House of Zhao
House of Zhao, also known as House of Chao (Pinyin: Zhao; Wade–Giles: Chao; Traditional Chinese: 趙; Simplified Chinese: 赵), was the imperial family of Song Empire.
The House of Zhao originated from Zhuo Jun Zhao Shi (Wade–Giles: Chuo Jun Chao Shi; Traditional Chinese: 涿郡趙氏; Simplified Chinese: 涿郡赵氏;)，which is a very old and well-known family in China with a long history since Spring and Autumn period (simplified Chinese: 春秋时代; traditional Chinese: 春秋時代; pinyin: Chūn qiū shí dài)。The founder of the Song Empire ── Zhao Kuangyin (Wade–Giles: Chao Kuangyin; Traditional Chinese: 趙匡胤, Simplified Chinese: 赵匡胤; pinyin: Zhào Kuāngyìn), also known as Song Taizu was born in a family with military tradition. His father Zhao Hongyin (趙弘殷) moved from Zhuo Jun to Luoyang (Traditional Chinese: 洛陽, Simplified Chinese: 洛阳)。Zhao Kuangyin also had an elder brother Zhao Guangji, two younger brothers: Zhao Guangyi (His successor, the second emperor of Song Empire) and Zhao Guangmei, and two younger sisters.
Rise of Family
Zhao Kuangyin's military career started in Hou Han. However, he quickly changed his stance, and went for his new leader Zhou Shizong, which was the enemy of Hou Han. He also persuaded his father Zhao Hongyin (趙弘殷), who was a military general of Hou Han, to serve for Zhou Shizong ─ Chai Rong. This caused the decline and collapse of Hou Han. With Zhou Shizong's trust, Zhao Kuangyin was assigned to the guardian of the new little seven-year-old Emperor Zhou Gong Di before Zhou Shizong's death.
However, with great accomplishment, ambition, and followers' loyalties and supports, Zhao Kuangyin eventually replaced Zhou Gong Di during a peaceful military coup, and became new ruler of the new kingdom Song. With years' efforts, Zhao Kuangyin conquered rest of the kingdoms in the north and south, and finally reunited China, and found great Song Empire. In order to prevent same military coup to happen again, Zhao Kuangyin fired all of his generals, and sent them home safely. This caused the overall military weakness of Song later.
Zhao Guangyi reigned for seventeen years and died suddenly and suspiciously in 976 at the age of forty-nine. His brother Zhao Guangyi ─ also known as Song Taizong became new emperor of Song Empire. There was a saying that Zhao Kuangyin was murdered by his brother Zhao Guangyi; and Zhao Kuangyin's two princes also died in same way.
Decline: Jingkang Incident
Nevertheless, Song still thrived under Zhao Guangyi's reign. But the threats of Northern Nomadic tribes, such as Khitans (Chinese: 契丹), Jurchens (Jin) (Chinese: 女真), and Tangut (Chinese: 黨項). On March 20, 1127, the capital of Song ─ Dongjing (literally Eastern Capital, now Kaifeng) fell into Jurchen's hands in the Jin–Song wars. After several days' looting and raping, the grand emperor Song Huizong, the emperor Song Qinzong, the empress of Song Qinzong, the grand empress Song Huizong, the consorts, most princes and princess, and other nobles were all captured, enslaved, and forced to walk to Jurchens' land. This miserable historical event was called Jingkang Incident (simplified Chinese: 靖康之难; traditional Chinese: 靖康之難). Many of these nobles died from illness, hunger, tortures, and rapes during the journey or after arriving in Jurchens' land. Some of them commits suicide to prevent from torturing and raping.
Song Huizong's ninth son, and Song Qinzong's ninth brother ─ Zhao Gou, also known as Song Gaozong, escaped from this disaster, and crowned to be the new emperor of Song in the south, and the capital was Hangzhou (renamed as Lin'an at the time). Song Gaozong's only son died very young, then Song Gaozong was forced to give his crown to his great ancestor Zhao Guangyi's elder brother Zhao Kuangyin's descendants. The royal lineage now went back to Zhao Kuangyin's line.
In 1234, Song allied with Mongol, fought against Jurchens to revenge for Jingkang Incident (simplified Chinese: 靖康之难; traditional Chinese: 靖康之難). Jurchens were finally defeated by both Song and Mongol. After the successful conquest of Jurchen, Song and Mongol's alliance quickly broke up, and turned into enemies of each other.
The Fall of the Empire
On March 19, 1279, the prime minister Lu Xiufu committed suicide with eight-year-old Emperor Huaizong of Song at sea after the Battle of Yamen against the Mongols with Song remnants. The Song empire ended, and the House of Zhao completely lost control over China and unable to regain power since. The classic China was considered to be ended at the same time. China was under the Mongolian Borjigin clan-established Yuan dynasty's rule under the for nearly one hundred years, until the rise of the Ming dynasty founded by the House of Zhu.
The Song royal descendant Zhao Mengfu became a famous painter during the Yuan dynasty and met with the Yuan Emperor Kublai Khan.
Later Song royal descendants included Zhao Yiguang 趙宧光 (1559-1625) who lived during the Ming dynasty, his wife was Lu Qingzi, they were intellectuals and members of the gentry. Zhao patronized his wife's books with his money. Zhao Yiguang and Lu had a son, Zhao Jun, who married Wen Congjian's daughter, who was also from a gentry family and literati who wrote poems.
Currently, there are numbers of known House of Zhao members living in Zhangpu County's Zhao Family Fort (趙家堡) in Fujian, where they taken up a residence since Yuan dynasty's establishment, and others in Hua'an County. There are some members reside in Guangdong.
Family tree of emperors
Song Taizu 太祖
Song Taizong 太宗
Song Renzong 仁宗
Song Zhezong 哲宗
Song Huizong 徽宗, also a great artist.
Song Qinzong 欽宗
Song Gaozong 高宗
Song Lizong 理宗
Song Duzong 度宗
- Zhao Mengfu, a great artist.
- Zhao Yong, an artist, son of Zhao Mengfu.
- Wang Meng, an artist, maternal grandson of Zhao Mengfu.
- Zhao Yiguang, a literary figure during the Ming dynasty, related to Zhao Mengfu
- Zhao Jun, son of Zhao Yiguang
- Patricia Buckley Ebrey (2003). Women and the family in Chinese history. Volume 2 of Critical Asian scholarship (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 190. ISBN 0-415-28823-1. Retrieved 4-1-2012.
- "Moaning Words" 宋人無名氏【呻吟語】
- Rossabi 1988, p. 76
- Ellen Widmer, Kang-i Sun Chang (1997). Ellen Widmer, Kang-i Sun Chang, ed. Writing women in late imperial China (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 0-8047-2872-0. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Lu Qingzi married a man who led an equally idyllic life, Zhao Yiguang (1559-1625 ), a descendant of the Song imperial family. Zhao fancied himself a recluse but often busied himself entertaining powerful and learned friends."
- Ellen Widmer, Kang-i Sun Chang (1997). Ellen Widmer, Kang-i Sun Chang, ed. Writing women in late imperial China (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-8047-2872-0. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "At age 15 sui, she married a literatus, Zhao Yiguang (zi Fanfu, 1559-1625) with whom she lived in seclusion in Hanshan."
- Dorothy Ko (1994). Teachers of the inner chambers: women and culture in seventeenth-century China (illustrated, annotated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 270. ISBN 0-8047-2359-1. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Like Xu Yuan, Lu Qingzi was a gentry wife who delighted in composing verse for singing girls. . . Her father, Lu Shidao (1517-80), served briefly as secretary of the Ministry of Rites . . .Lu Qingzi married a man who led an equally idyllic life, Zhao Yiguang ( 1 559-1625), a descendant of the Song imperial family. Zhao fancied himself a recluse but often busied himself with entertaining powerful and learned friends. He was also involved in a number of publishing projects, including his own works and those of his wife. The publication of both of Qingzi's collected works, Building a Hermitage (Kaopan ji) and Magical Herbs (Xuanzhi ji), was financed by her husband, as in Xu Yuan's case.51"
- Marsha Smith Weidner (1988). Marsha Smith Weidner, Indianapolis Museum of Art, ed. Views from Jade Terrace: Chinese women artists, 1300-1912 (illustrated ed.). Indianapolis Museum of Art. p. 31. ISBN 0-8478-1003-8. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "She married ZhaoJun, scion of an old Suzhou family, which traced its ancestry back to the imperial family of the Song dynasty and which counted among its sons the famous official and artist Zhao Mengfu (1254-1322). Zhao Jun's father was the recluse-scholar Zhao Yiguang (1559- 1625), and his mother was a daughter of Lu Shidao (1511-74), another Suzhou literatus. Zhao Jun studied the classics with Wen Congjian; thus a more permanent liaison between the two families was perhaps inevitable."
- Florence Bretelle-Establet (2010). Florence Bretelle-Establet, ed. Looking at it from Asia: the processes that shaped the sources of history of science. Volume 265 of Boston studies in the philosophy of science (illustrated ed.). Springer. ISBN 90-481-3675-X. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Jiangsu Governor Wang qishu Li Shouqian na Zhejiang Governor 董說 Ming 明 Zhu Zhongfu 朱仲福 Ming 明 Wei Rui 魏濬 Ming 明 Ke Zhongjung 柯仲炯 Ming 明 Zhao Yiguang 趙宧光 Ming 明 Xu Xuchen 許胥臣 Ming 明 Dong Yue"