Hoysala Empire

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Hoysala Empire
Empire
(Subordinate to Western Chalukyas until 1187)

1026–1343
Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE
Capital Halebidu
Belur
Languages Kannada
Religion Hindu Jainism
Government Monarchy
King
 -  1026–1047 Nripa Kama II
 -  1292–1343 Veera Ballala III
History
 -  Earliest Hoysala records 950
 -  Established 1026
 -  Disestablished 1343
Hoysala Kings (1026–1343)
Nripa Kama II (1026–1047)
Hoysala Vinayaditya (1047–1098)
Ereyanga (1098–1102)
Veera Ballala I (1102–1108)
Vishnuvardhana (1108–1152)
Narasimha I (1152–1173)
Veera Ballala II (1173–1220)
Vira Narasimha II (1220–1235)
Vira Someshwara (1235–1254)
Narasimha III (1254–1291)
Veera Ballala III (1292–1343)
Harihara Raya
(Vijayanagara Empire)
(1342–1355)
Part of a series on the
History of Karnataka
 Political history of medieval Karnataka 
GBerunda.JPG
Origin of Karnataka's name
Kadambas and Gangas
Chalukya Empire
Rashtrakuta Empire
Western Chalukya Empire
Southern Kalachuri
Hoysala Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
Bahmani Sultanate
Bijapur Sultanate
Kingdom of Mysore
Keladi Nayaka
Nayakas of Chitradurga
Unification of Karnataka

Societies    Economies
Architectures    Forts

The Hoysala empire was a prominent Southern Indian Kannadiga empire that ruled most of the modern-day state of Karnataka between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The capital of the Hoysalas was initially located at Belur but was later moved to Halebidu.

The Hoysala rulers were originally from Malnad Karnataka, an elevated region in the Western Ghats range. In the 12th century, taking advantage of the internecine warfare between the then ruling Western Chalukyas and Kalachuri kingdoms, they annexed areas of present day Karnataka and the fertile areas north of the Kaveri River delta in present day Tamil Nadu. By the 13th century, they governed most of present-day Karnataka, minor parts of Tamil Nadu and parts of western Andhra Pradesh in Deccan India.

The Hoysala era was an important period in the development of art, architecture, and religion in South India. The empire is remembered today primarily for its temple architecture. Over a hundred surviving temples are scattered across Karnataka, including the well known Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. The Hoysala rulers also patronised the fine arts, encouraging literature to flourish in Kannada and Sanskrit.

History[edit]

Sala fighting the Lion, the symbol of Hoysala Empire at Belur, Karnataka.

Kannada folklore tells a tale of a young man Sala, who saved his Jain guru Sudatta by striking dead a Lion he encountered near the temple of the Goddess Vasantika at Angadi, now called Sosevuru. The word "strike" literally translates to "hoy" in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada), hence the name "Hoy-sala". This legend first appeared in the Belur inscription of Vishnuvardhana (1117), but owing to several inconsistencies in the Sala story it remains in the realm of folklore.[1][2] The legend may have come into existence or gained popularity after King Vishnuvardhana's victory over the Cholas at Talakad as the Hoysala emblem depicts the fight between the mythical Sala and a tiger, the emblem of the Cholas.[3]

Early inscriptions, dated 1078 and 1090, have implied that the Hoysalas were descendants of the Yadava by referring to the Yadava vamsa (clan) as Hoysala vamsa. But there are no early records directly linking the Hoysalas to the Yadavas of North India.[4][5]

Historians refer to the founders of the dynasty as natives of Malnad Karnataka, based on numerous inscriptions calling them Maleparolganda or "Lord of the Male (hills) chiefs" (Malepas).[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] This title in the Kannada language was proudly used by the Hoysala kings as their royal signature in their inscriptions. Literary sources from that time in Kannada (Jatakatilaka) and Sanskrit (Gadyakarnamrita) have also helped confirm they were natives of the region known today as Karnataka.[14][15]

The first Hoysala family record is dated 950 and names Arekalla as the chieftain, followed by Maruga and Nripa Kama I (976). The next ruler, Munda (1006–1026), was succeeded by Nripa Kama II who held such titles as Permanadi that show an early alliance with the Western Ganga dynasty.[16] From these modest beginnings, the Hoysala dynasty began its transformation into a strong subordinate of the Western Chalukyas.[17][18] Through Vishnuvardhana's expansive military conquests, the Hoysalas achieved the status of a real kingdom for the first time.[19][20] He wrested Gangavadi from the Cholas in 1116 and moved the capital from Belur to Halebidu.[21][22][23][24]

Vishnuvardhana's ambition of creating an independent empire was fulfilled by his grandson Veera Ballala II, who freed the Hoysalas from subordination in 1187–1193.[25][26][27] Thus the Hoysalas began as subordinates of the Western Chalukyas and gradually established their own empire in Karnataka with such strong Hoysala kings as Vishnuvardhana, Veera Ballala II and later Veera Ballala III. During this time, peninsular India saw a four way struggle for hegemony – Pandya, Kakatiya and Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri being the other kingdoms.[28] Veera Ballala II defeated the aggressive Pandya when they invaded the Chola kingdom.[29][30][31][32] He assumed the title "Establisher of the Chola Kingdom" (Cholarajyapratishtacharya), "Emperor of the south" (Dakshina Chakravarthi) and "Hoysala emperor" (Hoysala Chakravarthi).[33] He founded the city of Bangalore according to Kannada folklore.[34]

The Hoysalas extended their foothold in areas known today as Tamil Nadu around 1225, making the city of Kannanur Kuppam near Srirangam a provincial capital and giving them control over South Indian politics that began a period of Hoysala hegemony in the southern Deccan.[35][36][37][38] Vira Narasimha II's son Vira Someshwara earned the honorific "uncle" (Mamadi) from the Pandyas and Cholas. The Hoysala influence spread over Pandya kingdom also.[39] Toward the end of 13th century, Veera Ballala III recaptured territory in the Tamil country which had been lost to the Pandya uprising, thus uniting the northern and southern portions of the kingdom.[40][41][42][43]

Major political changes were taking place in the Deccan region in the early 14th century when significant areas of northern India were under Muslim rule. Alla-ud-din Khilji, the Sultan of Delhi, was determined to bring isolated South India under his domain and sent his commander, Malik Kafur, on a southern expedition to plunder the Seuna capital Devagiri in 1311.[44] The Seuna empire was subjugated by 1318 and the Hoysala capital Halebidu (also called Dorasamudra or Dwarasamudra) was sacked twice, in 1311 and 1327.[43]

By 1336, the Sultan had conquered the Pandyas of Madurai, the Kakatiyas of Warangal and the tiny kingdom of Kampili. The Hoysalas were the only remaining Hindu empire who resisted the invading armies.[45] Veera Ballala III stationed himself at Tiruvannamalai and offered stiff resistance to invasions from the north and the Sultanate of Madurai to the south.[46] Then, after nearly three decades of resistance, Veera Ballala III was killed at the battle of Madurai in 1343,[42] and the sovereign territories of the Hoysala empire were merged with the areas administered by Harihara I in the Tungabhadra region.[47][48] This new Hindu kingdom resisted the northern invasions and would later prosper and come to be known as the Vijayanagara Empire.[49]

Economy[edit]

Twin temples (1200 CE) at Mosale, the Nageshvara (near) and Chennakeshava temple (far)

The Hoysala administration supported itself through revenues from an agrarian economy.[50] The kings gave grants of land as rewards for service to beneficiaries who then became landlords to tenants producing agricultural goods and forest products. There were two types of landlords (gavunda); gavunda of people (praja gavunda) was lower in status than the wealthy lord of gavundas (prabhu gavunda).[51] The highlands (malnad regions) with its temperate climate was suitable for raising cattle and the planting of orchards and spices. Paddy and corn were staple crops in the tropical plains (Bailnad). The Hoysalas collected taxes on irrigation systems including tanks, reservoirs with sluices, canals and wells which were built and maintained at the expense of local villagers. Irrigation tanks such as Vishnusagara, Shantisagara, Ballalarayasagara were created at the expense of the state.[50]

Importing horses for use as general transportation and in army cavalries of Indian kingdoms was a flourishing business on the western seaboard.[52] The forests were harvested for rich woods such as teak which was exported through ports located in the area of present day Kerala. Song dynasty records from China mention the presence of Indian merchants in ports of South China, indicating active trade with overseas kingdoms.[53] South India exported textiles, spices, medicinal plants, precious stones, pottery, salt made from salt pans, jewels, gold, ivory, rhino horn, ebony, aloe wood, perfumes, sandalwood, camphor and condiments to China, Dhofar, Aden, and Siraf (the entryport to Egypt, Arabia and Persia).[54] Architects (Vishwakarmas), sculptors, quarry workers, goldsmiths and other skilled craftsmen whose trade directly or indirectly related to temple construction were also prosperous due to the vigorous temple building activities.[55][56]

The village assembly was responsible for collecting government land taxes. Land revenue was called Siddhaya and included the original assessment (Kula) plus various cesses.[50] Taxes were levied on professions, marriages, goods in transit on chariots or carriages, and domesticated animals. Taxes on commodities (gold, precious stones, perfumes, sandalwood, ropes, yarn, housing, hearths, shops, cattle pans, sugarcane presses) as well as produce (black pepper, betel leaves, ghee, paddy, spices, palm leaves, coconuts, sugar) are noted in village records.[53] The village assembly could levy a tax for a specific purpose such as construction of a water tank.

Administration[edit]

Garuda pillar hero stone at Halebidu with old Kannada inscription of about 1220 CE
Hero stone (virgal) with old Kannada inscription of 1205 CE during the rule of Veera Ballala II, at Balligavi, Karnataka

In its administrative practices, the Hoysala Empire followed some of the well-established and proven methods of its predecessors covering administrative functions such as cabinet organisation and command, the structure of local governing bodies and the division of territory.[57] Records show the names of many high ranking positions reporting directly to the king. Senior ministers were called Pancha Pradhanas, ministers responsible for foreign affairs were designated Sandhivigrahi and the chief treasurer was Mahabhandari or Hiranyabhandari. Dandanayakas were in charge of armies and the chief justice of the Hoysala court was the Dharmadhikari.[57]

The kingdom was divided into provinces named Nadu, Vishaya, Kampana and Desha, listed in descending order of geographical size.[58] Each province had a local governing body consisting of a minister (Mahapradhana) and a treasurer (Bhandari) that reported to the ruler of that province (Dandanayaka). Under this local ruler were officials called Heggaddes and Gavundas who hired and supervised the local farmers and labourers recruited to till the land. Subordinate ruling clans such as Alupas continued to govern their respective territories while following the policies set by the empire.[59]

An elite and well trained force of bodyguards known as Garudas protected the members of the royal family at all times. These servants moved closely yet inconspicuously by the side of their master, their loyalty being so complete that they committed suicide after his death.[60] Hero stones (virgal) erected in memory of these bodyguards are called Garuda pillars. The Garuda pillar at the Hoysaleswara temple in Halebidu was erected in honor of Kuvara Lakshma, a minister and bodyguard of King Veera Ballala II.

King Vishnuvardhana's coins had the legends "victor at Nolambavadi" (Nolambavadigonda), "victor at Talakad" (Talakadugonda), "chief of the Malepas" (Maleparolganda), "Brave of Malepa" (malapavira) in Hoysala style Kannada script.[61][62] Their gold coin was called Honnu or Gadyana and weighed 62 grains of gold. Pana or Hana was a tenth of the Honnu, Haga was a fourth of the Pana and Visa was fourth of Haga. There were other coins called Bele and Kani.[59]

Culture[edit]

Religion[edit]

The defeat of the Jain Western Ganga Dynasty by the Cholas in early 11th century and the rising numbers of followers of Vaishnavism and Lingayatism in the 12th century was mirrored by a decreased interest in Jainism.[63] Two notable locations of Jain worship in the Hoysala territory were Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The decline of Buddhism in South India began in the 8th century with the spread of Adi Shankara's Advaita philosophy.[64] The only places of Buddhist worship during the Hoysala time were at Dambal and Balligavi. Shantala Devi, queen of Vishnuvardhana, was a Jain but nevertheless commissioned the Hindu Kappe Chennigaraya temple in Belur, evidence that the royal family was tolerant of all religions.

During the rule of the Hoysalas, three important religious developments took place in present day Karnataka inspired by three philosophers, Basava, Madhvacharya and Ramanuja.

While the origin of Lingayatism is debated, the movement grew through its association with Basava in the 12th century.[65] Madhvacharya was critical of the teachings of Adi Shankara and argued the world is real and not an illusion.[66] His philosophy gained popularity enabling him to establish eight mathas in Udupi. Ramanuja, head of the Vaishnava monastery in Srirangam, preached the way of devotion (bhakti marga) and wrote Sribhashya, a critique on the Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Adi Shankara.[67]

Vaishnava temple of 1268 CE at Somanathapura

The impact of these religious developments on culture, literature, poetry and architecture in South India was profound. Important works of literature and poetry based on the teachings of these philosophers were written during the coming centuries. The Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu dynasties of Vijayanagar empire were followers of Vaishnavism and a Vaishnava temple with an image of Ramanuja exists in the Vitthalapura area of Vijayanagara.[68] Scholars in the later Kingdom of Mysore wrote Vaishnavite works upholding the teachings of Ramanuja.[69] King Vishnuvardhana built many temples after his conversion from Jainism to Vaishnavism.[70][71] The later saints of Madhvacharya's order, Jayatirtha, Vyasatirtha, Sripadaraja, Vadirajatirtha and devotees (dasa) such as Vijaya Dasa, Gopaladasa and others from the Karnataka region spread his teachings far and wide.[72] His teachings inspired later day philosophers like Vallabha Acharya and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in Bengal.[73] Another wave of devotion (bhakti) in the 17th century–18th century found inspiration in his teachings.[74]

Society[edit]

A sculpture of a dancer on pillar bracket, 1117 CE, (Shilabaalika or Madanika) in the Chennakeshava temple at Belur

Hoysala society in many ways reflected the emerging religious, political and cultural developments of those times. During this period, the society became increasingly sophisticated. The status of women was varied. Some royal women were involved in administrative matters as shown in contemporary records describing Queen Umadevi's administration of Halebidu in the absence of Veera Ballala II during his long military campaigns in northern territories. She also fought and defeated some antagonistic feudal rebels.[75] Records describe the participation of women in the fine arts, such as Queen Shantala Devi's skill in dance and music, and the 12th century Vachana poet and Lingayatism mystic Akka Mahadevi's devotion to the bhakti movement is well known.[76] Temple dancers (Devadasi) were common and some were well educated and accomplished in the arts. These qualifications gave them more freedom than other urban and rural women who were restricted to daily mundane tasks.[77] The practice of sati in a voluntary form was prevalent and prostitution was socially acceptable.[78] As in most of India, the Indian caste system was conspicuously present.

Trade on the west coast brought many foreigners to India including Arabs, Jews, Persians, Chinese and people from the Malay Peninsula.[79] Migration of people within Southern India as a result of the expansion of the empire produced an influx of new cultures and skills.[80] In South India, towns were called Pattana or Pattanam and the marketplace, Nagara or Nagaram, the marketplace serving as the nuclei of a city. Some towns such as Shravanabelagola developed from a religious settlement in the 7th century to an important trading center by the 12th century with the arrival of rich traders, while towns like Belur attained the atmosphere of a regal city when King Vishnuvardhana built the Chennakesava Temple there. Large temples supported by royal patronage served religious, social, and judiciary purposes, elevating the king to the level of "God on earth".

Temple building served a commercial as well as a religious function and was not limited to any particular sect of Hinduism. Shaiva merchants of Halebidu financed the construction of the Hoysaleswara temple to compete with the Chennakesava temple built at Belur, elevating Halebidu to an important city as well. Hoysala temples however were secular and encouraged pilgrims of all Hindu sects, the Kesava temple at Somanathapura being an exception with strictly Vaishnava sculptural depictions.[81] Temples built by rich landlords in rural areas fulfilled fiscal, political, cultural and religious needs of the agrarian communities. Irrespective of patronage, large temples served as establishments that provided employment to hundreds of people of various guilds and professions sustaining local communities as Hindu temples began to take on the shape of wealthy Buddhist monasteries.[82]

Literature[edit]

Jain temple at Halebidu
Old Kannada inscription (1182 CE) of King Veera Ballala II at the Akkana Basadi in Shravanabelagola

Although Sanskrit literature remained popular during the Hoysala rule, royal patronage of local Kannada scholars increased.[50][83][84] In the 12th century some works were written in the Champu style,[85] but distinctive Kannada metres became more widely accepted. The Sangatya metre used in compositions,[86] Shatpadi (six line), Tripadi (three line) metres in verses and Ragale (lyrical poems) became fashionable. Jain works continued to extol the virtues of Tirthankaras (Jain ascetics).[87]

The Hoysala court supported scholars such as Janna, Rudrabhatta, Harihara and his nephew Raghavanka, whose works are enduring masterpieces in Kannada. In 1209, the Jain scholar Janna wrote Yashodharacharite, the story of a king who intends to perform a ritual sacrifice of two young boys to a local deity, Mariamma. Taking pity on the boys, the king releases them and gives up the practice of human sacrifice.[88][89] In honur of this work, Janna received the title "Emperor among poets" (Kavichakravarthi) from King Veera Ballala II.[90]

Rudrabhatta, a Smartist Brahmin, was the earliest well-known Brahminical writer whose patron was Chandramouli, a minister of King Veera Ballala II.[91] Based on the earlier work of Vishnu Purana, he wrote Jagannatha Vijaya in the Champu style relating the life of Lord Krishna leading up to his fight with the demon Banasura.

Harihara, (also known as Harisvara) a Lingayati writer and the patron of King Narasimha I, wrote the Girijakalyana in the old Jain Champu style which describes the marriage of Lord Shiva and Parvati in ten sections.[92][93] He was one of the earliest Virashaiva writers who was not part of the Vachana literary tradition. He came from a family of accountants (Karanikas) from Halebidu and spent many years in Hampi writing more than one hundred Ragales (poems in blank verse) in praise of Lord Virupaksha (a form of Lord Shiva).[94] Raghavanka was the first to introduce the Shatpadi metre into Kannada literature in his Harishchandra kavya which is considered a classic even though it occasionally violates strict rules of Kannada grammar.[90][92][94]

In Sanskrit, the philosopher Madhvacharya wrote Rigbhshya on Brahmasutras (a logical explanation of Hindu scriptures, the Vedas) as well as many polemical works rebutting the doctrines of other schools of Vedas. He relied more on the Puranic literature than the Vedas for logical proof of his philosophy.[95] Another famous writing was Rudraprshnabhashya by Vidyatirtha.

Architecture[edit]

Star shaped Vimana, 1220 CE at Ishvara Temple (Arasikere)

The modern interest in the Hoysalas is due to their patronage of art and architecture rather than their military conquests. The brisk temple building throughout the kingdom was accomplished despite constant threats from the Pandyas to the south and the Seunas Yadavas to the north. Their architectural style, an offshoot of the Western Chalukya style,[96][97] shows distinct Dravidian influences.[98] The Hoysala architecture style is described as Karnata Dravida as distinguished from the traditional Dravida,[99] and is considered an independent architectural tradition with many unique features.[100][101]

A feature of Hoysala temple architecture is its attention to exquisite detail and skilled craftsmanship.[102] The tower over the temple shrine (vimana) is delicately finished with intricate carvings, showing attention to the ornate and elaborately detailed rather than to a tower form and height.[103][104] The stellate design of the base of the shrine with its rhythmic projections and recesses is carried through the tower in an orderly succession of decorated tiers.[105][106] Hoysala temple sculpture replicates this emphasis on delicacy and craftsmanship in its focus on depicting feminine beauty, grace and physique.[107] The Hoysala artists achieved this with the use of Soapstone (Chloritic schist), a soft stone as basic building and sculptural material.[108][109]

The Chennakesava Temple at Belur (1117),[110][111] the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebidu (1121),[112][113] the Chennakesava Temple at Somanathapura (1279),[114][115] the temples at Arasikere (1220),[116][117] Amruthapura (1196),[118][119] Belavadi (1200),[120][121] Nuggehalli (1246),[122][123] Hosaholalu (1250),[124][125] Aralaguppe (1250),[117][126] Korvangla (1173),[127][128] Haranhalli (1235),[125][129] Mosale[130][131] and Basaralu (1234) [121][132] are some of the notable examples of Hoysala art. While the temples at Belur and Halebidu are the best known because of the beauty of their sculptures, the Hoysala art finds more complete expression in the smaller and lesser known temples.[133] The outer walls of all these temples contain an intricate array of stone sculptures and horizontal friezes (decorative mouldings) that depict the Hindu epics. These depictions are generally clockwise in the traditional direction of circumambulation (pradakshina). The temple of Halebidu has been described as an outstanding example of Hindu architecture[134] and an important milestone in Indian architecture.[135] The temples of Belur and Halebidu are a proposed UNESCO world heritage sites.[136]

Language[edit]

Old Kannada inscription (1113 CE) of King Vishnuvardhana at Lakshmi Devi temple in Doddagaddavalli
Old Kannada inscription (1270 CE) of King Narasimha III at Keshava Temple, Somanathapura

The support of the Hoysala rulers for the Kannada language was strong, and this is seen even in their epigraphs, often written in polished and poetic language, rather than prose, with illustrations of floral designs in the margins.[137] According to historian Sheldon Pollock, the Hoysala era saw the complete displacement of Sanskrit, with Kannada dominating as the courtly language.[138] Temples served as local schools where learned Brahmins taught in Sanskrit, while Jain and Buddhist monasteries educated novice monks. Schools of higher learning were called Ghatikas. The local Kannada language was widely used in the rising number of devotional movements to express the ecstatic experience of closeness to the deity (vachanas and devaranama). Literary works were written in it on palm leaves which were tied together. While in past centuries Jain works had dominated Kannada literature, Shaiva and early Brahminical works became popular during the Hoysala reign.[139] Writings in Sanskrit included poetry, grammar, lexicon, manuals, rhetoric, commentaries on older works, prose fiction and drama.[140] Inscriptions on stone (Shilashasana) and copper plates (Tamarashasana) were written mostly in Kannada but some were in Sanskrit or were bilingual. The sections of bilingual inscriptions stating the title, genealogy, origin myths of the king and benedictions were generally done in Sanskrit. Kannada was used to state terms of the grants, including information on the land, its boundaries, the participation of local authorities, rights and obligations of the grantee, taxes and dues, and witnesses. This ensured the content was clearly understood by the local people without ambiguity.[141]


See also[edit]

Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline and

cultural period

Northwestern India

(Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India
Western Gangetic Plain

(Kuru-Panchala)

Northern India

(Central Gangetic Plain)

Northeastern India

(Northeast India)

IRON AGE
Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period

(Brahmin ideology)[a]

Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period

(Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b]

Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history
 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha Adivasi (tribes)
Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation"

Rise of Shramana movements
Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga

Pre-history
 5th century BC (Persian rule) Shishunaga dynasty Adivasi (tribes)
 4th century BC (Greek conquests)

Nanda empire
Kalinga

HISTORICAL AGE
Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period
(300 BC – AD 200)
 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - AD300)[e][f]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
Mahayana Buddhism
Sangam period

(continued)
(300 BC – AD 200)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Sunga Empire Adivasi (tribes) Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC Yona Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians
Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom
 2nd century Pahlava Varman dynasty
 3rd century Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa kingdom Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g]
Puranas
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
 4th century Gupta Empire Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Kadamba Dynasty

Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Maitraka Adivasi (tribes) Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Vishnukundina

 6th century Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. AD 650-1100)[h]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
 7th century Indo-Sassanids Vakataka dynasty, Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Pandyan Kingdom(Revival)

Pallava

 8th century Kidarite Kingdom Pandyan Kingdom

Kalachuri

 9th century Indo-Hephthalites (Huna) Gurjara-Pratihara Pandyan Kingdom

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chalukya

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Pala dynasty

Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

Rashtrakuta

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Historians feel that Sala was a mythical founder of the empire (Kamath 2001, p123)
  2. ^ Derrett in Chopra, Ravindran and Subrahmanian (2003), p150 Part 1
  3. ^ The myth and the emblem was a creation of King Vishnuvardhana. Another opinion is the emblem symbolically narrates the wars between the early Hoysala chieftains and the Cholas, (Settar in Kamath 2001, p123)
  4. ^ Quotation:"There was not even a tradition to back such poetic fancy"(William Coelho in Kamath, 2001, p122). Quotation:"All royal families in South India in the 10th and 11th century deviced puranic genealogies" (Kamath 2001, p122)
  5. ^ Quotation:"It is therefore clear that there was a craze among the rulers of the south at this time (11th century) to connect their families with dynasties from the north" (Moraes 1931, p10–11)
  6. ^ Rice B.L. in Kamath (2001), p123
  7. ^ Quotation:"A purely Karnataka dynasty" (Moraes 1931, p10)
  8. ^ Keay (2000), p251
  9. ^ Quotation:"The home of the Hoysalas lay in the hill tracts to the north-west of Gangavadi in Mysore" (Sen 1999, p498)
  10. ^ Thapar (2003), p367
  11. ^ Stien (1989), p16
  12. ^ Rice, B.L. (1897), p335
  13. ^ Natives of south Karnataka (Chopra 2003, p150 Part 1)
  14. ^ The Hoysalas originated from Sosevuru, identified as modern Angadi in Mudigere taluk (Kamath 2001, p123)
  15. ^ An indigenous ruling family of Karnataka from Sosevuru (modern Angadi) (Ayyar 1993, p600)
  16. ^ Seetharam Jagirdhar, M.N. Prabhakar, B.S. Krishnaswamy Iyengar in Kamath (2001), p123
  17. ^ During the rule of Vinyaditya (1047–1098), the Hoysalas established themselves as a powerful feudatory (Chopra 2003, p151, part 1)
  18. ^ Sen (1999), p498
  19. ^ Sen (1999), pp498–499
  20. ^ Quotation:"Reign of Vishnuvardhana is packed with glorious military campaigns from start to finish" (Coelho in Kamath 2001, p124). Quotation:"The maker of the Hoysala kingdom" (B.S.K. Iyengar in Kamath p126). Quotation:"In spite of the fact that Vikramaditya VI foiled his attempt to become independent, the achievements of Vishnuvardhana were not small" (P.B. Desai in Kamath 2001, p126)
  21. ^ Quotation:"He was the real maker of the Hoysala kingdom, corresponding to modern Mysore. He annexed the Chola province of Gangavadi and parts of Nolambavadi" (Sen 1999, pp498–499)
  22. ^ Quotation:"Another campaign carried out in AD 1115 and AD 1116 and recorded in a document at Chamrajnagar is dated 1117. According to that record Vishnuvardhana frightened the Cholas, drove the Gangas underground, entered the Nila mountain and became the master of Kerala. His conquest of the Nilgiris is mentioned in more than one inscription." Quotation:"He captured Talakad which had owed allegiance to the Cholas ever since the days of Rajaraja I". Quotation:"This significant achievement which included Vishnuvardhanas temporary stay in Kanchi is proudly mentioned in Hoysala records".(Chopra 2003, p152–153, part 1)
  23. ^ Quotation:"Vishnuvardhana was the governor of Gangavadi in the days of his brother and he took serious steps to free parts of Gangavadi, still under the control of the Cholas. He captured Talakadu and Kolara in 1116 and assumed the title Talakadugonda in memory of his victory" (Kamath 2001, p124)
  24. ^ Quotation:"While still engaged in suppressing the Hoysalas, Vikramaditya renewed his designs against Kulottunga; possibly the success of the Hoysalas against the monarch in Gangavadi encouraged him to do so" (Sastri 1955, p175)
  25. ^ Quotation:"In the first twenty years of his rule, he had to fight hard against the Nolambas and the Kalachuris, the two feudatories of the Chalukya Empire. He entered into a protracted war against the Yadavas and fought successfully against the Kadambas. Emboldened by the decline of the Chalukya empire, he finally declared independence in AD 1193" (Sen 1999, p499)
  26. ^ Quotation:"Ballala vied for glory with his grandfather, and his long and vigorous reign of 47 years saw the achievement of independence which had long been coveted by his forefather" (Prof. Coelho in Kamath 2001, p126)
  27. ^ Quotation:"It was Ballala's achievement to have consolidated his grandfather's conquests. He may be supposed to have been the founder of a sort of Hoysala imperialism" (Chopra 2003, p154, part1)
  28. ^ Their mutual competition and antagonisms were the main feature during this period (Sastri 1955, p192)
  29. ^ Quotation:"He helped the Chola Kulottunga III and Rajaraja III against Sundara Pandya compelling the latter to restore the Chola country to its ruler (AD 1217)" (Sen 1999, p499)
  30. ^ Quotation:"A Hoysala king claimed to have rescued the Chola king who had been captured by a tributary Raja" (Thapar, 2003, p368)
  31. ^ Quotation:"Meanwhile Kulottunga had appealed for aid to Hoysala Ballala II who promptly sent an army under his son Narasimha to Srirangam. Sundara Pandya therefore had to make peace and restore the Chola kingdom to Kulottunga and Rajaraja after they made formal submission at Pon Amaravati and acknowledged him as suzerain" (Sastri 1955, pp193–194)
  32. ^ Quotation:"In response to this request (by the Cholas), Ballala II sent his son Vira Narasimha with an army to the Tamil country. The interfering Hoysala forces drove back the invading Pandyas and helped the Cholas, though temporarily to retain status" (Chopra, 2003, p155, part1)
  33. ^ Quotation:"When the Chola was attacked by the Pandya, Ballala sent crown prince Narasimha II to help Kulottunga III. Ballala assumed the title "establisher of the Chola king" after his victory in Tamilnadu, and he gained some territory in the Chola country too" (Kamath 2001, p127)
  34. ^ K. Chandramouli (25 July 2002). "The City of Boiled Beans". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  35. ^ Quotation:"To protect the Chola Kingdom from the harassing attacks of the Pandyas, Narasimha's son and successor, Somesvara established himself in the south and built a capital at Kannanur about six or eight kilometers from Srirangam" (Sen 1999, p499)
  36. ^ Quotation:"The Hoysalas were regarded as arbiters of South Indian politics. With the waning of the power of the Pandyas and the Cholas, the Hoysalas had to take up the role of leadership in South India" (B.S.K. Iyengar in Kamath, 2001, p128)
  37. ^ Quotation:"Gloriously if briefly the Hoysalas were paramount throughout most of the Kannada speaking Deccan, and could pose as arbiters in the lusher lands below the Eastern Ghats" (Keay, 2000, p252)
  38. ^ Quotation:"Thus for a second time the Hoysalas interfered in the politics of the Tamil country and stemmed the tide to Pandyan expansion to the north. Then Vira Narasimha styled himself the 'refounder of the Chola Kingdom.'" Quotation:"But what the Hoysalas lost in the north (to the Yadavas) they gained in the south by stabilising themselves near Srirangam at Kannanur (Chopra 2003, p155, part 1)
  39. ^ Quotation:"..while Hoysala influence over the whole area of the Chola kingdom and even the Pandya country increased steadily from 1220 to 1245, a period that may well be described as that of Hoysala hegemony in the south" (Sastri 1955, p195)
  40. ^ Thapar (2003), p368
  41. ^ Chopra 2003, p156, part 1
  42. ^ a b Sen (1999), p500
  43. ^ a b Kamath (2001), p129
  44. ^ Sastri (1955), pp206–208
  45. ^ Sastri (1955), pp212–214
  46. ^ Quotation:"The greatest hero in the dark political atmosphere of the south" (Kamath 2001, p130)
  47. ^ Chopra (2003), p156, part 1
  48. ^ While many theories exist about the origin of Harihara I and his brothers, collectively known as the Sangama brothers, it is well accepted that they administered the northern territories of the Hoysala empire in the 1336–1343 time either as Hoysala commanders or with autonomous powers (Kamath 2001, pp159–160)
  49. ^ A collaboration between the waning Hoysala kingdom and the emerging Hindu Vijayanagara empire is proven by inscriptions. The queen of Veera Ballala III, Krishnayitayi, made a grant to the Sringeri monastery on the same day as the founder of the Vijayanagara empire, Harihara I in 1346. The Sringeri monastic order was patronised by both Hoysala and Vijayanagara empires (Kamath 2001, p161)
  50. ^ a b c d Kamath (2001), p132
  51. ^ Thapar (2003), p378
  52. ^ Marco Polo who claims to have travelled in India at this time wrote of a monopoly in horse trading by the Arabs and merchants of South India. Imported horses became an expensive commodity because horse breeding was never successful in India, perhaps due to the different climatic, soil and pastoral conditions (Thapar 2003, p383)
  53. ^ a b Thapar (2003), p382
  54. ^ Thapar (2003), p383
  55. ^ Some 1500 monuments were built during these times in about 950 locations- S. Settar (12–25 April 2003). "Hoysala Heritage". Frontline 20 (08). Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  56. ^ More than 1000 monuments built by the Hoysalas creating employment for people of numerous guilds and backgrounds (Kamath 2001, p132)
  57. ^ a b Kamath (2001), p130–131
  58. ^ It is not clear which among Vishaya and Nadu was bigger in area and that a Nadu was under the supervision of the commander (Dandanayaka) (Barrett in Kamath 2001, pp 130–31)
  59. ^ a b Kamath (2001), p131
  60. ^ Shadow like, they moved closely with the king, lived near him and disappeared upon the death of their master – S. Settar (12–25 April 2003). "Hoysala Heritage". Frontline 20 (8). Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  61. ^ Many Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered from the rule of the Hoysalas (Kamath 2001, p12, p125)
  62. ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Hoysalas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, 1 November 2001. Retrieved 17 November 2006. [dead link]
  63. ^ Kamath (2001), p112, p132
  64. ^ A 16th-century Buddhist work by Lama Taranatha speaks disparagingly of Shankaracharya as close parallels in some beliefs of Shankaracharya with Buddhist philosophy was not viewed favorably by Buddhist writers (Thapar 2003, pp 349–350, p397)
  65. ^ It is said five earlier saints Renuka, Daruka, Ekorama, Panditharadhya and Vishwaradhya were the original founders of Lingayatism, a sect that preaches devotion to Shiva (Kamath 2001, p152)
  66. ^ Madvacharya upheld the virtues of Lord Vishnu and propounded the Dvaita philosophy (dualism) and condemned the "mayavada" (illusion) of Shankaracharya and maintained there was a distinction between Paramathma (supreme being) and the dependent principle of life (Kamath 2001, p155)
  67. ^ He criticised Adi Shankara as a "Buddhist in disguise" (Kamath 2001, p151)
  68. ^ Fritz and Michell (2001), pp35–36
  69. ^ Kamath (2001), p152
  70. ^ K.L. Kamath, 04 November 2006. "Hoysala Temples of Belur". 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 1 December 2006. 
  71. ^ S. Settar (12–25 April 2003). "Hoysala Heritage". Frontline 20 (8). Retrieved 1 December 2006. 
  72. ^ Shiva Prakash (1997), pp192–200
  73. ^ The worldwide ISKON movement is an outcome of the efforts of the followers of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (Kamath 2001, p156)
  74. ^ Shiva Prakash (1997), pp200–201
  75. ^ This is in stark contrast to the literature of the time (like Vikramankadeva Charita of Bilhana) that portrayed women as retiring, overly romantic and unconcerned with affairs of the state (Thapar 2003, p392)
  76. ^ She was not only a pioneer in the era of Women's emancipation but also an example of a transcendental world-view (Thapar 2003, p392)
  77. ^ Thapar (2003), p391
  78. ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. "The Hoysalas: Administration, Economy and Society". History of Karnataka. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved 8 December 2006. 
  79. ^ Sastri (1955), p286
  80. ^ Royal patronage of education, arts, architecture, religion and establishment of new forts and military outposts caused the large scale relocation of people (Sastri 1955, p287)
  81. ^ S. Settar (12–25 April 2003). "Hoysala Heritage". Frontline 20 (8). Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  82. ^ Thapar (2003), p389
  83. ^ Ayyar (1993), p600
  84. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p19
  85. ^ A composition which is written in a mixed prose-verse style is called Champu, Narasimhacharya (1988), p12
  86. ^ A Sangatya composition is meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a musical instrument (Sastri 1955), p359
  87. ^ Sastri(1955), p361
  88. ^ Sastri (1955), p359
  89. ^ E.P. Rice (1921), p43-44
  90. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p20
  91. ^ Sastri (1955), p364
  92. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p362
  93. ^ Narasimhacharya, (1988), p20
  94. ^ a b E.P.Rice (1921), p60
  95. ^ Sastri (1955), p324,
  96. ^ Hardy (1995), p215, p243
  97. ^ Kamath (2001), p115, p118
  98. ^ Sastri (1955), p429
  99. ^ Hardy (1995), pp6–7
  100. ^ Hoysala style has negligible influences of the Indo-Aryan style and owing to its many independent features, it qualifies as an independent school of architecture (Brown in Kamath 2001, p134)
  101. ^ An independent tradition, according to Havell, Narasimhachar, Sheshadri and Settar – Arthikaje, Mangalore. "The Hoysalas: Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture". History of Karnataka. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  102. ^ Sen (1999), pp500–501
  103. ^ Foekema (1996), pp27–28
  104. ^ Though the Hoysala vimana have rich texture, yet they are formless and lacks structural strength, according to Brown – Arthikaje, Mangalore. "The Hoysalas: Architecture". History of Karnataka. 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  105. ^ This is a Hoysala innovation (Brown in Kamath 2001, p135)
  106. ^ Foekema (1996), pp21–22
  107. ^ Quotation:"Their sculptured figures, especially the bracket figures, have been objects of praise at the hands of art critics of the whole world. They include Sukhabhasini, Darpanadharini and other damsels in various dancing poses". (Kamath 2001, p 136)
  108. ^ Sastri (1955), p428
  109. ^ Hardy (1995), p37
  110. ^ Foekema (1996), p47
  111. ^ Hardy (1995),p325
  112. ^ Foekema (1996), p59
  113. ^ Hardy (1995),p329
  114. ^ Foekema (1996), p87
  115. ^ Hardy (1995),p346
  116. ^ Foekema (1996), p41
  117. ^ a b Hardy (1995),p321
  118. ^ Foekema (1996), p37
  119. ^ Hardy (1995),p320
  120. ^ Foekema (1996), p53
  121. ^ a b Hardy (1995),p324
  122. ^ Foekema (1996), p83
  123. ^ Hardy (1995),p340
  124. ^ Foekema (1996), p71
  125. ^ a b Hardy (1995),pp330-333
  126. ^ Foekema (1996), p39
  127. ^ Foekema (1996), p77
  128. ^ Hardy (1995),p334
  129. ^ Foekema (1996), p67
  130. ^ Foekema (1996), p81
  131. ^ Hardy (1995),p339
  132. ^ Foekema (1996), p43
  133. ^ Foekema (1996), preface, p47, p59
  134. ^ Foekema (1996), p61
  135. ^ Brown in Kamath (2001), p135
  136. ^ Staff Correspondent (25 July 2004). "Belur for World Heritage Status". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  137. ^ Ayyar (2006), p. 600
  138. ^ Pollock (2006), p. 288–289
  139. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p17
  140. ^ The Manasollasa of king Somesvara III is an early encyclopedia in Sanskrit (Thapar 2003, p393)
  141. ^ However by the 14th century, bilingual inscriptions lost favor and inscriptions were mostly in the local language (Thapar 2003, pp393–95)

References[edit]

Book

  • Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa (1993) [1993]. South Indian Shrines. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0151-3. 
  • Chopra, P.N.; Ravindran, T.K.; Subrahmanian, N (2003) [2003]. History of South India (Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1. New Delhi: Chand Publications. ISBN 81-219-0153-7. 
  • Foekema, Gerard (1996) [1996]. A Complete Guide To Hoysala Temples. New Delhi: Abhinav. ISBN 81-7017-345-0. 
  • Foekema, Gerard (2003) [2003]. Architecture decorated with architecture: Later medieval temples of Karnataka, 1000–1300 AD. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-215-1089-9. 
  • Fritz, John M. and George Michell (editors) (2001). New Light on Hampi: Recent Research at Vijayanagar. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. 
  • Hardy, Adam (1995) [1995]. Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-312-4. 
  • Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) [1980]. A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041. 
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  • Moraes, George M. (1990) [1931]. The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0595-0. 
  • Narasimhacharya, R (1988) [1988]. History of Kannada Literature. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0303-6. 
  • Pollock, Sheldon (2006). The Language of Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture and Power in Pre-modern India. Berkeley and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24500-8. 
  • Rice, B.L. (2001) [1897]. Mysore Gazatteer Compiled for Government-vol 1. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0977-8. 
  • Rice, E.P. (1982) [1921]. Kannada Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0063-0. 
  • Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. 
  • Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999) [1999]. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age Publishers. ISBN 81-224-1198-3. 
  • Shiva Prakash, H.S. (1997). "Kannada". In Ayyappapanicker. Medieval Indian Literature:An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-0365-0. 
  • Stien, Burton (1989) [1989]. Vijayanagara. Wiltshire: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-26693-9. 
  • Thapar, Romila (2003) [2003]. The Penguin History of Early India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-302989-4. 

Web

External links[edit]