House of Sabah
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The House of Sabah (Arabic: آل صباح Al Sabah) is the ruling family of Kuwait. They are a clan from the Utub federation which migrated to Kuwait in the early 18th century, from Basra and Najd. After reaching Kuwait, they entered in an alliance with the other families such as Al-Khalifa and Al Jalahma. The Al Sabah family has been Kuwait's monarchy since 1756.
The Emir of Kuwait is the head of the executive branch. He is nominated by a family council headed by the most senior and prominent members of the Al-Sabah. The leadership is not strictly hereditary and although some emirs have succeeded their fathers, the family chooses the leader from each succeeding generation. For example, the late Jaber Al-Sabah appointed his cousin, Sheikh Saad, as heir apparent.
The Kuwaiti parliament (per Article 3 of the Constitution) has the constitutional right to approve and disapprove of an emir's appointment, therefore the parliament has the authority to remove an emir from his post. The parliament effectively removed Saad al-Sabah from his post in 2006 due to his illness.
Some (not all) members of the monarchy receive a monthly stipend from the Amiri Diwan. The prime minister is selected by the Emir of Kuwait and he could be any Kuwaiti citizen. In 1991, right after the Gulf War, a Time magazine article stated that the Al-Sabah family have an estimated wealth of $90 billion, with investments mostly in the United States. "The al-Sabah family by now was unimaginably rich, with an estimated wealth of some 90 billion dollars. They had invested about 50 billion dollars in the stocks of US companies." By 2010, almost 20 years later, the estimated wealth of the Al-Sabah family is unknown, but many observers predict that it has tripled, or even quadrupled over the years, as the Al-Sabah's have the largest shares in almost all the blue chip corporations in the Western world, with tens of billions of dollars invested in companies from Citibank to Daimler AG to Merrill Lynch.
The origins of Kuwait
The importance of the Persian Gulf and Kuwait in history and in the international relations and international trade in particular stretches back to the old distant ages. The present land of Kuwait was located within the Arabian middle lands of the State of Kendah which emerged during the period from the 3rd to 5th centuries AD.
The archeological excavation commenced by the effort of the Danish mission in Failaka Island in 1958 proved that an ancient historical civilization existed in Kuwait. The present land of the State of Kuwait is connected in the west to the Arabian Peninsula which is an inseparable part of it. Also from the sea side, it forms a part of the Persian Gulf coast. On that basis, the ancient and middle history are firmly related to the Arabian Peninsula, its residents and the Persian Gulf area.
Historians mentioned that when the Macedonian Alexander (the Great), the great Greek conqueror and leader, invaded the east in 326 BC, he discovered a sea way between Al-Sind River and Shatt Alarab through the Persian Gulf in 326 BC. He stayed with some of his soldiers in Failaka and discovered in the Island "Ikariues" stone, written upon by the Greeks, along with other many antiques. It is historical proof that certifies the emergence of an old civilization in Kuwait that was contemporary to the ancient eastern civilizations.
One of the historians stated that the land of Kuwait witnessed a day of the war between Al-Harith bin Amro bin Hajr Al-Kindi and the King of Al-Munathira, Al-Munthir bin Maa Al-Samaa Al-Lakhmi who defeated Al-Hareth at Warbah Island in the pre-Islamic époque.
In addition, the coasts of the Persian Gulf witnessed the first clash in the onset of Islam between the Persians and the Muslims during the period of Caliphate Abu Baker Al-Sideeq in 12 AH., 633 AD, in Kadhima (That Al-Salasil) which was known later as Kuwait.
From the end of the 9th century to the end of 11th century., the region of Kuwait was integrated with a great part of Arabian Peninsula within the strong State of Al-Karamitah, which threatened the Abassied Caliphate in Baghdad. After the collapse of that state, which many historians described as "the first socialist state in the history", a group of local and tribal emirates emerged and continued to the end of the 15th century. The port of Kazdhema on the coast of Kuwait served as the nautical gate to the east side of Arabian Peninsula during that period.
In the modern ages Banu Khalid became the strongest Arab tribe in this region and were able at the end of the 15th century to occupy larger areas stretching from Basra to Qatar including Kuwait. The Sheikhs of Banu Khalid refused to surrender to Ottoman Turkish power after that. When sheikh, Barrak bin Areiar took over the leadership of Bani Khalid in 1669 AD., he sieged Alhafoof city. It was part of Alhasa, until it collapsed after the surrender of the Ottomen ruler Omar Basha. Therefore, the Ottomen Turkish power over the east coast of the Persian Gulf practically ended.
The importance of Kuwait aroused when some highly dignified families, like Al-Sabah and other families who immigrated with them, who belong to the Anizzah tribe and others, lived in it. They were the first to build stone houses there. Kuwait was initially called Qurain. It is the name that appeared in the European maps in the 18th and 19th centuries. Then the name was changed to "Kuwait". The word Kuwait is a minor of the word Kout. Barrak, the Emir of Bani Khalid, was the first to build Alkout as a storehouse at the end of 1110 AH (1698 AD).
The Al-Sabah, Al-Kahlifa, Al-Zaid Al-Jalahma and Al-Mo'awda families, were the first to migrate to Kuwait with a group of bedouins and fishermen. Sabah the First was chosen as the Emir of Kuwait in 1110–1130 AH.
The history of Al-Sabah family in Kuwait goes back to 1613 AD. According to a letter from Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah to the British dweller in the Persian Gulf regarding the demarcation of boundaries of Kuwait he stated: "Kuwait is a barren land our Grandfather Sabah lived in it in 1022 AH. 1613 AD." Then he referred to the emergence of Kuwait that we have mentioned previously and which was supported by a group of resources. Many stories stated its stability and development in the period 1469 AD, which is the year the people of Qurain sent ships and weapons to Nasser Bin Murshid, the Sultan of Oman, to assist him against the Portuguese resistance aiming to occupy the Persian Gulf area. During this historical period, the researchers found clear references of the stability, advancement, and progress of Kuwait which show that there was no political disorder or conflicts that led to changing or transforming the ruling system. The reference of Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah to the history of Al-Sabah family in Kuwait since 1022 AH. 1613 AD in his letter has no means to oppose or weaken it. So historically, the first ruler of Al-Sabah family is Sheikh Sabah bin Jaber, also known as Sabah the First who departed in 1190 AH. (1776 AD).
Ever since Sheikh Sabah the First assumed leadership of Kuwait in 1756, his descendants have ruled over the country unchallenged.
Some governed Kuwait for many years while others were less fortunate with time.
- 1st Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Sabah I bin Jaber: 1756–1762
- 2nd Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Abdullah I: 1762–1812
- 3rd Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Jaber I: 1812–1859
- 4th Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Sabah II: 1859–1866
- 5th Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Abdallah II: 1866–1892
- 6th Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Muhammad Al-Sabah: 1892–1896
- 7th Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah: 1896–1915
- 8th Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Jaber II: 1915–1917
- 9th Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah: 1917–1921
- 10th Ruler: H.H.Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah: 1921–1950
- 11th Ruler and 1st Emir: H.H.Sheikh Abdullah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah: 1950–1965
- 12th Ruler and 2nd Emir: H.H.Sheikh Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah: 1965–1977
- 13th Ruler and 3th Emir: H.H.Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah: 1977–2006
- 14th Ruler and 4th Emir: H.H.The Father-Figure Sheikh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah: (15 January 2006 – 29 January 2006)
- 15th Ruler and 5th Emir: H.H.Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, the Emir of the State of Kuwait: (2006-present)
The governing branches of the Al-Sabah dynasty
Rotating governance of the emirship in the House of Al-Sabah started with the descendants of the 4th Ruler of Kuwait, who's sons where the 5th, 6th and 7th Rulers respectively. Mainly H.H.Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah also known as Mubarak the Great felt uncomfortable with his brother H.H.Sheikh Muhammad Al-Sabah; therefore, Al-Sabah stripped the rulership from the 6th Ruler of Kuwait and proclaimed himself the 7th Ruler and main prime from which the descendant of the two—H.H.Jaber 8th Ruler of Kuwait (1915–17) and H.H.Salim 9th Ruler of Kuwait (1917–21) rotate the current Emirship of Kuwait.
In the meantime the situation has changed because other offsprings have been posted to the most important Ministries leading them to champion the merited leadership of the State of Kuwait.
The elder of the three brothers H.H.Sheikh Abdallah II; the 5th Ruler of Kuwait, paralleled descendants who served the Al-Sabah dynasty and Kuwait with high distinction and made the ultimate sacrifice going above and beyond. Among them is martyred Cavalry Commander H.H.Sheikh Jaber Abdullah II Al-Sabah II Al-Sabah (1860–1920) † and the descendants of H.H.Sheikh Abdullah Jaber Al-Abdullah II Al-Sabah (1898–1996) (WIA); a contemporary of seven Rulers and Emirs.
Al-Sabah hierarchy and lineage
Leadership in the Al-Sabah dynasty and beyond
The House of Sabah counts members beyond the thousands. Every Al-Sabah is rightly titled at birth by Sheikh or Sheikha and should be addressed as such. Most Al-Sabah work for the government while others work also for the private sector. While honorific titles are significantly socially weighted; they are not a final sealing indication that confirm task handling important posts nor are they a confirmation of sealing the execution of tasks; specially when the person at hand is of a junior status. The private sector in Kuwait champions financial leadership through a very democratic and liberal system based on meritocracy, education skills and qualifications and irrespective of nationality, tribal origin and religion. It goes without saying that age in the private sector confirms long track records of experience; providing the output of results is just. On another hand, the Government of Kuwait focuses the tasking of important posts and significant responsibility on the wisdom of age through valid and rightly fitted experiences that justify tasked duties.
Unlike most world countries governed by political parties; much of Asia, the Arab World and more specficially the Gulf Cooperation Council are governed by tribal Chiefdom leadership. Such Chieftain leadership philosophy centers power around seniority and age mainly. While not an absolute policy; responsibility of tasks handed have overlooked the concept of seniority. Such rare cases are applicable when the handler be of a highly merited persona.
Much of the Gulf Cooperation Council have deep and historical tribal ties. Also, these rooted tribal belongings can be traced to other Arab and non-Arab countries such as Jordan, Iraq, Syria and Iran. Therefore, tribal leadership rights, jurisdictions and loyalties sometimes extends beyond the demarcation of borders and countries. Hence, assuming that citizenship is a common denominator at all times can be quite miscalculating and significantly misleading. The origin of the tribe has final seal claim of identity and loyalty and such an Arab reality is the only real facutal effective democracy applicable in the Arab World; contrary to the false understanding application of democracy on behalf of non tribal constitutionalized countries.
Since Sheikh Sabah the first assumed leadership of the country in 1756; not only have the Al-Sabah ruled humbly unchallenged but their ambitions never exceeded their borders and their concept of necessary warfare was only a preemptive one in the defense of the people residing within the wall of Kuwait. While Kuwait has supported the Arab countries in the Six Day War 1967,the War of Attrition (1967–1970) and 1973 October War Egyptian & Syrian Front from the principle of Arab solidarity; the Al-Sabah dynasty maintained and has always focused on the Defense of Kuwait only along with the security and safety of the people of Kuwait. Since the early 1900s, Kuwait was surrounded and protected by a wall that was guarded by Defense and Security Forces primarly formed of cavalrymen and infantrymen. The wall allowed Kuwait to grow economically through sea trading as the desert component of the country was firmly sealed with a guarded force. History invited numerous times since the early 1900's invading tribes and foreign regimes; attempting to harm the innocent unjustifiably and profit illogically for mere personal gain at the expense of the defenceless. The Al-Sabah mainly at the time along with other notable Kuwaiti service men guarded the wall and repelled invading tribes in battles conducted outside the wall in the desert in order to protect trade and the people housed within. With the tearing down of the wall in 1957 right before the independance era; Kuwait witnissed the forming of newly established security Armed Forces along with the invitation of tribal regional geopolitical malpractices aimed to gain territory and economical interets unjustifiably. Before the leading to Operation Desert Storm 1990–1991 and in more recent times following the French Indochina War 1946–1958 era; major malpractice was first applied in 1961 when the leader of Iraq at the time wanted to incorporate Kuwait into Iraq and viewed the military threat, by Britain, as imminent. As a result, Operation Vantage 1961 was launched by the British along with the leadership within the Al-Sabah, other notable Kuwaitis and the Kuwaiti Armed Forces; mainly the Kuwaiti Army to support the Independence of Kuwait. Kuwait was finally recognized by Iraq in 1963. Despite the Independence of Kuwait in 1961; periodic border clashes and intense disputes between Kuwait and Iraq were still ongoing. In 1973; while the Kuwaitis were supporting abroad the Arabs in the 1973 October War Egyptian & Syrian Front in which the Military of Iraq was an Arab belligerent; a significant unexpected malpractice surfaced silently in the backyard of Kuwait the same year with Iraq. The silent crisis was known as the Kuwait-Iraq Silent Crisis of 1973 or Silent War of 1973; part of the Iraq-Kuwait relations and the leadership of Kuwait found themselves again leading by surprise unjustifiably an undesired yet willed battle; this time however, at two uneven fronts. Such a particular situation for instance, required the handling and execution of staunch military leadership and the Al-Sabah were right on task handling and fitting the usual right men.
The nobility of the Al-Sabah can only be validated through the rich and vibrant history of many contributions and sacrifices shouldered on behalf of serving Kuwaiti men and Kuwaiti women. History has tested the patience of the Al-Sabah many times over; however, the main priority of the Al-Sabah's has always been the people of Kuwait, specially women and children and their well being with lesser concerns of bookmarking track historical accounts.
The First Gulf War was a traumatic and devastating test for the people of Kuwait. Following the invasion; H.H.Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, the late Emir, issued an Emiri Decree No. 38 of the year 1991 on the 19th of June 1991 to establish the Martyr Bureau. His companion H.H.Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, current Emir of Kuwait has completed this patronage and sought to achieve the lofty goals crystallized in honoring martyrs, their heroism, their patriotism, caring for their families and their sacrifice in defending their homeland and its dignity. Nevertheless, according to Kuwait News Agency KUNA; out of around 600 people only 236 remains have, thus far, been found and identified. The families of those still missing yearn to lay their loved ones to rest.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier along with the quest of identifying the remains of missing Kuwaiti civilians and Kuwaiti POWs are the pinnacle corps missions that represent the essence of the State of Kuwait.
Late Emir H.H.Sheikh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah was removed by parliamentary action after a prolonged stalemate following the death of the previous Emir, H.H.Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, on 15 January 2006. He was earlier offered the chance to abdicate after taking power provisionally as stipulated by the constitution, but his inability to recite the oath of office prevented his ratification by parliament.
The then Prime Minister, H.H.Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, was nominated for the post of emir by invoking Article 3 of the Kuwaiti Constitution. He was sworn in on 29 January 2006 and is the current ruler.
In May 2008, the former Emir, H.H.Sheikh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, died after battling health problems for years. He was buried the following day in accordance with Muslim tradition. He was 78 years old.
Titles and official protocol designations
The emir: His Highness The Emir Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
- His Highness Sheikh Abdullah II Sabah II Al-Jaber I Al-Sabah (1814–1892)
- 5th Official Ruler of Kuwait (1866–1892)
- His Highness Sheikh Mubarak Sabah II Al-Jaber I Al-Sabah (1837–1915)
- 7th Official Ruler of Kuwait (1896–1915)
- H.E. Sheikh Jaber Abdullah II Al-Sabah II Al-Sabah (1860–1920) †
- H.E. Sheikh Abdullah Jaber Al-Abdullah II Al-Sabah (1898–1996) (WIA)
- Battle knight and cavalry squadron Commander in Battle of Hamdh (1919), Battle of Jahra (1920) and Battle of Al-Regeai (1928)
- Battle Commander General of Defense and Security Forces in metropolitan and desert areas (1928–1938); the Defense and Security Forces in metropilitan and desert areas later formed the Kuwaiti Army within the Kuwaiti Public Security Force. The Kuwaiti Army was later expanded to the Kuwaiti Armed Forces and formed later by divide the Kuwaiti Ministry of Interior.
- Participated in and lead all Kuwaiti battles outside the wall of Kuwait
- Head of Courts Department (1928–1961)
- Head of the first Municipality (1932)
- Head of the Municipality Department (1932–1937)
- Head of the first Education Council (1936)
- Head of the Education Department (1937–1961)
- Head of the first Awqaf Department (1948–1961)
- Head of the Orphans Department (1949–1961)
- Member of the Higher Council for Administering the Country Affairs (1961–1962)
- The first unprecedented Minister of Education in the Independence Era (1962–1965)
- Minister of Commerce and Industry (1965–1971)
- Special Adviser to the Rulers and Emirs of Kuwait; he was a contemporary of 7 Rulers and Emirs
- Special Adviser to the Emir of Kuwait in the reign of Late H.H.Sheikh Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah (1971–1977)
- Special Adviser to the Emir of Kuwait in the reign of Late H.H.Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1977–1996)
- H.E. Sheikh Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah II Al-Sabah (1914–1991)
- Security Deputy to the 1st Emir and 11th Ruler of Kuwait during the reign of Sheikh Abdullah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah.
- Head of the Kuwaiti Public Security Force; later known as the Kuwaiti Ministry of Interior by divide with the Kuwaiti Army.
- Appointed as Marshal and acting Commander of Kuwaiti Public Security Force which included the Kuwaiti Army.
- Pillar in the forming separation of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Interior and the Kuwaiti Army which was later expanded to the Kuwaiti Armed Forces with the tearing down of the Kuwaiti wall in 1957 that protected and surrounded Kuwait.
- Left the service in 1961.
- His Highness Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1926–2006)
- 13th Ruler and 3rd Official Emir of Kuwait
- Lead the Kuwaiti Government in exile from Saudi Arabia during the First Gulf War. Provided financial support to all Kuwaiti families deposed in foreign countries. Al-Sabah and his Government lobbied extensively for military support during the First Gulf War to relieve the people of Kuwait that could not leave, specially women and children. Received support from a United Nations mandated coalition led by the United States.
- His Highness Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1929–present)
- 15th Ruler and 5th Official Emir of Kuwait (2006–present)
- Foreign Minister of the State of Kuwait (1963–2003)
- Al-Sabah joined the former Emir of Kuwait Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah in the United Nations in a meeting with U.S. President George H. W. Bush and other coalition forces to help in liberating Kuwait
- His Highness Sheikh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah (1930–2008)
- H.E. Sheikh Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1934–1987).
- Commissioned as a Lieutenant from Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (1953)
- Deputy Head Commander of the Kuwaiti Army (1954)
- Promoted to the rank of Major General in December (1962) before the age of 30
- Appointed to 1st unprecedented Chief of Staff of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces(1963)
- Unprecedented rank of Lieutenant General (1979)
- Awarded Arab and non-Arab military decoration and awards
- Pillar in the foundation and development of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces
- Patron of the Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade
- Mubarak al-Abdullah Joint Command and Staff College was established in 1995 in his honor
- His Highness Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1937–present)
- H.E.Sheikh Salem Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah (1938–2007)
- Former Deputy Prime Minister
- Minister of Defense
- Minister of Interior
- Minister of Foreign Affairs.
- His Highness Sheikh Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah (1940–present)
- Former Prime Minister of the State of Kuwait (2006–2011)
- His Highness Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah (1942–present)
- Current Prime Minister of the State of Kuwait (2011–present)
- Former Defense Minister (2006–2011).
- H.E. Sheikh Saud Nasser Al-Saud Al-Sabah (1944–2012)
- H.E. Sheikh Jaber Khaled Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1944–present)
- H.E. Sheikh Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1945–1990) †
- H.E. Sheikh Ahmad Al Khalid Al Sabah (TBD–present)
- H.E. Sheikh Sabah Al-Khalid Al-Sabah (1953–present)
- Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister (2011–present)
- H.E. Sheikh Muhammad Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah (1955–present)
- Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister (2005–2011)
- H.E. Sheikh Mohammad Al Khalid Al Sabah (TBD–present)
- Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior (2011–present). Former Minister of Interior (1996–2003)
- H.E. Sheikh Khaled Al Jarrah Al Sabah (TBD–present)
- H.E. Sheikh Ahmed Al-Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah (1963–present)
- Major (Ret.)
- Former Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs and Minister of State for Development Affairs and Minister of State for Housing Affairs
- Minister of Information (2000)
- Minister of Oil (2001)
- Director of the National Security Agency (2006)
- President of the Olympic Council of Asia (1991–present)
- H.E. Sheikha Nayirah al-Sabah
- Daughter of H.E.Sheikh Saud Nasser Al-Saud Al-Sabah, provided testimony as "Nurse Nayirah" to the United States
- Congressional Human Rights Caucus before the First Gulf War. Despite criticism of the Ambassador's daughter and the claims of staging war propaganda through Citizens for a Free Kuwait campaign which was run by Hill & Knowlton; experts argue factually that the First Gulf War was not a planned event nor does it quite fit the suggested documentary film of 1992 To Sell a War; nor was it a campaign effort to spin public relations sentiment in the United States in favor of a War. The First Gulf War was much related to a sequence of time events that dates back to 1973; both historically and factually. Other specialized military experts would go back further to Operation Vantage 1961 and the Kuwait-Iraq Silent Crisis of 1973 or Silent War of 1973; part of the Iraq-Kuwait relations and while analyzing the operational engagements of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces; experts factually argue that the stage was set ever since Kuwait was never recognized as an Independent State even after rightly gaining its independence in 1961.
- Al Sabah: History and Genealogy of Kuwait’s Ruling Family 1752-1987 by Alan Rush (Ithaca Press, 1987)
- Burke’s Ruling Families of the World, Volume 2 (Burke’s Peerage, 1980), includes genealogies and essays on Al-Sabah (Kuwait)
- Records of Kuwait ed., Alan Rush (8 vols. Archive Editions, 1989)
- Michael Herb (1999). All in the Family: Absolutism, Revolution, and Democracy in Middle Eastern Monarchies. pp. 68–69.
-  Embassy of the State of Kuwait; Washington DC. About Kuwait, History and Facts, The Origin of Kuwait
-  Al-Diwan Al-Amiri;Al-Sabah Rulers of Kuwait
-  Al-Diwan Al-Amiri; Al-Sabah Rulers of Kuwait
- , Kuwaiti Ministry of Defense,(Section Arabic Read الجيش الكويتي)
- , Al-Diwan Al-Amiri; Martyrs Bureau
-  Kuwait News Agency, In memory of those still missing since Iraq 1990's Invasion of Kuwait
- , Kuwait History
- "CBC: To sell a war". Richard Prins. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- , U.S.,Kuwait and Iraq War Timeline 1973–1993
- Article listing positions of a few Sabah's
- Detailed Genealogy of the Sabah family
- Former emir dies in Kuwait