Howrah

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This article is about the municipality in West Bengal, India. For its namesake district, see Howrah district. For other uses, see Howrah (disambiguation).
Howrah
হাওড়া
Metropolitan city
Howrah Bridge
Howrah Bridge
Nickname(s): Sheffield of East
Howrah is located in West Bengal
Howrah
Howrah
Coordinates: 22°35′N 88°19′E / 22.59°N 88.31°E / 22.59; 88.31Coordinates: 22°35′N 88°19′E / 22.59°N 88.31°E / 22.59; 88.31
Country India
State West Bengal
District Howrah district
Government
 • Type Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Rathin Chakraborty (Trinamool Congress)
Area
 • Total 1,467 km2 (566 sq mi)
Elevation 12 m (39 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 1,072,161
 • Density 730/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali,Hindi, also English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 711
Telephone code 91 (33)
Sex ratio 904 /
Lok Sabha constituency Howrah
Vidhan Sabha constituency Howrah Uttar, Howrah Madhya, Howrah Dakshin, Shibpur
Website www.howrah.gov.in

Howrah or Haora (/ˈhrə/; Bengali: হাওড়া) is an industrial city, a municipal corporation in the Howrah district, West Bengal, India. It is the second largest city of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the headquarters of the district, and also the headquarters of the Howrah Sadar subdivision of the district. Located on the west bank of the Hoogli River, it is a twin city to Kolkata. Howrah is the second smallest district after Kolkata. The two cities are connected by four bridges on the river Ganges, these being the Howrah Bridge (also known as Rabindra Setu), the Vidyasagar Setu (also known as the second Hooghly Bridge), the Vivekananda Setu (also known as Bally Bridge), the Nivedita Setu (also known as Second Vivekananda Setu and ferry services between various jetties in the two cities.

Howrah Station serves as a terminal for two railway zones of India: the Eastern Railway and the South Eastern Railway. There are six other railway stations with the city, including the railway junction at Santragachhi and the terminal at Shalimar Station—all the six are part of the South Eastern Railway network. Two national highways—NH 2 and NH 6—are connected to Vidyasagar Setu via Kona Expressway. One endpoint of the Grand Trunk Road is at the Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden[2] here, where the Great Banyan tree stands. Bengal Engineering & Science University, over 150 years old, is a prestigious engineering university located in the city.

Etymology[edit]

The name came from the word HaorBengali word for a fluvial swampy lake, which is sedimentologically a depression where water, mud and organic debris accumulate. The word itself was rather used in eastern part of Bengal (now Bangladesh), as compared to the western part (now West Bengal).[3]

History[edit]

The history of the city of Howrah dates back over 500 years, but the district is situated in an area historically occupied by the ancient Bengali kingdom of Bhurshut. Venetian explorer Cesare Federici, who travelled in India during 1565–79, mentioned a place called Buttor in his journal circa 1578.[4] As per his description, this was the a location into which large ships could travel (presumably the Hoogli River) and perhaps a commercial port.[4] This place is identifiable with the modern day neighbourhood of Bator.[4] Bator was also mentioned in the Bengali poetry Manasamangal written by Bipradas Pipilai in 1495.[5]

In 1713, the Bengal Council of the British East India Company, on the accession of the Emperor Farrukhsiyar, grandson of Aurangzeb, to the throne of Delhi, sent a deputation to him with a petition for a settlement of five villages on west bank of Hooghly river along with thirty-three villages on the east bank.[6] The list of villages appeared in the Consultation Book of the Council dated 4 May 1714. The five villages on the west bank on Hooghly river were: 'Salica' (Salkia), 'Harirah' (Howrah), 'Cassundeah' (Kasundia), 'Ramkrishnopoor' (Ramkrishnapur), and 'Battar' (Bator): all identifiable with localities of modern day Howrah city.[7] The deputation was successful except for these five villages.[7] By 1728, most of the present day Howrah district was part of either of the two zamindaris: Burdwan or Muhammand Aminpur.[7] After Battle of Plassey, as per the treaty signed with the Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim, on 11 October 1760, Howrah district (then part of Burdwan) came under control of East India Company.[8] In 1787, the Hooghly district was formed, and till 1819, the whole of the present day Howrah district was added to it.[9] The Howrah district was separated from the Hooghly district in 1843.[10]

With the establishment of the Howrah Railway Terminus in 1854 started the most important phase of its industrial development. Flour mills were established in 1855, followed by Jute mills and around the 1870s, there were five mills near Howrah station.[11] The Howrah–Shalimar Railway Section and the Shalimar Terminus were constructed in 1883.

By 1914 almost every major city in India was served by the Railways and the increased demand for its rolling stocks and repair works resulted in the establishment of railway workshop in Howrah. The light engineering industry grew up after 1914.[12] This industrial boom continued throughout the second world war and brought with it rapid urbanisation phase in unplanned manner creating slums near the industrial establishments.

Today, Howrah is famous for Howrah Station and Howrah Bridge.

Geography[edit]

Howrah is located at 22°35′N 88°19′E / 22.59°N 88.31°E / 22.59; 88.31.[13] It has an average elevation of 12 metres (39 feet).

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Howrah
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26
(79)
29
(84)
33
(91)
36
(97)
36
(97)
34
(93)
33
(91)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
30
(86)
27
(81)
31.8
(89.3)
Average low °C (°F) 12
(54)
16
(61)
21
(70)
24
(75)
25
(77)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
24
(75)
19
(66)
14
(57)
21.6
(70.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 19.2
(0.756)
39.4
(1.551)
38
(1.5)
49.5
(1.949)
132.7
(5.224)
245.9
(9.681)
347.6
(13.685)
322.4
(12.693)
291.2
(11.465)
163.6
(6.441)
27.9
(1.098)
5.7
(0.224)
1,683.1
(66.267)
Source: Howrah Weather

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census, Howrah had a population of 1,072,161. Males constitute 52.28% of the population and females 47.72%. Howrah has an average literacy rate of 89.86%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 92.34%, and female literacy is 87.13%. In Howrah, 8% of the population is under 6 years of age.

As of 1896 census of British India, Howrah had a population of 84,069, which grew up to 157,594 in 1901 census.[14] This rapid growth was due to abundance of job opportunities, which effected in a 100% increase in male population during this period, whereas the female population grew up only by 60%.[14]

Industry[edit]

Ambuja Cements Limited

Burn Standard Company (BSCL, established in 1781), a major company in heavy engineering industry, which is now part of Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Limited (BBUNL), has its oldest manufacturing unit located in Howrah.[15] In 1823, Bishop Reginald Heber described Howrah as the place "chiefly inhabited by shipbuilders".[16] The Howrah plant of Shalimar Paints (established in 1902) was the first large-scale paint manufacturing plant to be set up not only in India but in entire South East Asia.[17]

Jute industry suffered during the Partition of Bengal (1947), when the larger jute production area became part of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The foundry industry saw a decline in demand due to growth in steel industry.

Often termed as Sheffield of the East, Howrah is known today as an engineering hub, mainly in the area of light engineering industry. There are small engineering firms all over Howrah, particularly around Belilios Road area near Howrah station.[18]

Even though it is the second largest city in the state, it did not undertake appropriate infrastructure development in the last century. As a result, Howrah is continuing to face its perennial problems like traffic congestion, population explosion and pollution. The ratio of roadspace to the population is too low in this city, even comparatively smaller towns like Baharampur enjoy a better ratio. The emigrant labor force from the rest of the state's rural areas and neighboring states take refuge in the cheaper quarters in Howrah, bringing the already poor infrastructure to the brink of collapse. Many times such migrations reduce a locality to a poor-infrastructure slum. The name of the novel City of Joy, which has been often the name the Kolkata metropolis been called, is actually based on one such slum of Howrah. However, recently, work has been done on broadening the national highways and several towns roads. These activities are expected to help in improvement of traffic conditions. Of late, Howrah has seen a lot of new industrial proposals like the Kona Truck Terminus, Kolkata West International City and relocation of the old smoky foundry plants.

Civic administration[edit]

Howrah Municipal Corporation - Howrah
Howrah Municipal Corporation Supermarket

Howrah Municipality was established in 1862.[19] From 1896, it started supplying filter water across the city.[20] During 1882-83, Bally Municipality was formed separating it out from Howrah.[14] As per the Howrah Municipal Corporation Act of 1980, Howrah became a municipal corporation,[21] in 1984.The corporation area is divided into fifty wards, each of which elects a councillor.[22] The Mayor-in-council, which is led by Mayor and supported by Commissioner and officers, is responsible for administration of the corporation area.[22] Currently,the trinamool congress is controlling the municipal board. The Howrah Police Commissionerate is responsible for law enforcement in the city.

Transport[edit]

Howrah Station
Shalimar Railway Station
Kona Expressway - Sibpur
Second Hooghly Bridge (Vidyasagar Setu)
Howrah Bridge (Rabindra Setu)

Howrah station is a major railway station serving Howrah, Kolkata and the neighbouring districts. It was established in 1854 when railway line was constructed here, connecting it to the coalfields of the Bardhaman. This station is now part of two zones of Indian Railway: the Eastern Railway and the South Eastern Railway and it is connected to most of the major cities of India. It is also part of the Kolkata Suburban Railway and suburban trains connecting various stations of the districts of Howrah, Hooghly, Bardhaman, East Midnapore and West Midnapore. Within Howrah city, there are six other stations: Tikiapara, Dasnagar, Ramrajatala, Santragachhi, Padmapukur and Shalimar Station, all serving the South Eastern Railway.[23] The first station after Howrah terminus that serves the Eastern Railway is Liluah, which is located in the municipal area of Bally.[23] Tikiapara, Dasnagar, Ramrajatala and Padmapukur are smaller stations of suburban railway. Santragachhi is a railway junction. Shalimar Station served as a terminus for goods trains and hosted a rail yard since its inception in 1883. In recent years, it has been brought into the network of passenger train stations to reduce pressure on Howrah station. Apart from suburban trains, few long-distance trains have been introduced or moved over here (from Howrah station).

Hooghli River flows between the twin cities of Howrah and Kolkata. Howrah Bridge (Rabindra Setu), a cantilever bridge with one endpoint next to Howrah station, and Vidyasagar Setu, a cable-stayed bridge with one endpoint near Shalimar station, connect the two cities. Both the bridges are counted among the longest ones in the world within their types.[24] Also, between various jetties in Howrah and Kolkata, there are ferry services available, which was introduced in the 1970s.[23] The jetties on Howrah side are at Howrah Station, Ramkrishnapur, Shibpur, Shalimar, Bandhaghat and Nazirganj.

A bus in Tikiapara

Total road length in Howrah is approximately 300 km.[25] One of the most important road is the Grand Trunk Road which starts from Indian Botanical Gardens in Howrah. This road was built by the Public Works Department of the British administration.[26] Work started on it in 1804 to add this connector to the main branch of the road near Chandannagar.[26] Operational from the 1990s, the roads connecting to Vidyasagar Setu from various locations have added up to the roadspace of Howrah. The most important one is 8 km long Kona Expressway, which was built by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA).[27] This road serves as a connector of Kolkata (via Vidyasagar Setu) to National Highway 2 (India) (NH 2) and hence is part of Golden Quadrilateral project.[28] At Nibra town of the Howrah district, Kona Expressway joins with National Highway 6 (India) (NH 6) as well.[27] Along with Diamond Harbour Road, this erstwhile State Highway forms the 133 km long National Highway 117 (India) (NH 117), connecting NH 6 to the coastal town of Bakkhali.[29] The Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways accorded National Highway status to these two roads, which formed NH-117 together. However, due to land acquisition issues, National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) has declared their plan to return these two roads to state government, also pointing out to the heavy traffic on Diamond Harbour Road and to the existence of multitude of underground utilities there.[30]

Neighbourhoods and places of interest[edit]

Rampuja at Ramrajtala

Shibpur is a neighbourhood in south Howrah, near Vidyasagar Setu. Through the centuries it has been synonymous with the Great Banyan tree. The Great Banyan Tree boasts of having the largest canopy in the world. It continues to grow and covers many city blocks and looks like a forest all by itself. The British established the Indian Botanical Gardens in 1786 between the Great Banyan Tree and the Hoogly River. Here there is one end of the Grand Trunk Road.

The Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur is the second oldest engineering university in India.

Don Bosco High & Technical School, Liluah is one of the best schools in Howrah in its northern suburb of Liluah, where there are many more schools.

There is a famous Rama Temple in Ramrajatala area, where Rama is worshiped for 4 months, starting from Rama Navami to the last Sunday of the month of Shravana. A big fair is held every year on the last day of worship.

Located near Santragachi Railway Station, the Santragachhi Jheel is a large lake that attracts migratory birds during winter. Lesser Whistling Duck is the most dominant species visible here.[31] Forest Ministry of the State Government of West Bengal intends to convert the lake to a 'wildlife conservation centre'.[32]

Belur Math is the headquarters of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission, founded by Swami Vivekananda, a chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. It is located on the west bank of Hooghly River, Belur, West Bengal, India and is one of the significant institutions in Calcutta.

Andul,one of the ancient Census townunder the Sadar sub-division in Howrah district,was once acknowledged as one of the most royal and exquisite place in the Howrah district,due to the residences of three zamindar families- Dutta Chaudhury,Kundu Chaudhury and the Rajas (Rai).The total region of Andul including Argori up to Amta belonged to this zamindar family of "Dutta Chaudhury".

The Avani Riverside mall at Sibpur.

It was considered that more than 500 years aged ancestral zamindari house of "Dutta Chaudhury" is totally obliterated now,one cannot even find any fragment of it.But they are celebrating their more than 500 years old Durga Puja still now in their Thakur Dalan.But the magnificent Zamindari House (Bari/Bati) of "Kundu Chaudhury" can still be seen today.They were given the charge of the regions of Daner Sk Lane and few parts of Howrah (main) city along with Mauri.And the palace or "Rajar bari" of the Rajas can also be seen today,which has now become a historical site of Andul.

"Kamal Nursery" and "The Indian Nursery" [33] two of the most famous names in the Indian horticulture industry are situated at Andul. Howrah Flower Growers' Association organize flower exhibition at Kamal Nursery every year.[34]

Lake Land Country Club is a 30 Acre club and resort at Kona Express way, between Howrah station and NH6. It is 10 minutes drive from Vidyasagar Setu. Land land is one of the most beautiful resorts in Kolkata- Howrah region. It is dotted with greenery, and have three lakes surrounding it. It is also one of the most sought after event destinations in Kolkata-Howrah region[35]

Panchwati Fortune Park Hotel is right behind the lake land country club, it is the only 4 star hotel in Howrah. Built over 3 acres of land, Panchwati Fortune Park hotel is managed by ITC welcome group, and it is breathtakingly beautiful. It has 70 rooms, 3 conference halls, and several indoor out door amenities. The hotel reflects the changing landscape of Howrah.

Haragunge Bazaar is a century old market, located at heart of north Howrah, at Aurobindo Road, Salkia. It is under renovation, a new mall i sunder construction on top of existing market. The mall will have major brands such as reliance trends and reliance footprint. The mall will also have several restaurants, a 3 screen multiplex, and premium office space.

Gadiara is a village in Howrah District. This place is the point of convergence of the Damodar, the Rupnarayan and the Hoogli rivers.Gadiara is a popular picnic and daytrip spot for locals and tourists alike.

Benapur is an another wonderful place in Howrah District for picnic lovers. This is located beside the Rupnarayan River. A huge green riverbank is waiting for picnic. This village is located just 10 km away from Bagnan on the Bagnan-Gadiara Road.

Avani Riverside Mall is the best example of Howrah’s changing skyline. Visible from across the river Hooghly, it is now the only destination for all who are looking to experience the joy of shopping, eating out and entertainment in Howrah.

Spread over a massive 600,000 square feet area, Avani Riverside also hosts multiplex, PVR Cinemas has four Screens with 1186 seats and provides an exceptional digital movie experience to the cine-goers of the city.

Education[edit]

Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU) (established in 1856) is the second oldest engineering institution in India. It is a prestigious university in West Bengal. The university was ranked 10th among all engineering institutes in India by the magazine "India Today" in 2005. BESU is set to upgrade to be India's first Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology(IIEST).

Ramakrishna Mission Vidyamandira is an autonomous degree college affiliated to University of Calcutta. It is one of the best institution in West Bengal.

There are other degree colleges such as Bijoy Krishna Girls’ College or Howrah Girl's College and Narasinha Dutt College. MCKV Institute of Engineering is a private engineering college affiliated to the West Bengal University of Technology.

Howrah's schools are either run state government or by private institutions. The medium of instruction is Bengali, English or Hindi. Schools are affiliated to the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).

Howrah Zilla School is one of the best school in Howrah with all its standards. The school was established in the year 1845 and it is the oldest school in Howrah. A high standard of studies and good rankings in both Xth & XIIth standard at state level makes it a premium school in West Bengal. Almost every year a student of this school found to be one of the toppers in Madhyamik or Higher Secondary. The school received numerous awards for its achievements. Scholars like Soumitra Chatterjee, Subrata Mukherjee, Sudip Chatterjee, Dr. Shital Ghosh, Dr. Asit Senapati, Bhudev Mukhopadhyay, Alapan Bandyopadhyay, Sourashish Lahiri etc. Consecutive seven years the school received the "Sera Vidyalaya" award from government. The school won Subrata Cup in the year 2000.

Don Bosco Liluah (established in 1937) is located in the northern part of the town. With a rich heritage of excellent academic results, extra-curricular performances of quality, sporting achievements among others, the school has been awarded The Telegraph Best School Award, numerous times, and is among only four schools to have been inducted into the Hall of Fame.

There is a Kendriya Vidyalaya in Santragachi and Bamangacchi.

M. C. Kejriwal Vidyapeeth is a school in Liluah, Howrah established in 1997. It has been accredited by the British Council for the International School Award. It has also received the ISO 9001:2008 accreditation. It was recently accepted for membership of the International Boys' School Coalition, a New York based grouping of 250 boys' schools from all over the world. M. C. Kejriwal Vidyapeeth was also declared the "School of the Year 2013" by the Telegraph Education Foundation at The Telegraph Awards for Excellence in Schools ceremony held on 31 August 2013 in the Science City Auditorium, Kolkata. The school has also been ranked number 4 Day Boys School in Kolkata and West Bengal in the Education World India School Rankings 2013.

Tara Sundari Balika Bidalya is one of the best girls school in the town. The institution has graduated many doctors, engineers and notable women settled throughout India and abroad.

St. Agnes' Convent School is regarded as one of the best convent girls school in Howrah. It is run by the sisters of the congregation of the Daughters of the Cross.

St. Aloysius' Orphanage & Day School is one of the oldest reputated schools in Howrah.It was Established in the year 1945. Jagacha High School, Bantra Public Library Siksha Niketan Boys High School, Salkia Vikram Vidyalaya, Vikram Vidyalaya (Branch), Asian International School, St. Agnes' Convent School, Agrasain Balika Siksha Sadan, M.C. Kejriwal Vidyapeeth, B.E. College Model School,Kethenath Institution, Howrah Vivekananda Institution, etc. are other notable higher secondary schools.

Howrah district also have another important crown in the field of education in Bengal. Al-Ameen Mission known for its educational revolution among backward Bengali minorities has its main branch and headquarters in Khalatpur,Udaynaraynapur in rural north Howrah. Al-Ameen Mission too has The Telegraph Best School Award to its credit.

Renovation of Writers' Buildings and Shift of the State Secretariat[edit]

Since the inception of the British East India Company, the nerve point of the subcontinent's administration was an iconic piece of Gothic architecture, the Writers' Buildings. The construction started at around 1777 by Thomas Lyon[disambiguation needed] and its grandeur was second to none. Time passed and India was absorbed by the Crown of England from the East India Company after the revolt of 1857. The capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911 due to the rise of revolutionaries in Bengal. The building housed the state secretariat ever since. It endured the wear and tear of almost two centuries and a half till a deputation was formed for its restoration by the chief minister of Bengal, Mamata Banerjee. For that the government departments were shifted elsewhere including Salt Lake City and Howrah for restoration work to start. The HRBC (Hooghly River Bridge Commission) building originally christened the Garment Park, situated in Kshetra Banerjee Lane, Mandirtala is in the vicinity of the Vidyasagar Setu and the Hooghly river. Being fourteen storied tall, it was Howrah's tallest building offering a beautiful view of skylines of the twin cities. It was assigned the role of a temporary state secretariat housing the Chief Minister's office and eleven other departments including Urban development, Home Information, Cultural Affairs, Finance, PWD, Disaster Management, Agriculture and so on. The building was painted Blue and White on grounds of being Banerjee's favourite colour. Rumours were she left Writers' because of its brick Red colour and her phobia to it. History was made on the fifth of October 2013 when she inaugurated the building's inception as the state secretariat. The area witnessed a rapid stride in development which included the Interstate Nabanna Bus Terminus, beautification of the area, pulling down of illegal hoardings, clearance of encroachments, police security around the clock, widening of roads, construction of parks, etc. Critics termed it a Pyrrhic Victory as the exchequer had to pay around INR 300 Crores for renovation and the Historic shift. Eyebrows were raised as the five hundred year old area received the first rains of urbanisation in centuries. The renovation was estimated to take a good three years,the new state secretariat renamed 'Nabanna'(or new harvest in Bengali) would house the departments till then.

Notable residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ West Bengal — City population
  2. ^ http://www.bsienvis.nic.in/PDF/Newsletter%2015(1).pdf
  3. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 169
  4. ^ a b c Donald Frederick Lach, p.473
  5. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 19
  6. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 22
  7. ^ a b c O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 23
  8. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 25
  9. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 26
  10. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 27
  11. ^ Samita Sen, p.23
  12. ^ Mark Holmström, p.58
  13. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Haora
  14. ^ a b c O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 31
  15. ^ "Group Companies: Burn Standard Co. Ltd.". Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Limited. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  16. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 165
  17. ^ "Shalimar Paints:About us - Manufacturing Facilities". Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  18. ^ Mark Holmström, p.137
  19. ^ "Howrah Municipal Corporation". Official website of Department of Municipal Affairs, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 2008-12-29. [dead link]
  20. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 28
  21. ^ "Other Municipal Corporation Acts". Official website of Department of Municipal Affairs, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 2008-12-29. [dead link]
  22. ^ a b "About us page". Howrah Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  23. ^ a b c "East-West Kolkata Metro Corridor: EIA and SIA (Chapter 2)" (PDF). Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  24. ^ Durkee, Jackson (1999-05-24). "National Steel Bridge Alliance: World's Longest Bridge Spans". American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  25. ^ "Engineering Department". Official website of the Howrah Municipality. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  26. ^ a b O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 119
  27. ^ a b "Howrah: Industrial Infrastructure" (PDF). Official website of Howrah district. p. 4. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  28. ^ "Business Portal of India: Investment Opportunities and Incentives : State Level Investment : West Bengal : Infrastructure". Business Knowledge Resource Online. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  29. ^ "National Highways and their lengths". Department of Road Transport and Highways. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  30. ^ Krishnendu Bandyopadhyay, TNN (2008-10-16). "Kona Expressway to lose NH tag". The Times of India. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  31. ^ Suchetana Haldar (2006-12-15). "Birds of many feathers flock to Santragachi". Indian Express. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  32. ^ "Protected Area Update: News and Information from protected areas in India and South Asia" (DOC). Wildlife Institute of India. February 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  33. ^ "The Indian Nursery". Agriculture & Industry Survey. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  34. ^ "Kamal Nursery". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-01-11. 
  35. ^ "Party Till Midnight At Sunset Anthems, In Association With T2". The Telegraph (Calcutta, India). 2013-07-04. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]