Household

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This article is about an economic, social, or socioeconomic grouping. For the author, see Geoffrey Household.

A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share at meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.[1] A single dwelling will be considered to contain multiple households if either meals or living space are not shared. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models, and is important to the fields of economics, inheritance.[2] Household models include the family, varieties of blended families, share housing, group homes, boarding houses, houses in multiple occupation (UK), and a single room occupancy (US). In feudal times, the royal Household and medieval households of the wealthy would also have included servants and other retainers.

Government[edit]

For statistical purposes in the United Kingdom, a household is defined as "one person or a group of people who have the accommodation as their only or main residence and for a group, either share at least one meal a day or share the living accommodation, that is, a living room or sitting room".[3]

The United States Census definition similarly turns on "separate living quarters", i.e. "those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building"[4] A householder in the U.S. census is the "person (or one of the people) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented (maintained);" if no person qualifies, any adult resident of a housing unit is a householder. The U.S. government formerly used the terms "head of the household" and "head of the family" to describe householders; beginning in 1980, these terms were officially dropped from the census and replaced with "householder".[5]

A household is officially defined as follows:[6]

A household includes all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements. (People not living in households are classified as living in group quarters.)

According to Statistics Canada, since July 15, 1998, "a household is generally defined as being composed of a person or group of persons who co-reside in, or occupy, a dwelling."[7]

Economic theories[edit]

Most economic theories assume there is only one income stream to a household[citation needed]; this a useful simplification for modeling, but does not necessarily reflect reality. Many households now include multiple income-earning members.

Most economic models do not address whether the members of a household are a family in the traditional sense. Government and policy discussions often treat the terms household and family as synonymous,[citation needed] especially in western societies where the nuclear family has become the most common family structure.[dubious ] In reality, there is not always a one-to-one relationship between households and families.

Social[edit]

In social work the household is a residential grouping defined similarly to the above in which housework is divided and performed by householders. Care may be delivered by one householder to another, depending upon their respective needs, abilities, and perhaps disabilities. Different household compositions may lead to differential life and health expectations and outcomes for household members.[8][9] Eligibility for certain community services and welfare benefits may depend upon household composition.[10]

In sociology 'household work strategy', a term coined by Ray Pahl,[11][12] is the division of labour between members of a household, whether implicit or the result of explicit decision–making, with the alternatives weighed up in a simplified type of cost-benefit analysis. It is a plan for the relative deployment of household members' time between the three domains of employment: i) in the market economy, including home-based self-employment second jobs, in order to obtain money to buy goods and services in the market; ii) domestic production work, such as cultivating a vegetable patch or raising chickens, purely to supply food to the household; and iii) domestic consumption work to provide goods and services directly within the household, such as cooking meals, child–care, household repairs, or the manufacture of clothes and gifts. Household work strategies may vary over the life-cycle, as household members age, or with the economic environment; they may be imposed by one person or be decided collectively.[13]

Feminism examines the ways that gender roles affect the division of labour within households. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in The Second Shift and The Time Bind presents evidence that in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework.[14][15] Cathy Young, another feminist writer, responds to Hochschild's assertions by arguing that in some cases, women may prevent the equal participation of men in housework and parenting.[16]

Household models[edit]

Household models in anglophone culture include the family and varieties of blended families, share housing, and group homes for people with support needs. Other models of living situations which may meet definitions of a household include boarding houses, a house in multiple occupation (UK), and a single room occupancy (US).

Historical households[edit]

In feudal or aristocratic societies, a household may include servants or retainers, whether or not they are explicitly so named. Their roles may blur the line between a family member and an employee. In such cases, they ultimately derive their income from the household's principal income.

Historical statistics on housing[edit]

Percentage of dwellings with a bathroom in various European countries[17]

1960:

Belgium: 23.6%

Denmark: 39.4%

France: 28.0%

Germany: 51.9%

Greece: 10.4%

Ireland: 33.0%

Italy: 10.7%

Luxembourg: 45.7%

Netherlands: 30.3%

Portugal: 18.6%

Spain: 24.0%

United Kingdom: 78.3%

1970:

Belgium: 49.1%

Denmark: 73.1%

France: 48.9%

Germany: 71.5%

Ireland: 55.3%

Italy: 64.5%

Luxembourg: 69.4%

Netherlands: 75.5%

Spain: 77.8%

United Kingdom: 90.9%

1980:

Belgium: 73.9%

Denmark: 85.4%

France: 85.2%

Germany: 92.3%

Greece: 69.3%

Ireland: 82.0%

Italy: 86.4%

Luxembourg: 86.2%

Netherlands: 95.9%

Portugal: 58%

Spain: 85.3%

United Kingdom: 98.0%

According to statistics from Eurostat, the percentage of households in various European countries with access to an indoor WC, bath/ shower, and hot running water on the premises in 1988 were as follows:[18]

Country Indoor WC Bath/shower Hot running water
 Belgium 94% 92% 87%
 Denmark 97% 94% N/A
 France 94% 93% 95%
 Germany 99% 97% 98%
 Greece 85% 85% 84%
 Ireland 94% 92% 91%
 Italy 99% 95% 93%
 Luxembourg 99% 97% 97%
 Netherlands N/A 99% 100%
 Portugal 80% N/A N/A
 Spain 97% 96% N/A
 UK 99% 100% N/A

Percentage of dwellings in various European countries with certain amenities, according to 1981-82 censuses[17]

Bathroom or shower on the premises:

Belgium: 73.9%

Denmark: 85.1%

Germany: 92.3%

Greece: 69.3%

Spain: 85.3%

France: 85.2%

Ireland: 82.0%

Italy: 86.4%

Luxembourg: 86.2%

Netherlands: 95.9%

Portugal: 58.0%

United Kingdom: 98.0%

Internal WC:

Belgium: 79.0%

Denmark: 95.8%

Germany: 96.0%

Greece: 70.9%

France: 85.4%

Ireland: 84.5%

Italy: 87.7%

Luxembourg: 97.3%

Portugal: 58.7%

United Kingdom: 97.3%

Central heating on the premises:

Denmark: 54.6%

Germany: 70.0%

Spain: 22.5%

France: 67.6%

Ireland: 39.2%

Italy: 56.5%

Luxembourg: 73.9%

Netherlands: 66.1%

According to statistics from the World Bank and the Economic Commission for Europe (UN), the average usable floorspace of dwellings in existence in 1976 in various countries were as follows:[19]

Country m2
 Austria 86
 Belgium 97
 Bulgaria 63
 Canada 89
 Czechoslovakia 69
 Denmark 122
 Finland 71
 France 82
 East Germany 60
 West Germany 95
 Greece 80
 Hungary 65
 Ireland 88
 Luxembourg 107
 Netherlands 71
 Norway 89
 Poland 58
 Portugal 104
 Romania 54
 Soviet Union 49
 Spain 82
 Sweden 109
  Switzerland 98
 United Kingdom 70
 United States 120
 Yugoslavia 65

Average useful floor space (m2) per dwelling in selected European countries (Source: European Commission, 1994):[20]

Country m2
 Austria 85.3
 Belgium 86.3
 Denmark 107.0
 Finland 74.8
 France 85.4
 East Germany 64.4
 West Germany 86.7
 Greece 79.6
 Ireland 88.0
 Italy 92.3
 Luxembourg 107.0
 Netherlands 98.6
 Spain 86.6
 Sweden 92.0
 United Kingdom 79.7

Percentage of households without modern amenities (Source: Living Conditions in OECD Countries, 1986)[21]

Note: The Japanese and European data is from a 1980 census.

Percentage of households lacking an indoor flush toilet:

Country No indoor flush toilet
 Belgium 19%
 France 17%
 West Germany 7%
 Greece 29%
 Ireland 22%
 Italy 11%
 Japan 54%
 Norway 17%
 Portugal 43%
 Spain 12%
 United Kingdom 6%

Percentage of households lacking a fixed shower or bath:

Country No fixed shower or bath
 Belgium 24%
 France 17%
 West Germany 11%
 Italy 11%
 Japan 17%
 Norway 18%
 Spain 39%
 United Kingdom 4%

Floor space in selected countries (1992-1993)[22]

Country Year m2
 Australia 1993 191.0
 United States 1992 153.2
 South Korea 1993 119.3
 United Kingdom 1992 95.0
 Germany 1993 90.8
 Japan 1993 88.6

Basic amenities in British and German housing:[23]

Households with an exclusive use of an inside WC:

Britain:

(1961) 87%

(1971) 88%

(1979) 95%

Germany:

(1960) 64%

(1970) 85%

(1978) 92.5%

Households with a bath or shower:

Britain:

(1961) 72%

(1971) 91%

(1979) 94.3%

Germany:

(1960) 51%

(1970) 82%

(1978) 89.1%

Percentage of principle residences in France lacking certain amenities:[19]

1962:

No running water in dwelling: 21.6%

No W.C. in dwelling: 59.5%

No bath or shower in dwelling: 71.1%

No central heating: 80.7%

1968:

No running water in dwelling: 9.2%

No W.C. in dwelling: 45.2%

No bath or shower in dwelling: 52.5%

No central heating: 65.1%

1975:

No running water in dwelling: 2.8%

No W.C. in dwelling: 26.2%

No bath or shower in dwelling: 29.8%

No central heating: 46.9%

1978:

No running water in dwelling: 1.3%

No W.C. in dwelling: 20.9%

No bath or shower in dwelling: 22.9%

No central heating: 39.7%

Percentage of households with central heating:

Country 1970 1978
 Great Britain 34% 53%
 Germany 44% 64%

Percentage of dwellings in the United States with selected amenities (1970):[24]

Household Percentage
Bath or shower 95%
Flush toilet 96%

Basic amenities in the housing stock of East Germany:[19]

1961

Running water: 66.0%

Interior WC: 33.0%

Bath or shower: 22.4%

Central heating: 2.5%

1971:

Running water: 82.2%

Interior WC: 41.8%

Bath or shower: 38.7%

Central heating: 10.6%

1979:

Running water: 89.0%

Interior WC: 50.0%

Bath or shower: 50.0%

Central heating: 22.0%

Percentage of dwellings in various European countries equipped with basic facilities (1970–71):[25]

Austria:

Piped water: 84.2%

Lavatory: 69.8%

Fixed bath or shower: 52.9%

Belgium:

Piped water: 88.0%

Lavatory: 50.4%

Fixed bath or shower: 47.8%

Czechoslovakia:

Piped water: 75.3%

Lavatory: 49.0%

Fixed bath or shower: 58.6%

Denmark:

Piped water: 98.7%

Lavatory: 90.3%

Fixed bath or shower: 76.5%

Finland:

Piped water: 72.0%

Lavatory: 61.4%

Greece:

Piped water: 64.9%

Lavatory: 41.2%

Fixed bath or shower: 35.6%

Hungary:

Piped water: 36.1%

Lavatory: 27.2%

Fixed bath or shower: 31.7%

Ireland:

Piped water: 78.2%

Lavatory: 69.2%

Fixed bath or shower: 55.4%

Italy:

Piped water: 86.1%

Lavatory: 79.0%

Fixed bath or shower: 64.5%

Netherlands:

Lavatory: 80.8%

Fixed bath or shower: 81.4%

Norway:

Piped water: 97.5%

Lavatory: 69.0%

Fixed bath or shower: 66.1%

Portugal:

Piped water: 47.8%

Lavatory: 33.7%

Fixed bath or shower: 32.6%

Spain:

Piped water: 70.9%

Lavatory: 70.9%

Fixed bath or shower: 46.4%

Sweden:

Piped water: 97.4%

Lavatory: 90.1%

Fixed bath or shower: 78.3%

Switzerland:

Lavatory: 93.3%

Fixed bath or shower: 80.9%

United Kingdom:

Lavatory: 86.3%

Fixed bath or shower: 90.7%

Yugoslavia:

Piped water: 33.6%

Lavatory: 26.2%

Fixed bath or shower: 24.6%

Housing Conditions in Great Britain: percentage of all households possessing and lacking certain amenities:[26]

Percentage of all households entirely without certain amenities:

1951:

Fixed bath: 37.6%

Internal or external WC: 7.7%

1961:

Fixed bath: 22.4%

Internal or external WC: 6.5%

Hot water tap: 21.8%

1966:

Fixed bath: 15.4%

Internal or external WC: 1.7%

Internal WC: 18.3%

Hot water tap: 12.5%

1971:

Fixed bath: 9.1%

Internal or external WC: 1.1%

Internal WC: 11.5%

Hot water tap: 6.5%

Percentage of all households sharing certain amenities:

1951:

Fixed bath: 7.5%

Internal or external WC: 14.9%

1961:

Fixed bath: 4.4%

Internal or external WC: 6.7%

Hot water tap: 1.8%

1966:

Fixed bath: 4.1%

Internal or external WC: 6.4%

Internal WC: 4.4%

Hot water tap: 2.0%

1971:

Fixed bath: 3.2%

Internal or external WC: 4.1%

Internal WC: 3.1%

Hot water tap: 1.9%

Proportion of households in the United States of America possessing certain durable goods:[27]

Washing machine (1965): 87.4%

Washing machine (1970): 92.1%

Refrigerator (1965): 99.5%

Refrigerator (1970): 99.8%

Television (1965): 97.1%

Television (1970): 98.7%

Telephone (1965): 85.0%

Telephone (1970): 92.0%

Proportion of households in the United Kingdom possessing certain durable goods:[27]

Washing machine (1964): 53.0%

Washing machine (1971): 64.3%

Refrigerator (1964): 34.0%

Refrigerator (1971): 68.8%

Television (1964): 80.0%

Television (1971): 91.4%

Telephone (1964): 2.20%

Telephone (1971): 37.8%

Proportion of households in Scotland possessing certain durable goods:[28]

Washing machine (1971): 65.0%

Refrigerator (1971): 53.2%

Television (1971): 92.1%

Telephone (1971): 36.1%

Proportion of households in Northern Ireland possessing certain durable goods:[29]

Washing machine (1971): 45.4%

Refrigerator (1971): 40.1%

Television (1971): 87.5%

Telephone (1971): 27.0%

Proportion of households in the EEC possessing certain durable goods (1963-1964):[27]

Manual workers (1963–64)

West Germany

Washing machine: 66.2%

Refrigerator: 62.1%

Television: 51.3%

Telephone: 1.8%

France

Washing machine: 39.6%

Refrigerator: 47.0%

Television: 34.4%

Telephone: 1.4%

Italy

Washing machine: 13.6%

Refrigerator: 50.2%

Television: 47.9%

Telephone: 20.0%

Netherlands

Washing machine: 80.4%

Refrigerator: 25.5%

Television: 58.0%

Telephone: 9.4%

Belgium

Washing machine: 74.7%

Refrigerator: 24.9%

Television: 47.6%

Telephone: 8.2%

Luxembourg

Washing machine: 82.3%

Refrigerator: 64.7%

Television: 27.9%

Telephone: 23.0%

White collar workers (1963–64)

West Germany

Washing machine: 62.2%

Refrigerator: 79.1%

Television: 51.8%

Telephone: 19.6%

France

Washing machine: 48.2%

Refrigerator: 71.3%

Television: 43.3%

Telephone: 15.2%

Italy

Washing machine: 38.3%

Refrigerator: 81.9%

Television: 79.3%

Telephone: 57.9%

Netherlands

Washing machine: 73.9%

Refrigerator: 51.6%

Television: 56.2%

Telephone: 57.4%

Belgium

Washing machine: 68.5%

Refrigerator: 57.3%

Television: 48.3%

Telephone: 40.0%

Luxembourg

Washing machine: 82.3%

Refrigerator: 79.2%

Television: 25.2%

Telephone: 67.3%

Proportion of dwellings in selected countries with certain amenities (1960–71):[27]

West Germany

Inside piped water supply: 98.2% (1965)

Flush toilet: 83.3% (1965)

Fixed bath or shower: 64.3% (1965)

Inside or outside piped water supply: 99.0% (1968)

Flush toilet: 86.5% (1968)

Fixed bath or shower: 66.8% (1968)

France

Inside piped water supply: 77.5% (1962)

Toilet of any type: 43.1% (1962)

Flush toilet: 39.3% (1962)

Fixed bath or shower: 28.0% (1962)

Inside or outside piped water supply: 92.8% (1968)

Inside piped water supply: 91.5% (1968)

Toilet of any type: 56.2% (1968)

Flush toilet: 53.2% (1968)

Fixed bath or shower: 48.9% (1968)

Italy

Inside or outside piped water supply: 71.6% (1961)

Inside piped water supply: 62.3% (1961)

Toilet of any type: 89.5% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 28.9% (1961)

Netherlands

Inside or outside piped water supply: 89.6% (1956)

Toilet of any type: 99.9% (1956)

Flush toilet: 67.5% (1956)

Fixed bath or shower: 26.8% (1956)

Belgium

Inside or outside piped water supply: 76.9% (1961)

Toilet of any type: 99.9% (1961)

Flush toilet: 47.6% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 24.3% (1961)

Luxembourg

Inside or outside piped water supply: 98.8% (1960)

Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1960)

Flush toilet: 81.6% (1960)

Fixed bath or shower: 45.7% (1960)

Denmark

Inside piped water supply: 92.9% (1960)

Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1960)

Flush toilet: 83.6% (1960)

Fixed bath or shower: 48.3% (1960)

Inside or outside piped water supply: 96.7% (1965)

Inside piped water supply: 96.7% (1965)

Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1965)

Flush toilet: 90.9% (1965)

Fixed bath or shower: 63.4% (1965)

Sweden

Inside piped water supply: 90.0% (1960)

Flush toilet: 76.2% (1960)

Fixed bath or shower: 61.0% (1960)

Inside or outside piped water supply: 95.2% (1965)

Inside piped water supply: 94.3% (1965)

Toilet of any type: 99.7% (1965)

Flush toilet: 85.3% (1965)

Fixed bath or shower: 72.9% (1965)

Norway

Inside or outside piped water supply: 94.0% (1960)

Inside piped water supply: 92.8% (1960)

Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1960)

Flush toilet: 57.9% (1960)

Fixed bath or shower: 45.2% (1960)

Finland

Inside or outside piped water supply: 47.1% (1960)

Inside piped water supply: 47.1% (1960)

Flush toilet: 35.4% (1960)

Fixed bath or shower: 14.6% (1960)

Poland

Inside or outside piped water supply: 39.1% (1960)

Inside piped water supply: 29.9%% (1960)

Toilet of any type: 26.9% (1960)

Flush toilet: 18.9% (1960)

Fixed bath or shower: 13.9% (1960)

Inside piped water supply: 46.8% (1966)

Flush toilet: 33.3% (1966)

Bulgaria

Inside or outside piped water supply: 28.5% (1965)

Inside piped water supply: 28.2% (1965)

Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1965)

Flush toilet: 11.8% (1965)

Fixed bath or shower: 8.7% (1965)

Yugoslavia (urban)

Inside piped water supply: 42.4% (1961)

Toilet of any type: 34.5% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 22.5% (1961)

Czechoslovakia

Inside or outside piped water supply: 60.5% (1961)

Inside water supply: 49.1% (1961)

Flush toilet: 39.5% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 33.3% (1961)

East Germany

Inside piped water supply: 65.7% (1961)

Toilet of any type: 33.7% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 22.1% (1961)

Hungary

Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1960)

Flush toilet: 22.5% (1960)

Inside or outside piped water supply: 32.5% (1963)

Inside piped water supply: 25.9% (1963)

Fixed bath or shower: 18.5% (1963)

Inside or outside piped water supply: 58.6% (1970)

Inside piped water supply: 36.4% (1970)

Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1970)

Flush toilet: 32.7% (1970)

Fixed bath or shower: 32.2% (1970)

Romania

Inside or outside piped water supply: 48.4% (1966)

Inside piped water supply: 12.3% (1966)

Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1966)

Flush toilet: 12.2% (1966)

Fixed bath or shower: 9.6% (1966)

Switzerland

Inside piped water supply: 96.1% (1960)

Toilet of any type: 99.7% (1960)

Fixed bath or shower: 68.8% (1960)

Austria

Inside or outside piped water supply: 100.0% (1961)

Inside piped water supply: 63.6% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 29.6% (1961)

Inside piped water supply: 85.3% (1970)

Toilet of any type: 69.7% (1970)

Fixed bath or shower: 54.5% (1970)

England and Wales

Inside piped water supply: 98.7% (1961)

Flush toilet: 93.4% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 78.7% (1961)

Flush toilet: 98.2% (1966)

Fixed bath or shower: 85.1% (1966)

Scotland

Inside or outside piped water supply: 94.0% (1961)

Flush toilet: 92.8% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 69.9% (1961)

Flush toilet: 95.7% (1966)

Fixed bath or shower: 77.4% (1966)

Ireland

Inside or outside piped water supply: 57.2% (1961)

Inside piped water supply: 51.0% (1961)

Toilet of any type: 64.9% (1961)

Flush toilet: 53.5% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 33.2% (1961)

Canada

Inside or outside piped water supply: 89.1% (1961)

Flush toilet: 85.2% (1961)

Fixed bath or shower: 80.3% (1961)

Inside piped water supply: 95.2% (1967)

Toilet of any type: 93.5% (1967)

Flush toilet: 92.5% (1967)

Fixed bath or shower: 89.8% (1967)

Flush toilet: 95.4% (1971)

Fixed bath or shower: 93.4% (1971)

United States of America

Inside or outside piped water supply: 94.0% (1960)

Inside piped water supply: 92.9% (1960)

Flush toilet: 89.7% (1960)

Fixed bath or shower: 88.1% (1960)

New Zealand

Inside piped water supply: 90.0% (1960)

Inside or outside piped water supply: 99.6% (1961)

Inside piped water supply: 87.8% (1961)

Flush toilet: 88.5% (1961)

Inside or outside piped water supply: 99.7% (1966)

Inside piped water supply: 90.3% (1966)

Flush toilet: 94.0% (1966)

Fixed bath or shower: 98.1% (1966)

Historical housing conditions in Belgium:

A survey carried out by the National Housing Institute in 1961/62 estimated that out of all the dwellings in Belgium 13.8% were unfit and incapable of improvement, 19.5%, although unfit, showed potential for improvement, and 54% were considered to be suitable (without alteration or improvement) for modern living standards. 74% lacked a shower or bath, 19% had inadequate arrangements for sewage disposal, 3.6% lacked a proper supply of drinking water, and only 36.8% had an internal W.C.[30]

Housing conditions in Canada and the United States of America:[27]

Various improvements took place in housing condition in both Canada and the USA in the years following the end of the Second World War. In the USA, 35.4% of all dwellings in 1950 did not have complete plumbing facilities, a proportion that fell to 16.8% in 1960 and to 8.4% in 1968. In Canada, from 1951 to 1971, the proportion of dwellings with a bath or shower went up from 60.8% to 93.4% and those with piped hot and cold water from 56.9% to 93.5%.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Haviland, W. A. (2003). Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  2. ^ O'Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice-Hall. p. 29. ISBN 0-13-063085-3. 
  3. ^ National Statistics
  4. ^ .http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/meta/long_HSD310212.htm
  5. ^ "U.S. Census: Current Population Survey - Definitions and Explanations". Census.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-24. 
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ "Statistical unit - Household". Statcan.gc.ca. 2012-02-23. Retrieved 2012-03-24. 
  8. ^ [2][dead link]
  9. ^ http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/2123/375/2/adt-NU20010514.11220001front.pdf
  10. ^ John Pierson and Martin Thomas, 2002 Collins Dictionary of Social Work. Glasgow, UK: HarperCollins
  11. ^ [3][dead link]
  12. ^ Ray Pahl (1984) Divisions of Labour
  13. ^ "household work strategy â€" Dictionary definition of household work strategy | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2012-03-24. 
  14. ^ Hochschild, Arlie Russell; Machung, Anne (2003). The Second Shift. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-200292-6. 
  15. ^ Hochschild, Arlie Russell (2001). The Time Bind: when work becomes home and home becomes work. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 978-0-8050-6643-2. 
  16. ^ Young, Cathy. "The mama lion at the gate". Salon.com. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  17. ^ a b http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/a-social-portrait-of-europe-pbCA5789241/
  18. ^ "Report on Housing". Coe.int. Retrieved 2012-03-24. 
  19. ^ a b c Housing in Europe edited by Martin Wynn
  20. ^ Housing policy and rented housing in Europe - Michael Oxley, Jacqueline Smith - Google Books. Books.google.co.nz. Retrieved 2012-03-24. 
  21. ^ The State of Humanity - Julian Lincoln Simon - Google Books. Books.google.co.nz. Retrieved 2012-03-24. 
  22. ^ The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies by Kenichi Ohmae
  23. ^ Housing conditions in Britain and Germany by Chris Crouch
  24. ^ Lansley, Stewart (1979). Housing and Public Policy. London: Crook Helm. 
  25. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=WZCx9PraId4C&pg=PA46&dq=belgium+fixed+baths+housing&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Bqg8UvEHzJSFB-yYgYgJ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=belgium%20fixed%20baths%20housing&f=false
  26. ^ The Economics of Housing Policy; by D. C. Stafford
  27. ^ a b c d e Housing Standards and Costs: A Comparison of British Standards and Costs with Those in the U.S.A., Canada, and Europe; by Valerie A. Karn
  28. ^ Housing Standards and Costs: A Comparison of British Standards and Costs with Those in the U.S.A., Canada, and Europe; by Valerie A. Karn
  29. ^ Housing Standards and Costs: A Comparison of British Standards and Costs with Those in the U.S.A., Canada, and Europe by Valerie A. Karn
  30. ^ Social Housing Policy in Belgium; by C. J. Watson