Houston Independent School District

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Houston Independent School District
HoustonISD seal.svg
A Declaration of Beliefs and Visions
Type and location
Type Public
Grades Pre-K3 - 12
Established 1924 (1924)
Country USA
Location 4400 W 18th St
Houston, TX 77092-8501
Coordinates 29°48′10″N 95°27′15″W / 29.802779°N 95.454267°W / 29.802779; -95.454267 (District office)Coordinates: 29°48′10″N 95°27′15″W / 29.802779°N 95.454267°W / 29.802779; -95.454267 (District office)
District information
President Juliet Stipeche
Superintendent Terry B. Grier, Ed.D.
Schools 309
NCES District ID 4823640[1]
Students and staff
Students 210,047 [2]
Student-teacher ratio 18.60
Other information
Website www.houstonisd.org
The logo of the school district

The Houston Independent School District (HISD) is the largest public school system in Texas, and the seventh-largest in the United States.[3] Houston ISD serves as a community school district for most of the city of Houston and several nearby and insular municipalities in addition to some unincorporated areas. Like most districts in Texas it is independent of the city of Houston and all other municipal and county jurisdictions. The district has its headquarters in the Hattie Mae White Educational Support Center (HMWESC) in Houston.

In 2013, the school district was rated "met standards" by the Texas Education Agency.[4]

History[edit]

The Hattie Mae White Educational Support Center (HMWESC), the headquarters of the Houston Independent School District
The first Hattie Mae White Administration Building. It has been sold and demolished. The building was replaced by the Hattie Mae White Educational Support Center.
Media Center

Houston ISD was established in the 1920s, after the Texas Legislature voted to separate school and municipal governments. Houston ISD replaced the Harrisburg School District.[citation needed]

In the 1920s, at the time Edison Oberholtzer was superintendent, Hubert L. Mills, the business manager of the district, had immense political power in HISD. He had been in the employment of the district over one decade before Oberholtzer started. By the 1930s the two men were in a power struggle.[5]

The number of students in public schools in Houston increased from 5,500 in 1888 to over 8,850 in 1927.[6]

Houston ISD absorbed portions of the White Oak Independent School District in 1937 and portions of the Addicks Independent School District after its dissolution.[citation needed]

During the 1960s, HISD's school board instituted a phase-in with each subsequent grade being integrated. Local African-American leaders believed the pace was too slow, and William Lawson, a youth minister, asked Wheatley High School students to boycott school. Five days afterwards 10% of Wheatley students attended classes. In 1970 a federal judge asked the district to speed the integration process.[7]

Simultaneously Mexican Americans were being discriminated against when they were being labeled as whites and being put with only African Americans as part of HISD's desegregation / integration plan. This kept both Mexican Americans and African Americans away from Anglos while satisfying integration requirements set forth by the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case decision. Many Mexican Americans took their children out of the public schools and put them in "huelga," or protest schools.[8] On August 31, 1970 and organized by the Mexican-American Education Council (MAEC), they began three weeks of boycotts, protests, and picketing. This action lasted approximately three weeks, during which up to 75% of the student bodies of some high schools participated in the boycotts. During the protests MAEC demanded twenty issues to be resolved and HISD began rezoning school areas within its jurisdiction in response. However, this rezoning encouraged "white flight" since minorities were now entering "white schools" in large numbers.[9] At first the district used forced busing, but later switched to a voluntary magnet school program in order to discourage "white flight".[7] The district eventually integrated races in a semi-peaceful manner. River Oaks Elementary School became the first school to implement the HISD's Vanguard Program in the Fall of 1972, with a program for 4th-6th graders. This program was initially named the Elementary School For The Gifted. The Vanguard Program name was adopted a year later.[citation needed]

In 1987 Olivia Munoz, the district's foreign language director, said that an increase in interest in foreign languages prompted the district to add foreign language languages to four high schools.[10]

In 1992, the district, under superintendent Frank Petruzielo, massively rezoned Houston schools, moving students from overcrowded ones to underutilized ones. Donald R. McAdams, a former HISD school board member and author of Fighting to Save Our Urban Schools-- and Winning!: Lessons from Houston, wrote that Petruzielo accomplished this goal with a minimum of press coverage and controversy by using a participative process that minimized conflict between various Houston neighborhoods.[11] McAdams credits the move with being the catalyst for the 1995 establishment of 11 geographic districts patterned around high school feeder patterns.[11]

In 1994, after superintendent Petruzielo left the district, the school district voted 6-1 to make Yvonne Gonzalez the interim superintendent; the school district board members described this as a "symbolic" motion as Gonzalez was the first Hispanic interim superintendent. Gonzalez served until Rod Paige became the superintendent.[12][13]

In the 1990s, after voters rejected a $390 million bond package, Paige contracted with The Varnett School, River Oaks Academy, and Wonderland School to house 250 students who could not be placed in HISD schools. The schools were paid $3,565 per student. This was 10% lower than the district's own per pupil cost.[14]

In 2011 the Texas Education Agency ordered the North Forest Independent School District (NFISD) to close, pending approval from the U.S. Justice Department. NFISD would be merged into HISD.[15]

As of 2007 several existing HISD schools were converting to K-8 school setups while other new K-8 schools were opening. Prior to the bond election in November 2007, the district abandoned a proposal to convert several schools into K-8 campuses due to African American neighborhoods communities resisting proposed school consolidations.[16]

On June 13, 2013 the HISD board voted unanimously to absorb the North Forest Independent School District (NFISD).[17]

HISD won the Broad Prize in 2013.[18]

Secession movements[edit]

In 1977, group of citizens in western Houston tried to form Westheimer Independent School District out of a portion of Houston ISD. The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit rejected the appeals after formation of the district was denied.

HISD once served the Harris County portion of Stafford, until the Stafford Municipal School District was established in 1982 to serve the entire city of Stafford. Most of Stafford was in Fort Bend ISD, with a small amount in Houston ISD.[19]

Reporting of school violence[edit]

A 2003 The New York Times report which asserted that HISD did not report school violence to the police created controversy in the community as teachers, students, and parents expressed concern about the district's downplaying of campus violence.[20] HISD officials held a news conference after the publication of the story. During the conference, HISD asserted that The New York Times published the story in an attempt to discredit the Bush administration's new accountability standards for school districts nationwide, which were partly modeled after HISD's system.

Hurricane Katrina[edit]

In 2005, HISD enrolled evacuees from the areas affected by Hurricane Katrina who were residing in Houston. The Houston Astrodome, the shelter used for hurricane evacuees, is located within the HISD boundaries.

Many Katrina evacuees stayed for the long term within the Houston ISD boundaries. Walnut Bend Elementary School's enrollment increased from around 600 to around 800 with the addition of 184 evacuees; Walnut Bend, out of all of the Houston-area elementary schools, took the most Katrina victims.[21] Nearby Paul Revere Middle School, located in the Westchase district, gained 137 Katrina victims. Revere, out of all of the Houston-area middle schools, has taken in the most Katrina victims.

Houston ISD's "West Region," which includes Walnut Bend and Revere, had about one-fifth of Houston ISD's schools but contained more than half of the 5,500 Katrina evacuees in Houston schools.

At the start of the 2006-2007 school year, around 2,900 Hurricane Katrina evacuees were still enrolled in Houston ISD schools. Around 700 of them were held back due to poor academic performance. 41% of evacuee 10th graders and 52% of evacuee juniors were held back.

According to the October 2006 "For Your Information" newsletter, the eleven HISD schools which took the largest number of Katrina evacuees were:

A University of Houston study concluded that the presence of Katrina evacuees did not impact the test score grades of native Houstonian students.[22]

District organization[edit]

On December 1, 1994, HISD board members voted to divide HISD into 12 numbered geographic districts; of eleven districts, each district had one to three high schools. The 12th district was an alternative district.[23]

Prior to Summer 2005, HISD had 13 administrative districts. Originally, the number of districts were to be cut to three, but HISD decided on cutting the number to five in fall 2005.[citation needed]

Micro Systems Enterprises[edit]

In 2007 the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Federal Communications Commission, and the United States Department of Justice began an investigation probing business relationships between Micro Systems Enterprises, a vendor, and HISD. Frankie Wong, former president of Micro Systems, and two Dallas Independent School District administrators received criminal charges.[24]

Free breakfast programs[edit]

In the 2000s HISD established "Breakfast in the Classroom." The program was replaced with a free breakfast program based in cafeterias.[25] The Houston Press published a story about accounting irregularities regarding a program; the State of Texas announced it would investigate the program. On February 4, 2005, HISD Superintendent Abelardo Saavedra announced that the program was suspended.[26] By 2006 HISD resumed its free breakfast programs.[27]

In January 2006, HISD started the implementation of the Primero Child Nutrition software system from Cybersoft and successfully completed that implementation in the projected timeframe and well under budget. The software helped run the district's Food Service department with high accountability, lower costs and increased the revenues.

Bilingual education and magnet and Vanguard schools[edit]

The at-the-time Central Region Office, now the Energy Institute High School
The at-the-time West Region Office, currently the Technology Information Systems building
Rudy C. Vara Center for Technology
Former Food Service Department Building (now Saint Arnold Brewing Company plant)[28]

HISD focuses on bilingual education of its predominantly Hispanic student body, including recruiting about 330 teachers from Mexico, Spain, Central and South America, Puerto Rico, China, and the Philippines from 1998 to 2007.[29]

Houston ISD offers three specialized programs, magnet programs, vanguard programs, and neighborhood vanguard programs. Each magnet program has a special focus and draws students throughout HISD. Each vanguard program is a gifted and talented program for students throughout HISD. A neighborhood vanguard program is a program designed for gifted and talented children zoned to a particular school.[30] As of 2011, its 113 programs served almost 20% of the HISD student population.[31]

Magnet schools began in the 1970s as a way to voluntarily racially integrate schools. By the mid-1990s many magnet schools no longer held this goal and instead focused on improving educational quality of schools.[32] As of 2011 magnet schools continued to be popular among HISD constituents.[31]

HISD's magnet (Performing Arts, Science, Health Professions, Law Enforcement, etc.) high schools are[who?] considered a model for other urban school districts as a way to provide a high quality education and keep top performing students in the inner city from fleeing to private schools or exurban school districts. Magnet schools are popular with parents and students that wish to escape low-performing schools and school violence. The members of the administration of schools losing students to higher-performing campuses, such as Bill Miller of Yates High School, complained about the effects.[33]

There are 55 elementary magnet schools, 30 magnet middle schools, and 27 magnet high schools. Some magnet schools are mixed comprehensive and magnet programs, while others are solidly magnet and do not admit any "neighborhood" students.

In April 1997 a lawsuit against HISD seeking to end race-based admissions to magnet schools was filed on behalf of two white applicants to Lanier Middle School who were denied admission because the quota for White students was filled. The lawsuit was funded by the group "Campaign for a Color-Blind America".[34] That year, as a result of this lawsuit, HISD removed the ethnic guidelines to Vanguard enrollment.[35]

Student body[edit]

For the 2013-2014 school year the district reported a total enrollment of 210,047[36]

Between the 1970-1971 and the 1971-1972 school years, during a period of white flight from major urban school districts across the United States, enrollment at HISD decreased by 16,000. Of that number, 700 were African Americans.[37] In 1975 the student body was 39% White and 19% Hispanic. In 1990 the student body was 43% Hispanic, 40% Black, and 15% White.[38] By the 1990s HISD's student body was increasingly made up of racial and ethnic minority groups.[39]

Of the 9th graders that were in the graduating classes of 2004-2005 in the district, 15% successfully obtained bachelor of arts and bachelor of science degrees. The U.S. average was 23%. In the District of Columbia Public Schools, 9% of its equivalent 9th grade class received a bachelor of arts or a bachelor of science and/or higher.[40]

The preliminary fall enrollment for the 2006-2007 school year (203,163) had 7,000 fewer students than the 2005-2006 student enrollment (210,202), resulting in a more than 3% loss; the 2006-2007 enrollment was a 2.5% decrease from the fall 2004-2005 enrollment (208,454). From the preliminary 2006-2007 student count, the West and Central regions lost the most students, with a combined 4,400 student loss.[41] The enrollment reported for the year in February 2007 was 202,936.[42]

As of 2007, of the more than 29 HISD high schools, five had White students as the largest group of students; one of them, High School for Performing and Visual Arts, was the district's only White majority high school.[43]

In 2010 Peter Messiah, the head of HISD's Homeless Education Office, said that HISD classified around 3,000 students as homeless. Margaret Downing of the Houston Press said that Messiah predicted "with confidence" that the actual number of homeless is higher because some families are too embarrassed to self-identify as homeless.[44] Messiah also said that in the years leading to 2010, the number of students classified as homeless increased because the school district became better able to identify homeless students and because the Late-2000s recession continued to have an effect on their families.[45]

As of 2011, between 50% and 66% of White students within the HISD boundaries enroll in private schools.[31] In 2010 HISD had 15,340 White students, the lowest numerical number of Whites in recent history. This made up 7.6% of its student body. White enrollment increased to 17,313 by 2014, an increase by 13%. As of 2014, 8.2% of students are White. Asian enrollment had increased since 2010. As of 2014 7,401 students were Asians, making up 3.5% of students.[46] In 2013 due to the absorption of the North Forest Independent School District, HISD's enrollment increased to 210,000.[46]

Staff and faculty demographics[edit]

As of 2007, Teach for America corps members make up about 25% of the number of HISD teachers.[47]

Governance[edit]

As of September 2009, the superintendent of Houston ISD is Terry Grier.

As of 2014, the members of the HISD Board of Education are:

  • President: Juliet K. Stipeche
  • First Vice President: Rhonda Skillern-Jones
  • Second Vice President: Manuel Rodriguez, Jr.
  • Secretary: Anna Eastman
  • Assistant Secretary: Wanda Adams

Other members include: Paula Harris, Michael L. Lunceford, Harvin C. Moore, and Greg Meyers

Superintendents[edit]

Rod Paige, former Houston ISD Superintendent

Former HISD superintendent Rod Paige used the PEER Program. Improving scores from its schools have caused a lot of praise from others nationwide. Kaye Stripling took over when Rod Paige headed to Washington, D.C. as part of United States President George W. Bush's administration cabinet. After Stripling stepped down as the interim Superintendent, Abelardo Saavedra became the superintendent of the district on December 9, 2004. Since 2009, Terry Grier has been the district's superintendent.

Political divisions[edit]

As of 2010 HISD schools are organized by elementary, middle, and high school offices.[48]

Previously schools in Houston ISD were organized into "Regional Districts." Each district had its own Regional Superintendent.[49]

There were five regional districts in Houston ISD:[citation needed]

  • Central Regional District
  • East Regional District
  • North Regional District
  • South Regional District
  • West Regional District

Before its 2005 reorganization,[50] HISD had the following districts:[51]

Geographic districts:

  • Central District
  • East District
  • North District
  • North Central District
  • Northeast District
  • Northwest District
  • South District
  • South Central District
  • Southeast District
  • Southwest District
  • West District

Other districts:

  • Alternative District
  • Acres Homes Coalition Schools

An additional district, West Central, was later established before the reorganization.[52][53]

Taxation[edit]

As of 2010, of the school districts in Harris County, Houston ISD has the lowest taxation rate.[54]

Houston ISD television channel[edit]

Houses in the Houston ISD area get the Houston ISD channel on cable.[55]

HISD coverage area[edit]

The district covers much of the greater-Houston area,[56] including all of the cities of Bellaire,[57] West University Place,.[58] Southside Place,[59] and most of the area within the Houston city limits. HISD also takes students from the Harris County portion of Missouri City,[60] a portion of Jacinto City,[61] a small portion of Hunters Creek Village,[62] a small portion of Piney Point Village,[63] and a small portion of Pearland.[64] HISD also takes students from unincorporated areas of Harris County.

All of the HISD area lies within the taxation area for the Houston Community College System.[65]

Cities[edit]

Houston ISD covers all of the following municipalities:

Houston ISD covers portions of the following municipalities:

HISD also covers unincorporated sections of Harris County, including portions of the Airline Improvement District.[66]

Transportation[edit]

A Houston ISD CE300 school bus made by IC Corporation.

Houston ISD grants school bus transportation to any Houston ISD resident attending his or her zoned school or attending a magnet program who lives 2 mi (3.2 km) or more away from the campus (as measured by the nearest public roads) or must cross treacherous obstacles in order to reach the campus. Certain special education students are also permitted to use school bus transportation. [67] HISD does not provide transportation for pre-kindergarten students.[68]

Schools[edit]

In HISD grades kindergarten through 5 are considered to be elementary school, grades 6 through 8 are considered to be middle school, and grades 9 through 12 are considered to be high school. Some elementary schools go up to the sixth grade.

Every house in HISD is assigned to an elementary school, a middle school, and a high school. HISD has many alternative programs and transfer options available to students who want a specialized education and/or dislike their home schools.

Characteristics of schools and White enrollment[edit]

Donald McAdams wrote that in the 1990s, within trustee District 5 there were schools that were about 50% White that usually had ample parent support and stronger test scores while there were schools about 90% or higher minorities that had low test scores and little to no parent support.[69] He explained that in Houston white parents sent children to HISD schools that had minority children as long as the minority children tended to be middle class and that there was not too many of them.[69] Many black students who lived in District 5 were middle class children who took school buses to the schools and did not live in the school zones. According to McAdams their enrollment levels were stable and White parents were comfortable with their presence.[69] He added that very poor black children tended to go to their neighborhood schools outside of District 5.[69] McAdams also stated that White middle class parents did not consider Asians and Asian Americans to be minorities who could make a school less attractive to them.[69] In the 1980s and 1990s increased enrollment of poor, non-English speaking Central American students at some HISD neighborhood schools made them unattractive to White parents.[69]

According to McAdams, the White middle class community accepted minority percentages of around 50% for elementary schools, and for middle and high schools the White community accepted minority percentages of over 70 because classes at those levels were separated by academic ability.[69] If percentages of minorities exceeded the tolerable levels at a particular school, white parents withdrew their children from the said school until there were few White people left.[70] According to McAdams, HISD administrators knew about the levels of minority percentages tolerable to White middle class parents.[69]

McAdams argued that class was a far more important consideration than race to White parents.[69] He stated that despite how "negative" his comments about White HISD residents sounded, many of the White parents were "not necessarily racists" but instead wanted high quality academic instruction in their schools, as methods and instructions for poor children were not suited for middle class children.[71] McAdams argued that the attitude of the White community being willing to send their children to schools with about 50% minority enrollment was more progressive than the previous White attitude around the 1960s which was hostile to any minority enrollment in White schools.[71]

Dress codes[edit]

Students at many HISD high schools, including Lamar High School (pictured here), wear school uniforms

As of 2013, more than 230 schools required their students to wear school uniforms or "standardized dress."

As of 2006, over twenty high schools require their students to wear school uniforms or "standardized dress." Of them, one, Lamar High School, had a White plurality. Nine Houston ISD high schools did not require students to wear uniforms or standardized dress. Four of them had White students as the largest group of students.[43]

In 1991 Key Middle School was the first school in HISD to introduce school uniforms. At the time, they were not required, but encouraged.[72] Around the early 1990s the district began a trend of more localized management, so local schools set their own dress code policies. At the start of the 1994-1995 school year 37 HISD elementary and middle schools had uniforms or standardized dress; this was a large increase from the previous school year.[73]

Administration building[edit]

The Hattie Mae White Educational Support Center (HMWESC), the headquarters of the Houston Independent School District

The current administration building, the Hattie Mae White Educational Support Center, is located in northwest Houston.[74] The administration moved into the offices in spring 2006.[75] It is named after Hattie Mae White, the first African American HISD board member and the first African-American public official in the State of Texas elected since the Reconstruction.[76]

The current Sam Houston High School building in the Northside opened in 1955.[77] The previous Sam Houston High School building in Downtown Houston became the administrative headquarters of HISD. By the early 1970s HISD moved its headquarters out of the building, which was demolished. As of 2011 an HISD-owned parking lot occupies the former school lot; a state historical marker is located at the lot. In meetings it had been proposed as a new location for the High School for the Performing and Visual Arts.[78]

Houston ISD's administration building from July 1970 to March 2006 was the 201,150-square-foot (18,687 m2) Hattie Mae White Administration Building, located at 3830 Richmond Avenue. The facility was labeled the "Taj Mahal" due to the counter-clockwise circular layout and the split-level floor pattern. The design made it difficult for wheelchair-bound individuals to navigate the building. The complex cost U.S.$6 million. The building had tropical indoor atriums, causing critics to criticize the spending priorities of the district. When the district considered cutting a popular kindergarten program for financial reasons, taxpayers voted many board members out of office. The district sold the former complex for $38 million to a company which demolished the site and developed a mixed-use commercial property; demolition began on September 14, 2006. Demolition crews destroyed the Will Rogers Elementary School, an adjacent elementary school located at 3101 Weslayan that closed in spring 2006. The former HISD administration building appears in the film The Thief Who Came to Dinner.[75]

The land of the former administration building now includes a Costco among other businesses.[79]

Athletic facilities[edit]

Hermann A. Barnett Stadium

HISD has three athletic facility centers that was under its control as of June 30, 2013: Herman A. Barnett Sports Complex, Joe K. Butler Sports Complex, and the two-stadium Delmar - Dyer Sports Complex. Barnett has the capacity of 8,000 for American football and track games, 2,750 for basketball games, and 2,500 for soccer (football) games. Butler can seat 8,000 for American football and track games and 2,500 for basketabll games. Butler also has middle school and high school baseball fields, which have a seating capacity of 4,500. The Delmar American football stadium has a seating capacity of 12,500. The Delmar field house has a capacity of 5,400. The Delmar baseball field has a capacity of 1,500. The Delmar middle school stadium has 3,000. The Dyer Stadium has a seating capacity of 6,000 for American football and track games.[80]

In addition the Jones-Cowart Stadium is located on the property of the former Smiley High School,[81] now North Forest High School.[82] When it was a part of the North Forest Independent School District (NFISD), it served as the district's stadium for sporting events.[81] As of July 1, 2013, the NFISD territory was merged into HISD.[83]

On September 12, 2013 HISD announced that it plans to demolish the existing 5,400-seat Delmar-Tusa Fieldhouse and build a new one at the same site. In the 1960s the old fieldhouse served as the home court for the University of Houston basketball team. HISD moved several scheduled events to the Mark Anthony Wilkins Pavilion at Forest Brook Middle School. The new facility is scheduled to open in 2016.[84]

Notable employees and teachers[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Search for Public School Districts – District Detail for Houston ISD". National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  2. ^ Facts and Figures About HISD
  3. ^ Houston ISD automates lunch. (Archive) eSchool News online
  4. ^ "2009 Accountability Rating System". Texas Education Agency. 
  5. ^ Kirkland, p. 137.
  6. ^ "Recent School History in Houston." High Spots in Houston Public Schools. Houston Public Schools. Retrieved on January 24, 2010. Found at Gonzalez, J.R. "1927 booklet gives snapshot of Houston schools." Houston Chronicle. December 30, 2009. Retrieved on January 24, 2010.
  7. ^ a b Berryhill, Michael. "What's Wrong With Wheatley?." Houston Press. April 17, 1997. 3. Retrieved on March 31, 2009.
  8. ^ "Community Profile[dead link]." Denver Harbor/Port Houston Super Neighborhood Community Health Assessment Report. St. Luke's Episcopal Health Charities.
  9. ^ Angela Valenzuela Subtractive Schooling: U.S.-Mexican Youth and the Politics of Caring (New York: State University of New York Press, 1999) p. 39-49
  10. ^ "LANGUAGES DRAWING STUDENTS Houston schools increase offerings to meet demands." Associated Press at The Dallas Morning News. Wednesday January 7, 1987. News 11B. Retrieved on November 28, 2011.
  11. ^ a b McAdams, p. 57.
  12. ^ Markley, Melanie. "Hispanic named interim HISD superintendent." Houston Chronicle. Tuesday February 1, 1994. A17. Retrieved on November 12, 2011.
  13. ^ Markley, Melanie. "HISD interim leader a "symbolic' gesture." Houston Chronicle. Tuesday February 1, 1994. A19. Retrieved on November 11, 2011.
  14. ^ Eggers, William D. "Alternatives House Student Overflow." Bridge News at the Lakeland Ledger. Friday October 3, 1997. A9. Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
  15. ^ "Texas Education Commissioner Orders HISD to Annex North Forest ISD." (Archive) Houston Independent School District. November 11, 2011. Retrieved on November 12, 2011.
  16. ^ Radcliffe, Jennifer. "HISD transitioning some campuses to K-8." Houston Chronicle. December 31, 2007. Retrieved on April 9, 2013.
  17. ^ "HISD trustees OK North Forest annexation after the Texas Education Agency ordered it to do so. Houston Chronicle. June 13, 2013. Retrieved on June 15, 2013.
  18. ^ "HISD wins big education prize." Houston Chronicle. Wednesday September 25, 2013. Retrieved on September 26, 2013.
  19. ^ "Comptroller Strayhorn to Review Stafford Municipal School District". September 16, 2003. Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  20. ^ "Article Critical Of HISD Security Concerns[dead link]," KPRC-TV
  21. ^ "Louisiana students distributed unevenly," Houston Chronicle, October 17, 2005
  22. ^ Radcliffe, Jennifer. "UH study finds no Katrina effect on grades." Houston Chronicle. September 12, 2009. Retrieved on September 12, 2009.
  23. ^ Markley, Melanie. "HISD to divide district into 12 geographic areas." Houston Chronicle. Friday December 2, 1994. A36.
  24. ^ Edwards, Wendell. "HISD under federal investigation (Archive)." KHOU-TV. Friday, March 14, 2008.
  25. ^ "Eating It Up." Houston Press. 1.
  26. ^ On Second Thought - Page 1 - News - Houston - Houston Press
  27. ^ "New Free Breakfast Program Is Big Attraction for HISD Students." (Archive) Houston Independent School District. November 14, 2006.
  28. ^ "2000 Lyons Avenue, Houston, TX. Our new home.[dead link]" Saint Arnold Brewing Company. Retrieved on September 2, 2009.
  29. ^ Leonor Garza, Cynthia. "BILINGUAL EDUCATORS WANTED / No boundaries in teacher search / Texas schools increasingly recruit in Mexico, other nations to meet language demands." Houston Chronicle. Wednesday February 21, 2007. A1. Retrieved on December 1, 2009.
  30. ^ "Guide to applying to HISD magnet programs and other tips." Houston Chronicle. November 3, 2010. Retrieved on November 5, 2010.
  31. ^ a b c "Magnetic force: HISD should scrap its consultants' plan to revamp magnet schools." Houston Chronicle. Friday January 21, 2011. Retrieved on November 4, 2011.
  32. ^ Markley, Melanie. "MAGNET FOR QUALITY/HISD program has `done a lot' for education." Houston Chronicle. Sunday November 5, 1995. A1.
  33. ^ "Transfer policy hinders schools," Houston Chronicle, September 4, 2005
  34. ^ Gore, p. 114.
  35. ^ McAdams, p. 175.
  36. ^ "Facts and Figures." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on October 13th, 2013.
  37. ^ "White flight accompanies integration." Associated Press at the The Telegraph-Herald. Monday January 17, 1972. 6 Retrieved from Google Books (6 of 38) on October 3, 2011.
  38. ^ Berryhill, Michael. "What's Wrong With Wheatley?" Houston Press. Thursday April 17, 1997. p. 5. Retrieved on April 9, 2014.
  39. ^ Fleck, Tim. "What Went Wrong at the Rice School?." Houston Press. August 21, 1997. 3. Retrieved on September 8, 2009.
  40. ^ Downing, Margaret. "Only 15 Percent Of HISD 9th-Graders End Up With A College Degree." Houston Press. Thursday June 17, 2010. Retrieved on June 17, 2010.
  41. ^ "HISD enrollment down by 7,000 for fall semester". Houston Chronicle. November 17, 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  42. ^ "2006–2007 Demographics". HISD Connect. February 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-07. [dead link]
  43. ^ a b Viren, Sarah. "BACK TO SCHOOL / Demographics may dictate uniformity / More HISD senior campuses requiring `standardized dress'." Houston Chronicle. Monday September 3, 2007. Section A, Page 1. Retrieved on October 25, 2011.
  44. ^ Downing, Margaret. "Children of God." Houston Press. Wednesday December 22, 2010. 1. Retrieved on December 26, 2010.
  45. ^ Downing, Margaret. "Children of God." Houston Press. Wednesday December 22, 2010. 2. Retrieved on December 26, 2010.
  46. ^ a b Radcliffe, Jennifer. "White enrollment inches up in HISD." Houston Chronicle. February 10, 2014. Updated February 11, 2014. Retrieved on February 15, 2014.
  47. ^ Senoo, Etsuko (妹尾 越子 Senoo Etsuko). "The Significance of Teach for America Program in Houston Independent School District" (テキサス州ヒューストン独立学区におけるTeach For Americaプログラムの意義), Japanese Journal of American Educational Studies (アメリカ教育学会紀要). Japan Association of American Educational Studies (アメリカ教育学会) Executive Office (事務局). (18), 27-40[含 英語文要旨], October 2007. - Entry in the CiNII database (Archive) -- "In fact, one forth [sic] of the teachers in HISD is consisted of TFA corps members." [From the English abstract]
  48. ^ "HISD Reorganization. "Houston Independent School District". Retrieved on October 22, 2014.
  49. ^ "HISD Organization Chart[dead link]." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on June 17, 2010.
  50. ^ Home page. Houston Independent School District. July 2, 2005. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
  51. ^ "Districts and Superintendents." Houston Independent School District. October 30, 2001. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
  52. ^ "PACT Council Meeting Minutes[dead link]." Herod Elementary School. Thursday November 4, 2004. Retrieved on May 7, 2009.
  53. ^ "SMDC Minutes." Horn Academy. January 12, 2005. Retrieved on May 7, 2009.
  54. ^ Downing, Margaret. "No Raises For HISD Employees (Updated)." Houston Press. Thursday June 24, 2010. Retrieved on June 26, 2010.
  55. ^ "HISDTV - About Us," Houston Independent School District
  56. ^ "HISD High Schools and Attendance Zones[dead link]." Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on March 1, 2009.
  57. ^ "Bellaire City." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on March 1, 2009.
  58. ^ "City Map[dead link]." City of West University Place. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
  59. ^ "Southside Place City." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
  60. ^ "Missouri City City." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on March 1, 2009.
  61. ^ "Jacinto City City." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on March 1, 2009.
  62. ^ "Hunters Creek Village City." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
  63. ^ "Piney Point Village City." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
  64. ^ "City of Pearland School Districts." (Archive) City of Pearland. Retrieved on March 21, 2014.
  65. ^ Texas Education Code, Section 130.182, "Houston Community College System District Service Area".
  66. ^ "Airline%20ID%20Exhibit.pdf." Airline Improvement District. Retrieved on November 10, 2009.
  67. ^ "Student Eligibility[dead link]." Houston Independent School District. Accessed July 14, 2008.
  68. ^ "Transportation[dead link]." HISD Pre-K. Retrieved on May 20, 2009.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i McAdams, p. 59.
  70. ^ McAdams, p. 59-60.
  71. ^ a b McAdams, p. 60.
  72. ^ "Houston school takes on uniform look Parents hope move will aid studies, end brawls." Associated Press at The Dallas Morning News. August 6, 1991. Document ID 0ED562552D8448AE. "Some Key Middle School students already are outfitted for the new school year, and they all chose the same thing. The students are the city's first to wear uniforms, which are encouraged but not required by the school. Some predict the trend will catch on, but others say identical clothes won't keep kids from finding something to fight about. Carol Galloway, former president of the school's PTA, said she once watched two students fighting because one student wearing[...]"
  73. ^ Markley, Melanie. "Dressing for success/More schools have pupils don uniforms." Houston Chronicle. Saturday August 13, 1994. A29. Retrieved on October 25, 2011.
  74. ^ Zubowski, Courtney. "HISD discusses measures to handle multi-million dollar budget crisis." KHOU. January 22, 2011. Retrieved on January 23, 2011.
  75. ^ a b Radcliffe, Jennifer. "HISD landmark demolished / Known as district's `Taj Mahal,' it won't be missed by everyone / Tearing away its old image." Houston Chronicle. Friday September 15, 2006. B1 MetFront. Retrieved on May 29, 2009.
  76. ^ Radcliffe, Jennifer. "Celebrating Black History Month Elected official Hattie Mae White." Houston Chronicle. February 13, 2011. Retrieved on July 10, 2011.
  77. ^ "History." Sam Houston Math, Science & Technology Center. Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
  78. ^ Gonzales, J.R. "Sam Houston High School (old)." Houston Chronicle. March 30, 2010. Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
  79. ^ Google Maps [1] Retrieved on Oct 10, 2010
  80. ^ "Stadiums." (Archive) Houston Independent School District. Retrieved on September 2, 2012.
  81. ^ a b "About North Forest ISD." (Archive) North Forest Independent School District. August 13, 2003. Retrieved on July 15, 2011.
  82. ^ "2009-2010 Improvement Plan." (Archive) North Forest Independent School District. Page 7 (8/43). Retrieved on November 13, 2011.
  83. ^ Barajas, Erik. "North Forest ISD officially closes today." KTRK-TV. July 1, 2013. Retrieved on July 1, 2013.
  84. ^ Christian, Carol. "HISD set to demolish historic site of athletic events." Houston Chronicle. October 2, 2013. Retrieved on October 3, 2013.
  85. ^ "President Lyndon B. Johnson's Biography." Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum. Retrieved on January 29, 2009.
  86. ^ "Laura Welch Bush." Embassy of the United States in Moscow. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
  87. ^ "Alberto Gonzales Former Attorney General." Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
  88. ^ "Professor Edison E. Oberholtzer Papers, 1905-1967." University of Houston. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
  89. ^ "Former U.S. Education Secretary Rod Paige’s letter[dead link]." Fort Worth Star-Telegram. February 26, 2009. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]