voters) 52,014,648 100% Increase 2.54%
  1. ^ Of all 292 House members, including party-list representatives.
  2. ^ From last composition of the 15th Congress.
  3. ^ All incumbent KKK representatives are co-nominated by the Liberal Party.
  4. ^ All incumbent PDP-Laban representatives are running under the United Nationalist Alliance.
  5. ^ All incumbent PMP representatives are running under the United Nationalist Alliance.

See also[edit]

Coat of Arms of the Philippines.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Philippines
Constitution

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://dzmm.abs-cbnnews.com/news/National/Rep._Feliciano_Belmonte%2C_muling_mauupong_House_Speaker_sa_16th_Congress.html
  2. ^ Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library. "The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines - Article VI". Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  3. ^ National Statistical Coordination Board. "NSCB - Statistics - Population and Housing". Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  4. ^ National Statistics Office (2012-04-04). "The 2010 Census of Population and Housing Reveals the Philippine Population at 92.34 million". Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  5. ^ "RP pop'n calls for 350 Congress seats". Jesus F. Llanto of Newsbreak. Retrieved November 6, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Most populous provinces and their legislative districts". Jesus F. Llanto of Newsbreak. Retrieved November 6, 2010. 
  7. ^ "The Official Buildings of the House of Representatives: The Ancestral Quarters". Congress.gov.ph. Retrieved 2011-05-26. 
  8. ^ "The Official Buildings of the House of Representatives: The Present Legislative Building". Congress.gov.ph. Retrieved 2011-05-26. 

External links[edit]