Howard Da Silva

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Howard Da Silva
HowardDaSilva.jpg
Howard Da Silva, as Benjamin Franklin, in 1776
Born Howard Silverblatt
(1909-05-04)May 4, 1909
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
Died February 16, 1986(1986-02-16) (aged 76)
Ossining, New York, U.S.
Occupation Actor, singer
Years active 1935–1984
Spouse(s) Marjorie Nelson (1949-1960) (2 sons)
Nancy Nutter (1961-1986) (his death) (3 daughters)

Howard Da Silva (May 4, 1909 – February 16, 1986) was a versatile American actor, director and musical performer on stage, film, television and radio. He was cast in dozens of productions on the New York stage, appeared in more than two dozen television programs, and acted in more than fifty feature films. Adept at both drama and musicals on the stage, he appeared in the original 1943 run of the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical Oklahoma!, and also portrayed the prosecuting attorney in the 1957 stage production of Compulsion. Da Silva was nominated for a 1960 Tony Award as Best Featured Actor in a Musical for his work in Fiorello!, a musical about New York City mayor LaGuardia.[1] In 1961, Da Silva directed Purlie Victorius, based on the novel by Ossie Davis.

Many of his early feature films were of the noir genre and he often played the nemesis in the plot, such as two 1946 roles: that of Eddie Harwood in The Blue Dahlia, and the sadistic Captain Francis Thompson in Two Years Before the Mast. Da Silva's characterization of historic figures are among some of his most notable work: Benjamin Franklin in the 1969–1972 stage musical 1776 and a reprisal of the role for the 1972 film version of the production; Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev in The Missiles of October in 1974; Franklin D. Roosevelt in The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover in 1977; and Louis B. Mayer in Mommie Dearest in 1981.

His American television character work included the defense attorney representing the robot in 1965 The Outer Limits 1964 episode "I, Robot", and district attorney Anthony Cleese in For the People. His 1978 performance as Eddie in the Great Performances production of Verna: USO Girl garnered the actor a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Performance by a Supporting Actor in a Comedy or Drama Special.[2]

In the 1970s, Da Silva recorded 26 episodes for CBS Radio Mystery Theater.

Early life[edit]

He was born Howard Silverblatt in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Bertha (née Sen) and Benjamin Silverblatt, a dress cutter. His parents were both Yiddish-speaking Jews born in Russia. He had a job as a steelworker before beginning his acting career on the stage. He changed his surname to the Portuguese Da Silva, despite not having any relationship with Portugal or Brazil (the name is sometimes misspelled Howard De Silva).[3]

Da Silva was a graduate of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, and learned the acting trade under the tutelage of Eva Le Gallienne. He joined the Civic Repertory Theatre in 1928.[4]

Career[edit]

Da Silva appeared in a number of Broadway musicals, including the role of Larry Foreman in the legendary first production of Marc Blitzstein's musical, The Cradle Will Rock (1938).[5] Later, he costarred in the original 1943 stage production of Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma!, playing the role of the psychopathic Jud Fry. He was the easygoing Ben Marino who opposed Tammany Hall in the Pulitzer winning musical Fiorello!.

In 1969, Da Silva originated the role of Benjamin Franklin in the musical 1776. Four days before the show opened on Broadway, he suffered a minor heart attack but refused to seek medical assistance because he wanted to make sure critics saw his performance. After the four official critic performances were over, the cast left to go to the cast party and Da Silva went to the hospital and immediately took a leave of absence from the production.[6] While Da Silva recuperated, his understudy, Rex Everhart, took over the role[7] and performed on the cast recording. Da Silva was able to reprise his role in the 1972 film version and appeared on that soundtrack album.

Da Silva did summer stock at the Pine Brook Country Club, located in the countryside of Nichols, Connecticut, with the Group Theatre (New York) formed by Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford and Lee Strasberg in the 1930s and early 1940s.[8][9]

Da Silva appeared in over 60 motion pictures. Some of his memorable roles include a leading mutineer in The Sea Wolf (1941), playing Ray Milland's bartender in The Lost Weekend (1945) and the half-blind criminal "Chicamaw 'One-Eye' Mobley" in They Live by Night (1949). He also released an album on Monitor Records (MP 595) of political songs and ballads entitled Politics and Poker.[10]

Da Silva returned to the stage. He was nominated for the 1960 Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical for his role as "Ben Marino" in Fiorello! (1959). After being blacklisted, Da Silva and Nelson left Los Angeles for New York to perform in The World of Sholom Aleichem.[11]

Da Silva was nominated for the British BAFTA Film Award for Best Foreign Actor for his performance as "Dr. Swinford" in David and Lisa (1962).[12] He recorded linking narration for episodes of the British television program Doctor Who broadcast in the United States. Da Silva portrayed Soviet Premier Khrushchev in the 1974 television docudrama The Missiles of October. He won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Performance by a Supporting Actor in a Comedy or Drama Special for his role as Eddie in Verna: U.S.O. Girl (1978) with Sissy Spacek.

Da Silva's TV guest appearances, after the era in which blacklisting was strongest, include such programs as The Outer Limits, Ben Casey, The Man from U.N.C.L.E., The Fugitive, Gentle Ben, Mannix, Love, American Style, Kung Fu, and Archie Bunker's Place.

Da Silva also played Franklin D. Roosevelt in The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover (1977), Louis B. Mayer in Mommie Dearest (1981), "Angelo Dokakis" in Garbo Talks (1984), and Benjamin Franklin in 1776 (1972), as well as a documentary depicting the life of Ben Franklin shown at Franklin's house in Philadelphia. He appeared in two different film adaptations of F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel, The Great Gatsby. In the 1949 production with Alan Ladd as Gatsby, Da Silva played garage owner George Wilson; in the 1974 film with Robert Redford, Da Silva was Meyer Wolfsheim, the flamboyant gambler with the interesting cufflinks. He also did voice acting in 26 episodes of the popular 1974–82 radio thriller series CBS Radio Mystery Theater (between July 1974 and February 1977).[13]

Blacklisting[edit]

Da Silva became one of hundreds of artists blacklisted in the entertainment industry during the House Committee on Unamerican Activities investigation into alleged Communist influence in the industry. Following his March 1951 testimony in which he repeatedly invoked his Fifth Amendment rights,[14] his lead performance in the completed feature film Slaughter Trail was re-shot with actor Brian Donlevy.[15] Da Silva continued to find work on the New York stage, but did not work in feature films again until 1961 when he appeared in his BAFTA nominated performance in David and Lisa.[12][16] He was eventually cleared of any charges in 1960,[17] but not before his career in television had also stalled, with no work between 1951 and 1959 when he appeared in The Play of the Week. The brief respite was followed by another television career void until his appearance in a 1963 episode of The Defenders. That was the beginning of the end of Da Silva's blacklist, and the show's producer Herb Brodkin paired Da Silva with William Shatner when he created the television series For the People.[18]

Personal life and death[edit]

Da Silva married actress Marjorie Nelson in 1949.[19] Da Silva and Nelson divorced in 1960.

Da Silva died of lymphoma, aged 76, in Ossining, New York. His second wife Nancy, as well as two sons and three daughters, survived him.[4]

Acting credits[edit]

Stage[edit]

Stage work of Howard Da Silva
Opening date Closing date Title Role Theatre Notes Refs
Apr 21, 1930 May 1930 Romeo and Juliet Apothecary Civic Repertory Theatre [20]
Oct 6, 1930 unknown The Green Cockatoo Scaevola Civic Repertory Theatre Written in 1899 by Arthur Schnitzler as Der grüne Kakadu [21]
Oct 6, 1930 Nov 1930 Romeo and Juliet Apothecary Civic Repertory Theatre [22]
Oct 20, 1930 Nov 1930 Siegfried Mr. Patchkoffer, Schumann Civic Repertory Theatre Written by Jean Giraudoux; adaptation by Philip Carr [23]
Dec 1, 1930 Jan 1931 Alison's House Hodges Civic Repertory Theatre Written by Susan Glaspell [24]
Jan 26, 1931 Mar 1931 Camille Guest Civic Repertory Theatre Written by Alexandre Dumas, fils; translation by Henriette Metcalf [25]
May 11, 1931 May 31, 1931 Alison's House Hodges Ritz Theatre Written by Susan Glaspell [26]
Oct 26, 1932 Oct 1932 Liliom Wolf Beifeld Civic Repertory Theatre Written by Ferenc Molnár; adaptation by Benjamin Glazer [27]
Nov 14, 1932 Nov 1932 Dear Jane Dr. Samuel Johnson Civic Repertory Theatre Written by Eleanor Holmes Hinkley [28]
Dec 12, 1932 Dec 1933 Alice in Wonderland Cook, White Knight Civic Repertory Theatre Based on the Lewis Carroll books; written by Florida Friebus and Eva Le Gallienne [29]
March 6, 1933 April 1933 The Cherry Orchard Stationmaster New Amsterdam Theatre Written by Anton Chekhov; translation by Constance Garnett [30]
Dec 10, 1934 Mar 1935 Sailors of Cattaro Sepp Kriz Civic Repertory Theatre From the 1930 German work Die Matrosen von Cattaro by Friedrich Wolf; translation by Keen Wallis; adaptation by Michael Blankfort [31]
Mar 20, 1935 June 1935 Black Pitt Hansy McCulloh Civic Repertory Theatre Written by Albert Maltz [32]
Nov 4, 1937 June 1938 Golden Boy Lewis Belasco Theatre Written by Clifford Odets [33]
Jan 3, 1938 April 1938 The Cradle Will Rock Larry Foreman Windsor Theatre Written by Marc Blitzstein [34][5]
Feb 19, 1938 May 1938 Casey Jones Old Man Fulton Theatre Written by Robert Ardrey [35]
Oct 15, 1938 Dec 1939 Abe Lincoln in Illinois Jack Armstrong Plymouth Theatre Written by Robert E. Sherwood [36]
Nov 2, 1939 Nov 4, 1939 Summer Night Speed St. James Theatre Written by Benjamin Glazer and Vicki Baum [37]
Jan 22, 1940 Apr 13, 1940 Two On An Island The Sightseeing Guide Broadhurst Theatre Written by Elmer Rice [38]
Jan 22, May 31, 1943 May 29, 1948 Oklahoma! Jud Fry St. James Theatre Written by Rodgers and Hammerstein [39][40]
April 9, 1946 Shootin' Star Saloon proprietor, sheriff Shubert Theatre, Philadelphia Written by Walter Hart and Louis Jacobs [41]
Dec 26, 1947 Feb 7, 1948 The Cradle Will Rock (directed) Mansfield Theatre, Broadway Theatre Written by Marc Blitzstein [42][5]
Oct 18, 1950 Oct 28, 1950 Burning Bright Friend Ed Broadhurst Theatre Written by John Steinbeck [43]
Nov 23, 1954 Jan 2, 1955 Sandhog (produced) Phoenix Theatre Written by Earl Robinson and Waldo Salt, based on St. Columbia and the River by Theodore Dreiser. Rachel Productions was owned by da Silva and Arnold Perl. [44]
Nov 4, 1956 Nov 25, 1956 Diary of a Scoundrel Neel Fedoseitch Mamaev Phoenix Theatre Written by Alexander Ostrovsky; adapted by Rodney Ackland [45]
Oct 24, 1957 Feb 22, 1958 Compulsion Horn The Prosecuting Attorney Ambassador Theatre Based on he 1956 Meyer Levin novel of the same name; later produced as the 1959 film Compulsion. [46]
Nov 23, 1959 Oct 28, 1961 Fiorello! Ben Marino Broadhurst Theatre, Broadway Theatre Based on the book by Jerome Weidman and George Abbott;Da Silva nominated for 1960 Tony Award Best Featured Actor in a Musical [47][48]
Sept 28, 1961 May 13, 1962 Purlie Victorious (directed) Cort Theatre, Longacre Theatre Written by Ossie Davis [49][50]
Jan 10, 1962 Mar 10, 1962 Romulus Ottaker Music Box Theatre Written by Friedrich Duerrenmatt; adapted by Gore Vidal [51]
Dec 12, 1962 Dec 15, 1962 In the Counting House Max Hartman Biltmore Theater Written by Leslie Weiner [52]
Feb 28, 1963 Jul 10, 1963 Dear Me, The Sky is Falling Paul Hirsch Music Box Theatre Written by Leonard Spigelgass, based on the book by Gertrude Berg and James Yaffe [53]
Oct 14, 1963 Oct 19, 1963 The Advocate (directed) ANTA Playhouse Written by Robert Noah [54]
Nov 8, 1964 Jan 7, 1975 The Cradle Will Rock (directed) Theatre Four Written by Marc Blitzstein [5][55]
Nov 10, 1965 Apr 16, 1966 The Zulu and the Zayda (writer) Cort Theatre Original story by Dan Jacobson; book adaptation by Howard da Silva and Felix Leon [56][57]
Dec 06, 1966 Dec 31, 1966 My Sweet Charlie (directed) Longacre Theatre Written by David Westheimer [58]
Jul 06, 1967 Nov 12, 1967 The Unknown Soldier and His Wife Archbishop Vivian Beaumont Theater, George Abbott Theater Written by Peter Ustinov [59]
Mar 16, 1969 Feb 13, 1972 1776 Benjamin Franklin 46th Street Theatre, St. James Theatre, Majestic Theatre Based on a book by Peter Stone; adapted by Sherman Edwards [60][61]
Feb 11, 1982 Feb 28, 1982 The World of Sholom Aleichem (conceived) Rialto Theatre Conceived by Howard da Silva and Arnold Perl; written by Perl. [62][63]

Film[edit]

Key to studio abbreviations
20th 20th Century-Fox AIP American International Pictures CP Columbia Pictures
CFD Continental Film Distribution CF Corinth Films Inc. FF Frontier Films Inc.
LFI Lumiere Films, Inc. MGM Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer NYS New York Shakespeare Festival
Oct October Films Par Paramount RKO RKO Radio
UA United Artists Uni Universal WB Warner Bros.


Feature film work of Howard Da Silva
Year Title Role Director Producer Distributor Other cast members Refs.
1935 Once in a Blue Moon (uncredited) Ben Hecht, Charles MacArthur Ben Hecht Par Jimmy Savo [64]
1938 Marie Antoinette Toulon (uncredited) W. S. Van Dyke Hunt Stromberg MGM Norma Shearer, John Barrymore, John Barrymore [65]
1940 Abe Lincoln in Illinois Jack Armstrong John Cromwell Max Gordon RKO Raymond Massey, Ruth Gordon [66]
I'm Still Alive Red Garvey Irving Reis Frederic Ullman Jr. RKO Kent Taylor, Linda Hayes [67]
1941 At the Stroke of Twelve Angie the Ox Jean Negulesco Gordon Hollingshead WB Craig Stevens [68]
Three Sons o' Guns Radio announcer (uncredited) Benjamin Stoloff William Jacobs WB Wayne Morris [69]
The Dog in the Orchard Foster Jean Negulesco WB Barbara Pepper [70]
Bad Men of Missouri Greg Bilson Ray Enright Harlan Thompson WB Dennis Morgan, Jane Wyman [71]
Blues in the Night Sam Paryas Anatole Litvak Hal B. Wallis WB Richard Whorf, Priscilla Lane, Betty Field [72]
Navy Blues Petty Officer Lloyd Bacon Hal B. Wallis WB Ann Sheridan, Jack Oakie, Martha Raye, Jack Haley [73]
Nine Lives Are Not Enough City Editor A. Edward Sutherland Bryan Foy WB Ronald Reagan [74]
The Sea Wolf Harrison Michael Curtiz Hal B. Wallis WB Edward G. Robinson, Ida Lupino, John Garfield [75]
Steel Against the Sky Bugs Little A. Edward Sutherland Brian Foy WB Alexis Smith, Lloyd Nolan [76]
Strange Alibi Monson D. Ross Lederman Brian Boy WB Arthur Kennedy, Joan Perry [77]
Sergeant York Lem Howard Hawks Howard Hawks WB Gary Cooper [78]
1942 Keeper of the Flame Jason Rickards George Cukor Victor Saville MGM Spencer Tracy, Katharine Hepburn [79]
The Big Shot Sandor Lewis Seiler Walter MacEwen WB Humphrey Bogart [80]
Bullet Scars Frank Dillon D. Ross Lederman WB Regis Toomey [81]
Juke Girl Cully Curtis Bernhardt Hal B. Wallis WB Ann Sheridan, Ronald Reagan [82]
Native Land Jim Leo Hurwitz, Paul Strand Leo Hurwitz FF Paul Robeson [83]
The Omaha Trail Ben Santley Edward Buzzell Jack Chertok MGM James Craig [84]
Reunion in France Anton Stregel Jules Dassin Joseph L. Mankiewicz MGM Joan Crawford, John Wayne [85]
Wild Bill Hickok Rides Ringo Ray Enright Bryan Foy WB Constance Bennett, Bruce Cabot [86]
1943 Tonight We Raid Calais Sgt. Block John Brahm André Daven 20th Lee J. Cobb, Beulah Bondi [87]
1945 Ed Gardner's Duffy's Tavern Tough guy Hal Walker Danny Dare Par Bing Crosby [88]
The Lost Weekend Nat Billy Wilder Charles Brackett Par Ray Milland [89]
1946 The Blue Dahlia Eddie Harwood George Marshall John Houseman Par Alan Ladd, Veronica Lake [90]
Two Years Before the Mast Captain Francis A. Thompson John Farrow Seton I. Miller Par Brian Donlevy, Barry Fitzgerald [91]
1947 Blaze of Noon Gafferty John Farrow Robert Fellows Par Anne Baxter, William Holden [92]
Variety Girl Self George Marshall Daniel Dare Par DeForest Kelley, Olga San Juan [93]
1948 Unconquered Martin Garth Cecil B. DeMille Cecil B. DeMille Par Gary Cooper, Paulette Goddard [94]
1949 They Live by Night Chickamaw Nicholas Ray John Houseman RKO Farley Granger [95]
Border Incident Owen Parkson Anthony Mann Nicholas Nayfack MGM Ricardo Montalban, George Murphy [96]
The Great Gatsby Wilson Elliott Nugent Richard Maibaum Par Alan Ladd [97]
1950 Three Husbands Dan McCabe Irving Reis Isadore Goldsmith UA Eve Arden [98]
Tripoli Capt. Demetrios Will Price William H. Pine Par Maureen O'Hara [99]
The Underworld Story Carl Durham Cy Endfield Hal E. Chester UA Dan Duryea, Gale Storm [100]
Wyoming Mail Cavanaugh Reginald LeBorg Aubrey Schenck Uni Stephen McNally [101]
1951 Fourteen Hours Deputy Police Chief Moskar Henry Hathaway Henry Hathaway 20th Richard Basehart [102]
M (1951 film) Carney Joseph Losey Seymour Nebenzal CP David Wayne [103]
Slaughter Trail Capt. Dempster Irving Allen Irving Allen RKU Gig Young, Virginia Grey Note[15]
1962 David and Lisa Dr. Alan Swinford Frank Perry Paul Heller CFD Keir Dullea, Janet Margolin [104]
1963 It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World Airport officer Stanley Kramer Stanley Kramer US Sid Caesar, Ethel Merman [105]
1964 The Outrage Prospector Martin Ritt A. Ronald Lubin MGM Paul Newman, Laurence Harvey, Claire Bloom [106]
Hamlet Claudius Bruce Minnix, Joseph Papp Larry Paulis NYS Michael Alaimo [107]
1966 Nevada Smith Warden Henry Hathaway Joseph E. Levine Par Steve McQueen [108]
1972 1776 Benjamin Franklin Peter H. Hunt Jack L. Warner CP William Daniels, Blythe Danner, Ken Howard [109]
1974 The Great Gatsby Meyer Wolfsheim Jack Clayton David Merrick Par Robert Redford, Mia Farrow [110]
1975 I'm a Stranger Here Myself Narrator David Halpern James C. Gutman Oct John Houseman [111]
1976 Hollywood on Trial Self David Helpern James Gutman CF/LFI Dalton Trumbo, Ring Lardner Jr., Walter Bernstein [112]
1977 The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover Franklin D. Roosevelt Larry Cohen Larry Cohen AIP Broderick Crawford, Celeste Holm , José Ferrer [113]
1981 Mommie Dearest Louis B. Mayer Frank Perry Frank Yablans Par Faye Dunaway [114]
1984 Garbo Talks Angelo Dokakis Sidney Lumet Burtt Harris, Elliott Kastner MGM/UA Greta Garbo, Anne Bancroft, Ron Silver [115]

Television[edit]

Television episode and film work of Howard Da Silva
Year Title Role Notes Refs.
1950 The Silver Theatre My Heart's in the Highlands [116]
1951 The Bigelow Theatre My Heart's in the Highlands [117]
1959 The Play of the Week Dupont-Dufour Sr. Thieves Carnival [118]
1963 The Defenders Peter Cole The Bagman [119]
East Side/West Side Wallace Mapes I Believe E Except After C [120]
The Doctors and the Nurses Dr. McClendon Disaster Call [121]
1964 The Defenders Arnold Fermuller The Man Who [122]
The Outer Limits Thurman Cutler I, Robot [123]
1965 For the People Anthony Celese 13 episodes [124]
Ben Casey Ulysses Pagoras The Day They Stole Country General [125]
Ben Casey Cantor Nathan Birmbaum A Nightingale Named Nathan [126]
1966 The Man from U.N.C.L.E. Captain Basil Calhoun The Foreign Legion Affair [127]
The Loner Gonzales To Hang a Dead Man [128]
The Fugitive Pete Dawes Death is the Door Prize [129]
1967 N.Y.P.D. Dimitchik Old Gangsters Never Die [130]
Gentle Ben Phillip Garrett Battle of Wedlow Woods [131]
1968 Mannix Aram Karmalis You Can Get Killed Out There [132]
1972 Keep the Faith Rabbi Mossman TV film [133]
1973 Love, American Style Doctor Wazanskyi Love and the End of the Line [134]
Kung Fu Otto Schultz The Hoots [135]
1974 Smile Jenny, You're Dead Lt. Humphrey Kenner TV film [107]
The Missiles of October Nikita Khrushchev TV film [107]
1976 The American Parade Boss Tweed Stop, Thief! [136]
1977 Insight Arnstein – Violinist Arnstein's Miracle [137]
1978 When the Boat Comes In Host American broadcast [138]
Great Performances Eddie Verna:USO Girl [107]
1980 Power Jack Eisenstadt TV film [107]
The Greatest Man in the World Conklin TV film [139]
1983 Archie Bunker's Place Abe Rabinowitz The Promotion [140]
Masquerade General Breznin Pilot [141]
1984 American Playhouse Critic The Cafeteria [142]

Radio[edit]

CBS Radio Mystery Theater work of Howard Da Silva[143]
Year Date Title Ep. No.
1974 July 31 "The Only Blood" 125
Dec 5 "The Body Snatchers" 183
Dec 24 "A Very Private Miracle" 191
1975 Jan 14 "Faith and the Faker" 205
Feb 14 "The Shadow of the Past" 223
Mar 20 "The Doppelganger" 242
Apr 18 "A Challenge for the Dead" 259
May 8 "Taken for Granite" 270
June 6 "The Transformer" 287
July 2 "Come Back with Me" 301
Aug 5 "Hung Jury" 321
Aug 19 "Welcome for a Dead Man" 329
Sept 18 "The Coffin with the Golden Nails" 346
Sept 28 "The Other Self " 354
Oct 23 "The Sealed Room Murder" 366
Nov 17 "The Moonlighter" 380
Nov 28 "The Frammis" 387
Dec 15 "Burn, Witch, Burn" 396
1976 Jan 19 "There's No Business Like" 418
Feb 19 "Goodbye, Benjamin Flack" 434
Apr 24 "The Prince of Evil" 475
Aug 30 "The Night Shift" 511
Oct 22 "Somebody Help Me!" 540
Dec 14 "The Smoking Pistol" 565
1977 Jan 4 "This Breed Is Doomed" 577
Feb 25 "Legend of Phoenix Hill" 607

Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "1960 Tony Award® Best Featured Actor in a Musical". IBDB. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  2. ^ "1978 Prime Time Emmy Awards". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  3. ^ Room (2010), p. 134
  4. ^ a b "Howard Da Silva Dies at 76: Actor, Director and Author". February 18, 1986 (The New York Times). Retrieved February 21, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d Suskin (2010), pp. 182–183
  6. ^ Peter Stone on the film DVD's audio commentary
  7. ^ Kirkeby, Marc. 1776 Original Broadway Cast recording (liner notes). Sony Music Entertainment. p. 9. 
  8. ^ Pinewood Lake website retrieved on 2010-09-10
  9. ^ Images of America, Trumbull Historical Society, 1997, p. 123
  10. ^ "Reviews and Ratings of New Albums". Billboard: 50. October 21, 1960. Retrieved February 22, 2015. 
  11. ^ Frommer, Frommer (2014), p. 82
  12. ^ a b "Foreign Actor in 1964". BAFTA Awards. British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved February 22, 2015. 
  13. ^ "CBS Radio Mystery Theater Database". Retrieved 2008-05-10. 
  14. ^ Ryskind (2015), pp. 391–393
  15. ^ a b Humphries (2010), p.146
  16. ^ Buhle, Wagner (2004), p. 291
  17. ^ Ghiglione (2008), p. ebook
  18. ^ Shatner, Fisher (2008), pp. 95–96
  19. ^ Biography at filmreference.com
  20. ^ "Romeo and Juliet". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  21. ^ "The Green Cockatoo". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  22. ^ "Romeo and Juliet". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  23. ^ "Siegfried". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  24. ^ "Alison's House". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  25. ^ "Camille". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  26. ^ "Alison's House". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  27. ^ "Liliom". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  28. ^ "Dear Jane". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  29. ^ "Alice in Wonderland". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  30. ^ "The Cherry Orchard". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Sailors of Cattaro". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Black Pitt". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  33. ^ "Golden Boy". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  34. ^ "The Cradle Will Rock". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  35. ^ "Casey Jones". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  36. ^ "Abe Lincoln in Illinois". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  37. ^ "Summer Night". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  38. ^ "Two On An Island". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Oklahoma!". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  40. ^ Suskin (2010), pp. 104–105
  41. ^ "Out-of-town-openings". Billboard: 48. April 20, 1946. 
  42. ^ "The Cradle Will Rock". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  43. ^ "Burning Bright". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  44. ^ "Sandhog". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  45. ^ "Diary of a Scoundre". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  46. ^ "Compulsion". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  47. ^ "Fiorello!". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  48. ^ Suskin (2010), p. 251
  49. ^ "Purlie Victorious". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  50. ^ Rose (2001), pp. 162–163
  51. ^ "Romulus". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  52. ^ "In the Counting House". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  53. ^ "Dear Me, The Sky is Falling". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  54. ^ "The Advocate". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  55. ^ "Cradle Will Rock". Lortel Archives. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  56. ^ "The Zulu and the Zayda". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  57. ^ Suskin (2010), p. 195
  58. ^ "My Sweet Charlie". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  59. ^ "The Unknown Soldier and His Wife". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  60. ^ "1776". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  61. ^ Suskin (2010), p. 417
  62. ^ "The World of Sholom Aleichem". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 20, 2015. 
  63. ^ Sainer (1998), p. 159
  64. ^ "Once in a Blue Moon". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  65. ^ Marie Antoinette at the Internet Movie Database
  66. ^ "Abe Lincoln in Illinois". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  67. ^ "I'm Still Alive". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  68. ^ At the Stroke of Twelve at the Internet Movie Database
  69. ^ Three Sons o' Guns at the Internet Movie Database
  70. ^ The Dog in the Orchard at the Internet Movie Database
  71. ^ "Bad Men of Missouri". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  72. ^ "Blues in the Night". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  73. ^ "Navy Blues". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  74. ^ "Nine Lives Are Not Enough". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  75. ^ "The Sea Wolf". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  76. ^ "Steel Against the Sky". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  77. ^ "Strange Alibi". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  78. ^ "Sergeant York". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  79. ^ "Keeper of the Flame". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  80. ^ "The Big Shot". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  81. ^ "Bullet Scars". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  82. ^ "Juke Girl". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  83. ^ "Native Land". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  84. ^ "The Omaha Trail". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  85. ^ "Reunion in France". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved November 17, 2015.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  86. ^ "Wild Bill Hickok Rides". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  87. ^ "Tonight We Raid Calais". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  88. ^ "Duffy's Tavern". AFI Catalog of Features Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  89. ^ "The Lost Weekend". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  90. ^ "The Blue Dahlia". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  91. ^ "Two Years Before the Mast". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AF. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  92. ^ "Blaze of Noon". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  93. ^ "Variety Girl". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  94. ^ "Unconquered". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  95. ^ "They Live by Night". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  96. ^ "Border Incident". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
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  98. ^ "Three Husbands". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  99. ^ "Tripoli (1950 film)". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  100. ^ "The Underworld Story". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  101. ^ "Wyoming Mail". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  102. ^ "Fourteen Hours". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  103. ^ "M (1951 film)". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  104. ^ "David and Lisa". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  105. ^ "It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  106. ^ "The Outrage". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. AFI. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
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References[edit]

  • Buhle, Paul; Wagner, David (2004). Hide in Plain Sight: The Hollywood Blacklistees in Film and Television, 1950–2002. Palgrave Macmilla. ISBN 978-1403966841. 
  • Erickson, Hal (2009). Encyclopedia of Television Law Shows. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-3828-0. 
  • Frommer, Myrna Katz; Frommer, Harvey (2014). It Happened on Broadway: An Oral History of the Great White Way. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-58979-916-5. 
  • Gertel, Elliott (2003). Over the Top Judaism: Precedents and Trends in the Depiction of Jewish Beliefs and Observances in Film and Television. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0761826248. 
  • Ghiglione, Loren (2008). CBS's Don Hollenbeck An Honest Reporter in the Age of McCarthyism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231516891. 
  • Heitland, Jon (1987). The Man from U.N.C.L.E. Book: The Behind-the-Scenes Story of a Television Classic. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0312000523. 
  • Humphries, Reynold (2010). Hollywood's Blacklists: A Political and Cultural History. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0748624560. 
  • Laster, Kathy; Breckweg, Krista; King, John (2000). The Drama of the Courtroom. Federation Press. ISBN 978-1862873391. 
  • Monush, Barry (1965). The Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors. Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. ISBN 9781557835512. 
  • Ryskind, Allen H. (2015). Hollywood Traitors: Blacklisted Screenwriters – Agents of Stalin, Allies of Hitler. Regnery History. ISBN 978-1621572060. 
  • Roberts, Jerry (2003). The Great American Playwrights on the Screen: A Critical Guide to Film, TV, Video and DVD. Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. ISBN 978-1557835123. 
  • Room, Adrian (2010). Dictionary of Pseudonyms. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5763-2. 
  • Rose, Philip (2004). You Can't Do That on Broadway!: A Raisin in the Sun and Other Theatrical Improbabilities. Limelight Editions. ISBN 978-0879109608. 
  • Sainer, Albert (1998). Zero Dances: A Biography of Zero Mostel. Limelight Editions. ISBN 9780879100964. 
  • Shatner, William; Fisher, David (2008). Up Till Now: The Autobiography. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312372651. 
  • Suskin, Steven (2010). Show Tunes: The Songs, Shows, and Careers of Broadway's Major Composers. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195314076. 
  • Terrace, Vincent (2011). Encyclopedia of Television Shows, 1925 through 2010, 2d ed. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-6477-7. 
  • Terrace, Vincente (2013). Television Specials: 5,336 Entertainment Programs, 1936–2012, 2d ed. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-7444-8. 

External links[edit]