House of Glücksburg

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House of Glücksburg
Coat of arms of the House of Glücksburg.png
Country Denmark
Greece
Iceland
Norway
Schleswig-Holstein
Parent house House of Oldenburg
Titles
Founded 6 July 1825
Founder Friedrich Wilhelm
Current head Christoph

The House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Danish: Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Lyksborg, also spelled -Glücksborg), also known as the House of Glücksburg, is a German ducal house.

Junior branches of the House include the royal houses of Denmark, Norway, and Greece. The Prince of Wales, who is the heir apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms,[1][2] belongs officially to the House of Windsor,[3] but also belongs to a cadet branch of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.

The House is named after Glücksburg in northernmost Germany. It is itself a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg, that is descended from Count Christian of Oldenburg, who became King of Denmark in 1448 and King of Norway in 1450. As the original House of Oldenburg and the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg became extinct in 1863 and 1931, respectively, the House of Glücksburg is now the senior surviving branch of the House of Oldenburg.

The House descends patrilineally from the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. The last of them became Duke of Glücksburg and changed his title accordingly to Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. He was married to Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel, a granddaughter of King Frederick V of Denmark.

Neither the Dukes of Beck nor of Glücksburg were sovereign rulers; they held their lands in fief to the sovereign Dukes of Schleswig and Holstein, i.e. the Kings of Denmark and, before 1773, the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp.

Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, the fourth son of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm, was chosen by the childless King Frederick VII of Denmark to be his heir, as Christian was married to Frederick's first cousin, Luise of Hesse-Kassel. He became King of Denmark as Christian IX on 15 November 1863.

Wilhelm, the second son of Crown Prince Christian and Crown Princess Luise, was elected King of the Hellenes on 30 March 1863 to succeed the deposed Wittelsbach Otto of Greece and took the name George I of Greece.

Prince Carl, the second son of Frederick VIII of Denmark, Christian IX's eldest son, became King of Norway on 18 November 1905 as Haakon VII of Norway.

Christian IX's daughters, Alexandra of Denmark and Dagmar of Denmark (who became Maria Feodorovna), married Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Alexander III of Russia, respectively. As a result, by 1914, descendants of King Christian IX were more prevalent on European thrones than those of Queen Victoria 5-2; Christian IX became known as the Father-in-law of Europe.

Patrilineal ancestry of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm[edit]

  1. Elimar I, Count of Oldenburg
  2. Elimar II, Count of Oldenburg
  3. Christian I, Count of Oldenburg (Christian the Quarrelsome)
  4. Maurice, Count of Oldenburg
  5. Christian II, Count of Oldenburg
  6. John I, Count of Oldenburg
  7. Christian III, Count of Oldenburg
  8. John II, Count of Oldenburg
  9. Conrad I, Count of Oldenburg
  10. Christian V, Count of Oldenburg
  11. Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg
  12. Christian I of Denmark
  13. Frederick I of Denmark
  14. Christian III of Denmark
  15. John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
  16. Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
  17. August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
  18. Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
  19. Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
  20. Karl Anton August, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
  21. Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
  22. Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Germany[edit]

Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg[edit]

Coat of arms of the Prince of Schleswig-Holstein.

The Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg constitute the senior male line of the family, who hold the headship of both the House of Glücksburg and the entire House of Oldenburg.

Portrait Name Life Reign
Prins Vilhelm 1785-1831.jpg Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 1785–1831 1825–1831
1813 Carl von Glucksburg.jpg Karl, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 1813–1878 1831–1878
Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1841).jpg Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 1814–1885 1878–1885
DukeFRIEDRICHFERDINAND.jpg Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein 1855–1934 1885–1934
PrinceFriedrich2.jpg Wilhelm Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein 1891–1965 1934–1965
Peter, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein 1922–1980 1965–1980
Grünholz 2 crop 20101109.JPG Christoph, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein 1949– 1980–

The heir apparent is Friedrich Ferdinand, Hereditary Prince of Schleswig-Holstein (b. 1985).

Denmark[edit]

King of Denmark[edit]

In 1853, Christian, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was heir to the Kingdom of Denmark, and in 1863, he ascended the Throne. His father was Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.

Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
Christian IX af Henrik Olrik.jpg Christian IX of Denmark 1818–1906 1863–1906 King of the Wends
King of the Goths
Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Lauenburg and Oldenburg
Prior to acceeding the throne:
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
(Danish: Prins af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glückborg)
Frederik IIX - Otto Bache.jpg Frederick VIII of Denmark 1843–1912 1906–1912 King of the Wends
King of the Goths
Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Lauenburg and Oldenburg
King Christian X of Denmark.jpg Christian X of Denmark 1870–1947 1912–1947 King of Iceland (used 1918-1947)
King of the Wends
King of the Goths
Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Lauenburg and Oldenburg
Frederick IX of Denmark.jpg Frederick IX of Denmark 1899–1972 1947–1972 King of the Wends
King of the Goths
Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Lauenburg and Oldenburg
Drottning Margrethe av Danmark.jpg Margrethe II of Denmark 1940– 1972–

The heir apparent is Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark (b. 1968), who belongs patrilineally to the House of Monpezat. See the present line of succession.

Count of Rosenborg[edit]

Younger princes have received the noble title of Count of Rosenborg with the style His Excellency.

Greece[edit]

King of the Hellenes[edit]

Thirty-drachma coin of 1963, commemorating the centennial of the reign of the House of Glücksburg. Clockwise from the top: Paul, George II, Alexander, Constantine I and George I.


In 1863 and with the name George I, Prince Wilhelm of Denmark became King of the Hellenes. His father was King Christian IX of Denmark.

Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
King George of Hellenes.jpg George I of Greece 1845–1913 1863–1913 Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Constantine I of Greece.jpg Constantine I of Greece 1868–1923 1913–1917
1920–1922
Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
King Alexander of Greece.jpg Alexander of Greece 1893–1920 1917–1920 Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Georgeiiofgreece.jpg George II of Greece 1890–1947 1922–1924
1935–1947
Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Paul I of Greece.jpg Paul of Greece 1901–1964 1947–1964 Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
King Constantine.jpg Constantine II of Greece 1940– 1964–1973 Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Titular
Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
King Constantine.jpg Constantine II of Greece 1940– 1973– Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

The heir apparent is Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece (b. 1967). See the present line of succession

Norway[edit]

King of Norway[edit]

In 1905 and with the name Haakon VII, Prince Carl of Denmark became King of Norway. His father was King Frederick VIII of Denmark, and one of his uncles was King George I of Greece.

Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
Haakon7.jpg Haakon VII of Norway 1872–1957 1905–1957 Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Olav V of Norway.jpg Olav V of Norway 1903–1991 1957–1991 Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Medvedev harald guards (crop).jpg Harald V of Norway 1937– 1991– Prince of Denmark
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

The heir apparent is Crown Prince Haakon of Norway (b. 1973). See the present line of succession.

Iceland[edit]

King of Iceland[edit]

In 1918, Iceland was elevated from an autonomous Danish province to an separate Kingdom of Iceland. King Christian X of Denmark was henceforth King of Denmark and Iceland. This lasted until 1944, when Iceland dissolved the union between the two countries. Christian X was the only monarch to hold a distinct Icelandic title, and used the same CX cypher and the same regnal number as in Denmark.

Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
King Christian X of Denmark.jpg Christian X of Iceland 1870–1947 1918–1944 King of Denmark
King of the Wends
King of the Goths
Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Lauenburg and Oldenburg

The heir apparent was his son Frederick IX of Denmark (1899–1972).

Great Britain and Northern Ireland[edit]

Duke of Edinburgh[edit]

Coat of arms of the Duke of Edinburgh.

In 1947, Philip of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Prince of Greece and of Denmark (who relinquished all his titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten), was created Duke of Edinburgh by his father-in-law.

Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
Prince Philip NASA cropped.jpg Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh[2] 1921– 1947– Earl of Merioneth
Baron Greenwich

The heir apparent is Charles, Prince of Wales (b. 1948).[4]

Prince of Wales[edit]

Coat of arms of the Prince of Wales.
Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
Prince Charles 2012.jpg Charles, Prince of Wales[2] 1948– 1958– Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Rothesay
Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
Earl of Carrick
Baron of Renfrew
Lord of the Isles

The heir apparent is Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (b. 1982).

Duke of Cambridge[edit]

Coat of arms of the Duke of Cambridge.
Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
Prince William of Wales RAF.jpg William, Duke of Cambridge[2] 1982– 2011– Earl of Strathearn
Baron Carrickfergus

The heir apparent is Prince George of Cambridge (b. 2013).

Duke of York[edit]

Coat of arms of the Duke of York.
Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
Príncipe André do Reino Unido.jpg Andrew, Duke of York 1960– 1986– Earl of Inverness
Baron Killyleagh

There is no heir(ess).[citation needed]

Earl of Wessex[edit]

Coat of arms of the Earl of Wessex.
Portrait Name Life Reign Additional titles
Prins Edward, earl av Wessex - version 4.jpg Edward, Earl of Wessex 1964– 1999– Viscount Severn

The heir apparent is James, Viscount Severn (b. 2007).

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Published on Saturday 18 April 2009 20:03 (2009-04-18). "Prince Philip beats the record for longest-serving consort - News - Scotsman.com". News.scotsman.com. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  2. ^ a b c d Michel Huberty, L'Allemagne dynastique, Volume 7, Giraud, 1994, ISBN 2-901138-07-1, ISBN 978-2-901138-07-5
  3. ^ Francois Velde. "Royal Styles and Titles – 1960 Letters Patent". Heraldica.org. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  4. ^ Whilst the letter patent states that the Dukedom is to be inherited by the (eldest) heir male of the body lawfully begotten, i.e. by the current Prince of Wales, it was announced in 1999 that Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, i.e. a younger brother of the Prince of Wales, would follow his father as Duke of Edinburgh. Pending changes to that effect, the Prince of Wales is currently the heir apparent according to the letter patent.

External websites[edit]