Houses of the Holy
|Houses of the Holy|
|Studio album by Led Zeppelin|
|Released||28 March 1973|
|Recorded||January–August 1972, Stargroves and Headley Grange with the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio, and Island Studios, London; Mixed at Olympic Studios, London and Electric Lady Studios, New York|
|Genre||Hard rock, heavy metal|
|Led Zeppelin chronology|
|Singles from Houses of the Holy|
Houses of the Holy is the fifth studio album by British rock band Led Zeppelin, released by Atlantic Records on 28 March 1973. It is the first Led Zeppelin album composed of entirely original material, and represents a musical turning point for the band, who had begun to record songs with more layering and production techniques.
Much of the album was recorded in Spring 1972 using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio at Stargroves, a Berkshire country estate owned by Mick Jagger. Some songs from the album had initially been tried out earlier than this, such as "No Quarter", which was first attempted during a session at Headley Grange.
Several of the songs were produced as trial recordings (demos) at the personal studios of guitarist Jimmy Page and bass player/keyboardist John Paul Jones. Having recently installed these studios in their homes, it enabled them to finish the arrangements which had been laid down earlier. In particular, Page was able to present complete arrangements of "The Rain Song" and "Over the Hills and Far Away", while Jones had developed "No Quarter".
Another bout of recording took place at Olympic Studios in May 1972, and during the band's 1972 North American tour additional recording sessions were conducted at Electric Lady Studios in New York.
Some songs which were recorded from these various sessions did not make it onto Houses of the Holy, namely "Black Country Woman", "Walter's Walk", "The Rover" and also the would-be title-track, "Houses of the Holy". All of these songs were retained and later released on subsequent Led Zeppelin albums.
This album was a stylistic turning point in the lifespan of Led Zeppelin. Guitar riffs became more layered within Jimmy Page's production techniques and departed from the blues influences of earlier records. In the album's opening opus, "The Song Remains the Same", and its intricate companion suite, "The Rain Song", Robert Plant's lyrics matured toward a less overt form of the mysticism and fantasy of previous efforts. Houses of the Holy also featured styles not heard on the first four Led Zeppelin albums. For example, "D'yer Mak'er" is a reggae-based tune (the name of the song being derived from the phonetic spelling of the British pronunciation of "Jamaica"); "No Quarter" features atmospheric keyboard sounds and an acoustic piano solo from John Paul Jones; "The Crunge" is a funk tribute to James Brown; and "The Rain Song" is embellished by Jones on his newly-acquired mellotron. The album's closing song "The Ocean", which features an a cappella section and a doo-wop influenced coda, is dedicated to "the ocean" of fans who were massing to Led Zeppelin concerts at this point of the band's career.
According to Led Zeppelin expert Dave Lewis:
In retrospect, 'Houses of the Holy' holds its ground with the middle period releases quite admirably. The barnstorming effect of the early era was now levelling off and though devoid of the electricity of 'Led Zeppelin I' and 'II', or the sheer diversity of the third album, and lacking the classic status of the fourth, 'Houses' took stock of their situation. In doing so, it laid several foundations on which they would expand their future collective musical aspirations.
Album sleeve design
The cover art for Houses of the Holy was inspired by the ending of Arthur C. Clarke's novel Childhood's End, which involves several hundred million naked children, only slightly and physically resembling the human race in basic forms. The cover is a collage of several photographs which were taken at the Giant's Causeway, Northern Ireland, by Aubrey Powell of Hipgnosis. This location was chosen ahead of an alternative one in Peru which was being considered.
The two children who modelled for the cover were siblings Stefan and Samanatha Gates. The photoshoot was a frustrating affair over the course of ten days. Shooting was done first thing in the morning and at sunset in order to capture the light at dawn and dusk, but the desired effect was never achieved due to constant rain and clouds. The photos of the two children were taken in black and white and were multi-printed to create the effect of 11 individuals that can be seen on the album cover. The results of the shoot were less than satisfactory, but some accidental tinting effects in post-production created an unexpectedly striking album cover. The inner sleeve photograph was taken at Dunluce Castle near to the Causeway.
In February 2010 Stefan Gates presented a half-hour BBC Radio 4 documentary entitled Stefan Gates's Cover Story, about his part in the making of the album cover. Gates claimed in the documentary to have felt there was something sinister about the image, although his sister disagreed. He also admitted never having heard the album. The programme ended with Gates returning to Giant's Causeway and listening to the album on a portable player, after which he claimed that a great weight had been lifted from him.
Like Led Zeppelin's fourth album, neither the band's name nor the album title was printed on the sleeve. However, manager Peter Grant did allow Atlantic Records to add a wrap-around paper title band to US and UK copies of the sleeve that had to be broken or slid off to access the record. This hid the children's buttocks from general display, but still the album was either banned or unavailable in some parts of the Southern United States for several years.
The first CD release of the album in the 1980s did have the title logos printed on the cover itself.
Jimmy Page has stated that the album cover was the second version submitted by Hipgnosis. The first, by artist Storm Thorgerson, featured an electric green tennis court with a tennis racquet on it. Furious that Thorgerson was implying their music sounded like a "racket", the band fired him and hired Powell in his place. Thorgerson did, however, go on to produce the album artwork for Led Zeppelin's subsequent albums Presence and In Through the Out Door.
Release and critical reaction
|Rolling Stone (1973)||Unfavourable|
|Rolling Stone (2003)|||
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
This was Led Zeppelin's final studio release on Atlantic Records before forming their own label, Swan Song Records, in 1974. It was also the only Led Zeppelin album that contained complete printed lyrics for each song.
Although intended for release in January 1973, delays in producing the album cover meant that it was not released until March, when the band was on its 1973 European tour. The album was promoted heavily before the commencement of Led Zeppelin's subsequent North American Tour, ensuring that it had ascended the top of the American chart by the beginning of the tour. Because much of the album had been recorded almost a year previously, many of the songs which are featured on the album had already been played live by Led Zeppelin on their concert tours of North America, Japan, Europe and the United Kingdom in 1972–1973.
Upon its release, the album received some mixed reviews, with much criticism from the music press being directed at the off-beat nature of tracks such as "The Crunge" and "D'yer Mak'er". However, the album was very successful commercially, entering the UK chart at number one, while in America its 39-week run (2 of them spent at number one) on the Billboard Top 40 was their longest since their third album.
|The Book of Rock Lists||United States||"The Top 40 Albums (1973)"||1981||13|
|Grammy Award||United States||"Grammy Award for Best Recording Package"||1974||Nominee|
|Classic Rock||United Kingdom||"100 Greatest British Rock Album Ever"||2006||90|
|Rock and Roll Hall of Fame||United States||"The Definitive 200: Top 200 Albums of All-Time"||2007||51|
|Rolling Stone||United States||"The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time"||2012||148|
|Pitchfork Media||United States||"Top 100 Albums of the 1970s"||2004||75|
(*) designates unordered lists.
|1.||"The Song Remains the Same"||Jimmy Page and Robert Plant||5:32|
|2.||"The Rain Song"||Page and Plant||7:39|
|3.||"Over the Hills and Far Away"||Page and Plant||4:50|
|4.||"The Crunge"||John Bonham, John Paul Jones, Page, and Plant||3:17|
|1.||"Dancing Days"||Page and Plant||3:43|
|2.||"D'yer Mak'er"||Bonham, Jones, Page, and Plant||4:23|
|3.||"No Quarter"||Jones, Page, and Plant||7:00|
|4.||"The Ocean"||Bonham, Jones, Page, and Plant||4:31|
Sales chart performance
|Chart (1973)||Peak Position|
|Japanese Albums Chart||3|
|UK Albums Chart||1|
|Norwegian Albums Chart||4|
|US Billboard The 200 Albums Chart||1|
|US Cash Box Top 100 Albums Chart||1|
|US Record World Top Pop Albums Chart||1|
|Austrian Albums Chart||3|
|Canadian RPM Top 100 Albums Chart||1|
|Spanish Albums Chart||9|
|Australian Go-Set Top 20 Albums Chart||1|
|Australian Kent Music Report Albums Chart||1|
|German Albums Chart||8|
|French Albums Chart||3|
|1973||"D'yer Mak'er"||Billboard Pop Singles (Billboard Hot 100)||20|
|1973||"Over The Hills And Far Away"||Billboard Pop Singles (Billboard Hot 100)||51|
|France (SNEP)||2× Gold||200,000*|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Platinum||300,000^|
|United States (RIAA)||11× Platinum||11,000,000^|
*sales figures based on certification alone
- Led Zeppelin
- John Bonham – drums
- John Paul Jones – bass guitar, keyboards, mellotron, synthesiser, organ, piano, grand piano, harpsichord, synthesiser bass
- Jimmy Page – acoustic, electric, and pedal steel guitar, theremin on "No Quarter", production
- Robert Plant – lead vocals
- Barry Diament – mastering (original Compact Disc release)
- Keith Harwood – mixing
- Hipgnosis – sleeve design
- Andy Johns – engineering, mixing (on "No Quarter")
- Eddie Kramer – engineering, mixing
- Bob Ludwig – mastering engineering
- Aubrey Powell – cover photography
- George Marino – mastering (remastered Compact Disc)
- "American album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Houses of the Holy". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
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- Hewett, Rick (8 December 2007). "Solved: Mystery of the iconic Led Zeppelin album cover and its golden-haired children". Daily Mail (London).
- Classic Rock Covers: Led Zeppelin; Houses of the Holy. Atlantic, 1973. Designer: Hipgnosis (Storm Thorgneson, Aubrey Powell)[dead link]
- "Koldo Barroso, "Best albums with nude covers and the stories behind", intuitivemusic.com, 9 November 2006". Intuitivemusic.com. 9 November 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Brad Tolinski and Greg Di Bendetto, "Light and Shade", Guitar World, January 1998.
- Allmusic Review
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- Reviewed by Tom Sinclair (20 June 2003). "Entertainment Weekly Review". Ew.com. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- 1973 Rolling Stone Review
- 2003 Rolling Stone Review
- "Yahoo! Music Review". Music.yahoo.com. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Edwards, Gavin (30 July 2003). "Houses of the Holy" review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
- Michael Wale, "Led Zeppelin", The Times, 11 July 1973.
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- "Grammy Award for Best Album Package (Hipgnosis) – 2 March 1974". Grammy. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
- "Classic Rock – 100 Greatest British Rock Album Ever – April 2006". Classic Rock. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
- "The Definitive 200: Top 200 Albums of All-Time". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (United States). Retrieved 10 February 2009.
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- "Top 100 Albums – 12 May 1973". Cash Box. Retrieved 19 January 2009.[dead link]
- [http://www.geocities.com/muggy59/RWPOPLPS1970THRU1974.html[dead link] "Top Pop Albums – 12 May 1973"]. Record World. Retrieved 19 January 2009.[dead link]
- "Top 75 Albums – 15 May 1973". austriancharts.at. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
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- "Argentinian album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Recintos de lo Sagrado". Argentine Chamber of Phonograms and Videograms Producers.
- "French album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Houses of the Holy" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Led Zeppelin; 'House of Holy')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie.
- "British album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Houses of the Holy". British Phonographic Industry. Enter Houses of the Holy in the field Search. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Click Go
- Houses of the Holy at MusicBrainz
- Cover art
- Cover art – Aubrey Powell
- Review On Music-Nerds
- Stefan Gates' Cover Story (BBC programme about the album cover)
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