Howard County, Maryland

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Howard County, Maryland
1Howard co. circuit.jpg
The Howard County Courthouse in May 2008.
Flag of Howard County, Maryland
Seal of Howard County, Maryland
Map of Maryland highlighting Howard County
Location in the state of Maryland
Map of the United States highlighting Maryland
Maryland's location in the U.S.
Founded 1838
Named for John Eager Howard
Seat Ellicott City
 • Total 253.55 sq mi (657 km2)
 • Land 252.04 sq mi (653 km2)
 • Water 1.51 sq mi (4 km2), 0.60%
 • (2010) 287,085
 • Density 1,139/sq mi (439.6/km²)
Congressional districts 2nd, 3rd, 7th
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4

Howard County is a county located in the central part of the U.S. state of Maryland, between Baltimore and Washington, D.C.. As of the 2010 census, the population was 287,085.[1] Its county seat is Ellicott City.[2] The center of population of Maryland is located in the Howard County town of Jessup.[3]

Howard County is considered part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. Recent development in the south of the county has led to some realignment towards the Washington, D.C. media and employment markets. The county is also home to Columbia, a major planned community of approximately 100,000 founded by developer James Rouse in 1967.

Howard County is frequently cited for its affluence, quality of life, and excellent schools. With a median family income of $125,152 in 2012, Howard County was ranked the second wealthiest county by median household income in the United States by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2013. Many of the most affluent communities in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area, such as Clarksville, Dayton, Glenelg, Glenwood and West Friendship, are located along the Route 32 corridor in Howard County. The main population center of Columbia/Ellicott City was named second among Money magazine's 2010 survey of "America's Best Places to Live."[4] Howard County's schools frequently rank first in Maryland as measured by standardized test scores and graduation rates.[5]


The name of the county honors Colonel John Eager Howard,[6] an officer in the "Maryland Line" of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, commander notably at the Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina in 1781 among others. He became the fifth Governor of Maryland whose home was the mansion "Belvedere". The mansion was located at the intersection of East Chase and North Calvert Streets, north of Baltimore Town, an area also called "Howard's Woods" where the Washington Monument was later erected and the neighborhood Mount Vernon, Baltimore was developed in the 1820s.[7] The county's nickname of "HoCo", is derived from a contraction of the words "Howard" and "County".


In 1652, the Susquehannock tribes signed a peace treaty with Maryland, giving up their provence over the territory that is now Howard County.[8] In 1800, the mean center of U.S. population as calculated by the US Census Bureau was found in what is now Howard County.[9]

The area of western Anne Arundel County was designated the Howard District when Anne Arundel County was divided in 1839. The Howard District had the same status as a county except that it was not separately represented in the Maryland General Assembly. In 1841, the county built its first courthouse in Ellicott City.[10] At the January 1851 constitutional convention, Thomas Beale Dorsey submitted a petition lead by James Sykes. A committee was formed with Dorsey, Bowie, Smith, Harbine and Ricaud. After several postponements, the district became erected officially as Howard County on 7 March 1851.[11]

The plantations of modern Howard County used slave labor as early as 1690. At the time of the Underground Railroad, some Howard County residents assisted slaves who were escaping to freedom. Maryland was exempt from the Emancipation Proclamation, later abolishing slavery in the update of the Maryland Constitution in November 1864.[12]

By the turn of the century in 1899, Howard County contained 400 miles of dirt and 48 miles of stone roads, including three paid turnpikes maintained by 118 men. Most traffic consisted of loads delivered to rail crossings.[13] In 1909, County Commissioners Hess, Werner and O'Neil were charged with malfeasance regarding contract bids.[14]

The 1930s saw a shift from one room schoolhouses to centralized schools with bus service. The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 brought the I-95 highway through Eastern Howard county.[15] In 1963-1966 the Rouse Company bought 14,000 acres of land and rezoned it for the Columbia Development. In 1972, The Marriott company proposed to build a regional theme park on Rouse-owned land but was denied zoning.[16]

The county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places.[17]


Howard County is located in the Piedmont Plateau region, with rolling hills making up most of the landscape. It is bounded on the north and northeast by the Patapsco River, on the southwest by the Patuxent River, and on the southeast by a land border with Anne Arundel County. Both the Patapsco and Patuxent run largely through publicly accessible parkland along the county borders. The Patuxent border includes the Triadelphia and Rocky Gorge reservoirs.

According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 253.55 square miles (656.7 km2), the smallest county in Maryland, of which 252.04 square miles (652.8 km2) (or 99.40%) is land and 1.51 square miles (3.9 km2) (or 0.60%) is water.[18]

Adjacent counties[edit]


Howard County lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. As one travels west in the county away from the Baltimore area, the winter temperatures get lower and winter snow is more common. Annual rainfall is about 45 inches (1,100 mm) throughout the county.[19] Over a 50 year period from 1950 to 2010, there were 394 National Climatic Data Center reportable events causing 617 injuries, and 99 fatalities. There were 9 reported tornadoes, reaching a maximum of F2, with no recorded fatalities.[20]


Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 13,338
1870 14,150 6.1%
1880 16,140 14.1%
1890 16,269 0.8%
1900 16,715 2.7%
1910 16,106 −3.6%
1920 15,826 −1.7%
1930 16,169 2.2%
1940 17,175 6.2%
1950 23,119 34.6%
1960 36,152 56.4%
1970 61,911 71.3%
1980 118,572 91.5%
1990 187,328 58.0%
2000 247,842 32.3%
2010 287,085 15.8%
Est. 2013 304,580 6.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[21]
2012 Estimate[22]


The ethnic makeup of the county according to the 2010 U.S. Census:


As of the census[23] of 2000, there were 247,842 people, 90,043 households, and 65,821 families residing in the county. The population density was 983 people per square mile (380/km²). There were 92,818 housing units at an average density of 368 per square mile (142/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 74.33% White, 14.42% Black, 0.24% Native American, 7.68% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.11% from other races, and 2.19% from two or more races. 3.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.1% were of German, 11.0% Irish, 9.3% English, 6.6% Italian and 5.7% American ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 90,043 households out of which 40.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.50% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.90% were non-families. 20.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.18.

In the county the population was spread out with 28.10% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 34.40% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, and 7.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $101,003, and the median income for a family was $117,186 in 2009.[24] The per capita income was $44,120. About 2.70% of families and 4.00% of the population were below the poverty line.

Population history[edit]

The following is a population history for Howard County from the U.S. Census Bureau.[25] The ranking compares the population of Howard County to those of the other 23 Maryland counties and Baltimore City.[26][27]

  • 1860.......13,338......(2,862 listed as slaves)[28]
  • 1870.......14,150......19th
  • 1900.......16,715......22nd (Calvert and Caroline fewer)
  • 1910.......16,106......23rd (Calvert fewer)
  • 1920.......15,826......22nd (Calvert and Kent fewer)
  • 1930.......16,169......19th (Calvert, Charles, Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's fewer)
  • 1940.......17,175......20th (Calvert, Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's fewer)
  • 1950.......23,119......18th (Calvert, Caroline, Garrett, Kent, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Talbot fewer)
  • 1960.......36,152......14th (Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Dorchester, Garrett, Kent, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Talbot, Worcester fewer)
  • 1970.......61,911......11th (Howard passing Cecil, St. Mary's, Wicomico in population)
  • 1980......118,572......7th (after only Anne Arundel, Baltimore County and City, Harford, Montgomery, Prince George's)
  • 1990......187,328......6th (passing Harford)
  • 2000......247,842......6th
  • 2004......266,738......6th
  • 2008......274,995
  • 2010......287,085
  • 2013......304,580[29]

Education and public library[edit]

The Howard County Public School System manages 71 schools and serves approximately 49,000 students. The graduation rate from this school district is an above-average 92%, and the county's schools are ranked among the best in the state. Student test scores consistently top the list for all Maryland school districts. Public school construction has kept pace with the county’s growth in recent years in an effort to safeguard against crowded classrooms.[citation needed] Howard High School is currently the largest school in the county with over 1,600 students.

Since 2005, Howard County Library has consistently been ranked among the top 5 libraries in its size category by HAPLR (Hennen's American Public Library Ratings). Under the library's sponsorship, a campaign called "Choose Civility" started in Howard County in 2006. According to its website, "Choose Civility is an ongoing community-wide initiative, led by Howard County Library, to position Howard County as a model of civility. The project intends to enhance respect, empathy, consideration and tolerance in Howard County." The campaign's distinctive green bumper stickers are often seen in Howard County and neighboring areas.

Politics and government[edit]

Howard County vote
by party in presidential elections
Year GOP Dem Others
2012 37.88% 57,758 59.94% 91,393 2.18% 3,334
2008 38.14% 55,393 59.99% 87,120 1.87% 2,720
2004 44.69% 59,724 54.07% 72,257 1.25% 1,666
2000 44.17% 49,809 51.92% 58,556 3.91% 4,411
1996 42.77% 40,849 49.81% 47,569 7.42% 7,090
1992 38.67% 38,594 44.85% 44,763 16.47% 16,441
1988 56.22% 44,153 43.30% 34,007 0.47% 370

Howard County has developed a reputation for being reliably Democratic.[citation needed] However, it is slightly more moderate than Baltimore, Montgomery County, and Prince George's County.[citation needed] Howard County usually supports Democrats at the state and federal level, though it voted for Republican Bob Ehrlich in the 2002 gubernatorial election over Democrat Kathleen Kennedy Townsend. The last time that Howard County voted for a Republican candidate for President was 1988.

Starting in 1914, Howard County was governed by a system of three elected commissioners with four year terms.[30] Senator James Clark proposed a five person County Council and a County Executive in 1965.[31] In 1968, the county implemented a charter form of government.[32] The County Council serves as the County's Legislative Branch, they provide Constituent Service and sit as members of the Zoning Board and Liquor Board. The current Howard County Executive is Kenneth Ulman, who was initially elected in 2006. Most of the county is in Maryland's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat Elijah Cummings. A small portion is in Maryland's 3rd congressional district, represented by Democrat John Sarbanes.

County Commissioners:

Chairman Name Affiliation Term Commissioner Name Affiliation Term Commissioner Name Affiliation Term
Thomas B. Hobbs[33] 1851
John T. Ridgely[34] 1885-1888 Ephraim Collins 1885- B. C. Sunderland 1885-
Benjamin F. Hess[35] 1901-1904 Thomas O' Neill 1901-1904 Jacob J. Werner 1901-1904
Jacob J. Werner[36] 1905-1907 Benjamin F. Hess 1905-1907 Henry A Penny[33] 1905-1911
Benjamin F. Hess[37] 1908-1909 Amos Howard Earp 1908-1911 Jacob J. Werner 1908-1913
Amos Howard Earp[38][39] 1911-1917 Grosvenor Hanson 1911-1915 William H. Davis 1911-1915
Amos Howard Earp[40] 1915-1917 Grosvenor Hanson 1915-1917 De Wilton C. Partlett 1915-1917
Amos Howard Earp[41] 1917-1919 John H. Shaab 1917-1919 De Wilton C. Partlett 1917-1919
Amos Howard Earp[42] 1920-1926 Daniel H. Gaither 1920-1926 De Wilton C. Parlett 1920-1926
DeWilton C. Parlett[43] 1926-1930 H. Thomas Glimes 1926-1930 Daniel H. Gaither 1926-1930
H. Grafton Penny[44] 1930-1934 J. Frank Curtis 1930-1934 Daniel H. Gaither 1930-1934
  H. Grafton Penny[45] Democrat 1935-1938 Robert H. Mercer Democrat 1935-1938 Hart B. Noll Republican 1935-1938
  Charles E. Miller Republican 1938-1942
  James Franklin Curtis Republican 1942-1949 Charles E. Miller Republican 1942-1949
  Norman E. Moxley Democrat 1949-1957 Roby H. Mullinix Democrat 1949-1954 E. Walter Scott Democrat 1949-1954
  Norman E. Moxley[46] Democrat 1958-1959 Howard W. Clark Democrat 1957-1958 Charles E. Harman Democrat 1957-1958
  Charles M. Scott[47] Democrat 1959-1962 Norman E. Moxley Democrat 1959-1962 Arthur K. Pickett Democrat 1959-1962
  Charles E. Miller Republican 1962-1966 J. Hubert Black Republican 1962-1966 David W. Force Republican 1962-1966
  Charles E. Miller Republican 1966-1970 J. Hubert Black Republican 1966-1970 Ridgley Jones Democrat 1968-1970

County Executives and Council Members:

Name Affiliation Term Council
  Omar J. Jones Democrat 1969–1973 Alva S. Baker, Edward L. Cochran, J. Hugh Nichols, Charles E. Miller
  Edward L. Cochran Democrat 1974–1978 Richard Anderson, Ruth Keeton, Lloyd Kowles, Virginia Thomas, Thomas Yeager[48]
  J. Hugh Nichols[49] Democrat 1978–1982 Ruth U. Keeton, Elizabeth Bobo, Lloyd G. Knowles, Virginia M. Thomas, Thomas M. Yeager
  William E. Eakle[50] Democrat 1982-1986 Ruth U. Keeton, Elizabeth Bobo, James C. Clark, C. Vernon Gray, Lloyd G. Knowles
  Elizabeth Bobo Democrat 1986–1990 Angela Beltram, C. Vernon Gray, Shane Pendergrass, Ruth Keeton, Charles Feaga
  Charles I. Ecker[51] Republican 1990–1994 Darrel E. Drown, C. Vernon Gray, Shane Pendergrass, Paul R. Farragut, Charles Feaga
  Charles I. Ecker Republican 1994–1998 Darrel E. Drown, C. Vernon Gray, Dennis R. Schrader, Mary C. Lorsung, Charles Feaga
  James N. Robey[52] Democrat 1998–2002 Christopher J. Merdon, C. Vernon Gray, Guy Guzzone, Mary C. Lorsung, Allan H. Kittleman
  James N. Robey Democrat 2002–2006 Christopher J. Merdon, David A. Rakes (Calvin Ball-appointed), Guy Guzzone, Ken Ulman, Allan H. Kittleman (Charles C. Feaga-appointed)[53][54]
  Kenneth Ulman Democrat 2006 – 2010 Courtney Watson, Calvin Ball, Jen Terrasa, Mary Kay Sigaty, Greg Fox
  Kenneth Ulman Democrat 2010 – 2014 Courtney Watson, Calvin Ball, Jen Terrasa, Mary Kay Sigaty, Greg Fox



Statistics for November 2012 indicate that Howard County’s unemployment rate decreased to 4.6 percent from 4.7 percent in October, the lowest in Maryland. The County has consistently maintained the lowest rates of unemployment in the state and remains nearly 2 percent lower than the State-wide unemployment rate of 6.4 for the same time period.

The top ten private sector employers in Howard County are as follows:[55]

# Employer # of Employees
1 Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 4,700
2 Verizon Wireless 2,028
3 Lorien Health Systems 2,000
4 Howard County General Hospital 1,728
5 Howard Community College 1,290
6 SAIC 1,060
7 Giant Food 1,050
8 The Columbia Association 900
9 Wells Fargo 842
10 MICROS Systems 815


Awards and recognitions achieved by Howard County or locations within it include the following:

Culture and attractions[edit]

Unincorporated census-designated places[edit]

Howard County has no incorporated municipalities.

Unincorporated areas are considered as towns by many people, and listed in many collections of towns, but they lack local governments or elected leaders. Various organizations, such as the United States Census Bureau, the United States Postal Service, and local chambers of commerce, define the communities they wish to recognize differently, and since they are not incorporated, their boundaries have no official status outside the organizations in question. The Census Bureau recognizes the following census-designated places in the county:

Other entities, such as the United States Postal Service, use a different selection of local place names. In all these cases, since the places are unincorporated, the boundaries are determined by the classifying authority. Unincorporated places not listed as Census-Designated Places but known in the area include:



Howard County does not have any public or commercial airport facilities. There are two privately owned airstrips, Glenair in Glenwood, Maryland, and Haysfield Airport in Ellicott City, Maryland.[77] Commercial air service is provided at the nearby BWI Airport, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, and Washington Dulles International Airport.

Public transportation[edit]

Bus routes that operate in Howard County are managed by multiple services, including Howard Transit, Connect a Ride, The Maryland Transit Administration, Commuter Solutions of Howard County, and Neighbor Ride.[78]


Howard County contains two primary Interstate highways: Interstate 70 which runs east-west across the northern portion of the county and Interstate 95 which enters the county in Elkridge and runs north-south to North Laurel, then crossing into Prince George's County.

Other major routes include U.S. Route 29, which runs from its northern terminus at MD 99 in Ellicott City into Montgomery County, Maryland Route 100 which provides quick access to BWI Airport from Ellicott City and Columbia, and Maryland Route 32 links the northwest suburbs of West Friendship, Glenelg, and Clarksville with Columbia and Fort Meade.


Department External Link
Howard County Government County Official Website
Howard County Public School System Howard County Public Schools Official Website
Howard County Housing and Community Development Howard County Housing and Community Development Official Website
Howard County Board of Elections Howard County Board of Elections Official Website
Howard County Library Howard County Library Official Website
Howard County Fire and Rescue Howard County Fire Department Official Website
Howard County Hospital Howard County Hospital Official Website
Howard County Police Howard County Police Official Website
Howard County Department of Corrections Department of Corrections Official Website
Howard County Community College Howard County Community College Official Website
Howard County Animal Control Howard County Animal Control Official Website
Howard County Office of Natural Resources Howard County Office of Natural Resources Official Website
Howard County Department of Parks & Recreation Howard County Parks & Recreation Official Website
Howard County Department Recycling Division Howard County Recycling Division Official Website
Howard County Department of Planning and Zoning Howard County Department of Planning and Zoning Website

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 24, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  4. ^ "CNN Money Magazine: 2010 Best Places To Live". Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  5. ^ "APL Environment". Retrieved 2008-02-08. [dead link]
  6. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 162. 
  7. ^ "Howard County History". Howard Life. Retrieved October 26, 2010. 
  8. ^ Ethan Allen, Libertus Van Bokkelen. History of Maryland. p. 36. 
  9. ^ "Mean Center of Population of the United States". Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  10. ^ "Howard County Buildings". Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  11. ^ Joshua Dorsey Warfield. The founders of Anne Arundel and Howard Counties, Maryland. p. 522. 
  12. ^ Moss, Paulina C; Levirn Hill, Howard County Center of African American Culture (2002). Seeking freedom : a history of the underground railroad in Howard County, Maryland. Columbia, MD: Howard County Center of African American Culture. OCLC 50728274. 
  13. ^ Maryland Geological Survey Report on the Highways of Maryland. 1899. p. 239. 
  14. ^ "Commissioners are Indicted". Times Dispatch. 15 September 1907. 
  15. ^ Weingroff, Richard F. "Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, Creating the Interstate System". Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
  16. ^ Edward Walsh (14 June 1972). "Recreation Park Planners Woo Howard County". The Washington Post. 
  17. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2008-04-15. 
  18. ^ "Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  19. ^ "CLARKSVILLE 3 NNE, HOWARD COUNTY, MARYLAND USA". Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  20. ^ "NOAA National Climatic Weather Center Search". Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  21. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Retrieved August 24, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Retrieved August 24, 2013. 
  23. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  24. ^ "Howard County, Maryland - Fact Sheet - American FactFinder". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-10-21. 
  25. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  26. ^ Howard County - Planning and Zoning. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  27. ^
  28. ^ Joseph R. Mitchell, David Stebenne. New City Upon a Hill: A History of Columbia, Maryland. p. 21. 
  29. ^ Pamela Wood and Joe Burris (27 March 2014). "Suburban counties gain population, Baltimore loses Howard sees largest percentage gain; Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Harford and Carroll counties grow". The Baltimore Sun. 
  30. ^ C.M. Holland. Old homes and families of Howard County, Maryland: with consideration of various additional points of interest. p. 50. 
  31. ^ "Clark Airs Howard Plan". Morning Sun. 12 Feb 1965. 
  32. ^ Peter C Muncie (3 November 1968). "5 counties to pick government form". The Baltimore Sun. 
  33. ^ a b The founders of Anne Arundel and Howard Counties, Maryland. 
  34. ^ Maryland State Manual Vol 154. p. 56. 
  35. ^ Maryland State Manual Vol 113. p. 199. 
  36. ^ Maryland Manual Vol 117. p. 254. 
  37. ^ Maryland Manual Vol 120. p. 163. 
  38. ^ Maryland Manual Vol 121. p. 163. 
  39. ^ Maryland Manual Vol 123. p. 193. 
  40. ^ The Washington Times. 21 June 1919. 
  41. ^ Maryland Manual Vol 128. p. 218. 
  42. ^ Maryland Manual Vol 130. p. 238. 
  43. ^ Maryland Manual Vol 137. p. 174. 
  44. ^ Maryland Manual Vol 147. p. 194. 
  45. ^ Maryland Manual Vol 151. p. 200. 
  46. ^ Maryland State Manual vol 167. p. 294. 
  47. ^ Maryland State Manual Vol 169. p. 364. 
  48. ^ "Ruth U. Keeton Dies at 78; Led Howard County Council". The Washington Post. 16 November 1997. 
  49. ^ Maryland State Manual vol 180. p. 497. 
  50. ^ Maryland State Manual vol 181. p. 553. 
  51. ^ "HOWARD COUNTY; Ecker Reelected; Republicans to Control Council". The Washington Post. 9 November 1994. 
  52. ^ "Howard County; Democrat Robey Wins Executive Contest". The Washington Post. 14 November 1998. 
  53. ^ "Howard County Council". Washington Post. 22 April 2004. 
  54. ^ "Howard County Council". Washington Post. 27 April 2006. 
  55. ^ Howard County Economic Development Authority
  56. ^ "News briefs". Daily Record. 15 May 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
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  63. ^ "Howard County, Maryland: A GOOD SPORTS COMMUNITY OF THE YEAR". Sports Illustrated. 7 December 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  64. ^ Great Public Library Systems "Top Ten Libraries in Population Category". Hennen's American Public Library Ratings. 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  65. ^ "Libraries by Frequency in Top Ten". Hennen's American Public Library Ratings. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
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  67. ^ "County Health Rankings & Roadmaps: Overall rank 2012". Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  68. ^ "County Health Rankings & Roadmaps: Overall rank 2011". Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  69. ^ "County Health Rankings & Roadmaps: Overall rank 2010". Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  70. ^ Rice, Kristine (1 June 2012). "Heart Safe Community Awards". American Safety & Health Institute. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  71. ^ "Library Journal". Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  72. ^ "Advisory Council on Historic Preservation". Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  73. ^ "Pollstar Awards Archive". Pollstar. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  74. ^ "2012 Tree City USA Communities". Arbor Day Foundation. April 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  75. ^ "Venues that Rock". 
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  78. ^ "Transit Services". Retrieved 6 October 2010. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°15′N 76°56′W / 39.25°N 76.93°W / 39.25; -76.93