House of Schwarzenberg
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|(Princely) County of Schwarzenberg
(Gefürstete) Grafschaft Schwarzenberg
|State of the Holy Roman Empire|
Coat of arms
|Capital||Schwarzenberg Castle, Scheinfeld;
Český Krumlov (de facto since 1670s)
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|-||Acquired by Lords of
|14 July 1670|
|-||Raised to princely
The family was first mentioned in 1172. A branch of the Seinsheim family (the non-Schwarzenberg portion died out in 1958) was created when Erkinger I of Seinsheim acquired the Franconian barony of Schwarzenberg, the castle Schwarzenberg and the title Baron of Schwarzenberg, in 1405–21. At this time, they also possessed some fiefdoms in Bohemia. In 1599 the Schwarzenbergs were elevated to Counts and in 1670 to Princes. The House of Schwarzenberg came into extensive land holdings in Bohemia in 1661 through a marriage alliance with the House of Eggenberg. In the 1670s, they established their primary seat in Bohemia. Until 1918 their primary residence was in Český Krumlov, Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic).
In the late 18th century, the House of Schwarzenberg was divided into two titled lines (majorats). The elder line died out in the male line in 1965 with Heinrich Schwarzenberg, the 11th Prince of Schwarzenberg. The second line was established with Prince Karl Philipp of Schwarzenberg at Orlík, Murau and Vienna. Today the two lines are united under the current head of the house, Prince Karl VII of Schwarzenberg, who serves as the current minister of foreign affairs of the Czech Republic.
Coat of arms
The ancestral coat of the lords of Seinsheim consisted of vertical stripes in silver and blue.
In 1566, when John Younger of Schwarzenberg was ennobled, he added an inescutcheon with a silver tower for Schwarzenberg.
The House of Schwarzenberg produced many military commanders, politicians, church dignitaries (including an Archbishop of Prague), innovators and patrons of the arts. They were related to a number of European aristocratic families, notably to the Lobkowicz (Czech: Lobkovicové) family. By name, notable members are:
- Johann of Schwarzenberg (1463–1528), Bamberg judge, and friend of Martin Luther
- Adam, Count of Schwarzenberg (1583–1641), advisor of George William, Elector of Brandenburg
- Georg Ludwig, Count von Schwarzenberg (1586–1646), Austrian statesman during the Thirty Years War
- Prince Karl Philipp I of Schwarzenberg (1771–1820), Austrian general and field marshal
- Prince Felix of Schwarzenberg (1800–1852), Austrian statesman
- Edmund Prince of Schwarzenberg (1803–1873), Austrian field marshal
- Friedrich Johannes Jacob Celestin von Schwarzenberg (1809–1885), Archbishop of Salzburg and Prague
- Karel Schwarzenberg (born 1937), Czech politician; elected Member of the Chamber of Deputies, Senator, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic
The Schwarzenberg property in Bohemia included the Duchy of Krumlov, the town of Prachatice and Orlík Castle. The family also acquired property of the House of Rosenberg (Czech: Rožmberkové). They created ponds, planted forests and introduced new technologies in agriculture.
Upon the establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the possessions of Prince Adolf of Schwarzenberg were seized by the Nazi authorities. He himself managed to flee, while his cousin and heir Duke Heinrich of Krumlov was arrested and deported. After World War II the Czechoslovakian government by law No. 143/1947 from August 13, 1947 (Lex Schwarzenberg) stated that the assets of the Schwarzenberg-Hluboká primogeniture passed to the Land of Bohemia.
Castles and palaces
The Schwarzenberg holdings included the following castles:
- Schloß Schwarzenberg at Scheinfeld, Franconia
- Gimborn Castle in the Rhineland, from 1631 until 1874
- Krumlov Castle in Český Krumlov, South Bohemia, held from 1719 to 1947
- Hluboká Castle (German: Schloss Frauenberg) in Hluboká nad Vltavou, South Bohemia, acquired by Johann Adolf I of Schwarzenberg in 1661, held until 1947
- Vimperk (Winterberg) Castle, South Bohemia
- Třeboň Castle, South Bohemia
- Orlík Castle in Orlík nad Vltavou, South Bohemia, restored in 1992
- Čimelice Castle, South Bohemia
- Zvikov Castle, South Bohemia
- Schloss Murau, Styria
- Palais Schwarzenberg in Prague (until 1947)
- Palais Schwarzenberg in Vienna
- Palais Salm in Prague (until 1947)
Tiengen Castle at Waldshut-Tiengen, Germany, held until 19th century
Český Krumlov Castle, South Bohemia, held from 1719 to 1947
Hluboká nad Vltavou Castle, South Bohemia, acquired in 1661, held until 1947
Palais Schwarzenberg in Prague, held until 1947
Lords of Seinsheim
The House of Seinsheim regarded Erchanger, Duke of Swabia (died 917) as their ancestor.
- Apollonius d. Ä. (died 1311)
- Hildebrand (died 1386)
- Michael (I.) (died 1399)
- Erkinger (VI.) (1362–1437) 1409 founded Astheim Charterhouse with his first wife Anna von Bibra, received Schwarzenberg 1420, became baron of Schwarzenberg in 1429 and bought Hohenlandsberg in 1435: All Schwarzenbergs descend from Erkinger and his two wives, Anna von Bibra (died 1418) and Barbara von Abensberg (died 1448).
Barons of Schwarzenberg
- 1420–1437: Erkinger I (same as Erkinger VI above)
- 1437–1469: Michael II
- 1469–1499: Michael III
- 1499–1510: Erkinger II
- 1510–1526: Wilhelm I
- 1526–1557: Wilhelm II
- 1557–1599: Adolf, count until 1600
In 1599, the barony was raised to an Imperial county.
Counts of Schwarzenberg
Princes of Schwarzenberg
- 1670–1683: Johann Adolf I
- 1683–1703: Ferdinand Wilhelm Eusebius
- 1703–1732: Adam II Franz Karl, Duke of Krumlov from 1719
- 1732–1782: Joseph I Adam
- 1782–1789: Johann I
In November 1918 the Austro-Hungarian Empire ceases to exist.
Heads of the House of Schwarzenberg
- 1979–present: Karl VII, son of Karl VI, adopted by Heinrich, both lines reunified
Title of the head of the family:
- H.S.H. The Prince of Schwarzenberg, Duke of Krumlov, Count of Sulz, Princely Landgrave of Klettgau (German: S.D. Fürst von und zu Schwarzenberg, Herzog von Krummau, Graf von Sulz, gefürsteter Landgraf im Klettgau)
All the other members of the family are not Dukes of Krumlov and they should be addressed without the "the" in front of the title prince. In the German language they are just "Prinz" and the son of the head of the family should be addressed with the title "Erbprinz".
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Schwarzenberg.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Schwarzenberg.|
- Marek, Miroslav. "Family tree of the House of Schwarzenberg". Genealogy.EU.
- Pictorial family tree
- Coat of arms of the House of Schwarzenberg