Rishikesh

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Rishikesh
ऋषिकेश
हृषीकेश
City
Rishikesh view across bridge.jpg
Nickname(s): Yoganagari, योगनगरी
Rishikesh is located in Uttarakhand
Rishikesh
Rishikesh
Location in Uttarakhand, India
Coordinates: 30°06′11″N 78°17′38″E / 30.103°N 78.294°E / 30.103; 78.294Coordinates: 30°06′11″N 78°17′38″E / 30.103°N 78.294°E / 30.103; 78.294
Country  India
State Uttarakhand
District Dehradun
Named for Hrishikesha (an avatar of Vishnu)
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • Body Rishikesh Municipal Board
 • Chairman Deep Sharma (INC)
Area
 • Total 11.5 km2 (4.4 sq mi)
Elevation 372 m (1,220 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 102,138
54,466
47,672
 • Rank 7th
 • Density 8,851/km2 (22,920/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Sanskrit
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 249201
Telephone code 0135
Vehicle registration UK 07
Literacy 86.86%
Sex ratio 875 /
Website rishikesh.gov.in

Rishikesh (Hindi: ऋषिकेश; Sanskrit: हृषीकेश) is a city, municipal board and a tehsil in Dehradun district of the Indian state, Uttarakhand. Located in the foothills of the Himalayas in northern India, it is known as The Gateway to the Garhwal Himalayas.[1] and yoga capital.[2] Rishikesh is surrounded by three other districts namely Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar. It is located approximately 25 km north of the city Haridwar and 43 km south-east of the state capital Dehradun. According to Census of India, 2011 Rishikesh had a population of 102,138 making it the 7th largest city also being largest municipal board in the state of Uttarakhand. It is known as the holy town and regarded as one of the holiest places to Hindus. Sages and saints have visited Rishikesh since ancient times to meditate in search of higher knowledge.[3]

Etymology[edit]

IAST: "Hṛṣīkeśa" (Sanskrit: हृषीकेश) is a name of Vishnu that means 'lord of the senses'.[4][5] The root words Hrishika and Isha join together to make Hrishikesha. Hrishika means Senses and Isha means Master or Lord. Hence the word means Lord of Senses or Lord Vishnu. The place gets its name after Lord Vishnu who appeared to 'Raibhya Rishi',[6] as a result of his tapasya (austerities), as Lord Hrishikesha.[7] In Skanda Purana, this area is known as 'Kubjamraka' (कुब्जाम्रक) as Lord Vishnu appeared, under a mango tree.[5] Another legend says that fierce fire broke out here. Lord Shiva was angry with Lord Agni and cursed him. Then Lord Agni prayed here for the expiation of his sins. Hence it is also known as 'Agni Tirtha' (अग्नि तीर्थ) - The holy place to penance of Lord Agni or Fire God.[8]

The name Rishikesh is loosely applied to an association of five distinct sections encompassing not only the town but also hamlets and settlements on both sides of the river Ganges. These include Rishikesh itself, the commercial and communication hub; the sprawling suburb Muni Ki Reti or the "sands of the sages"; Sivananda Nagar the home of Sivananda Ashram and the Divine Life Society founded by Swami Sivananda, north of Rishikesh; the temple sections of Ram Jhula and Lakshman Jhula, a little further north; and the assorted Ashrams around Swargashram on the eastern bank. The Ganga Arti performed at dusk at the Triveni Ghat is popular with visitors. Neelkanth Mahadev Temple, situated 28 km from Rishikesh, amidst forest is also a popular local pilgrimage, along with 'Vashishtha Guha', (Cave of Sage Vashishtha), 21 km up from the town by the Ganges. Over the years, it has established itself as the yoga capital of the world. From the US, Europe and China and Australia, serious yoga students come to learn asanas and kriyas that will help them lead a healthy life.[3]

History[edit]

Rishikesh has been a part of the legendary 'Kedarkhand' (the present day Garhwal).[9] Legends state that Lord Rama did penance here for killing Ravana, the demon king of Lanka; and Lakshmana, his younger brother, crossed the river Ganges, at a point, where the present 'Lakshman Jhula' (लक्ष्मण झूला) bridge stands today, using a jute rope bridge.[10] The 'Kedar Khand' of Skanda Purana, also mentions the existence of Indrakund at this very point. The jute-rope bridge was replaced by iron-rope suspension bridge in 1889, and after it was washed away in the 1924 floods, it was replaced by the present stronger bridge. Another similar suspension bridge Ram Jhula was built in 1986 at nearby Shivananda Nagar.

The sacred river Ganges flows through Rishikesh. It is here that the river leaves the Shivalik mountains in the Himalayas and flows out into the plains of northern India. Several temples, ancient as well as new, can be found along the banks of the Ganges in Rishikesh. Shatrughna Mandir, Bharat Mandir, Lakshman Mandir are the ancient temples established by Adi Shankaracharya. Shatrughna Temple is located near Ram Jhula and Lakshman Mandir is near to Lakshman Jhula.

As with Haridwar about an hour south, Rishikesh is considered by Hindus to be a holy city and is vegetarian by law. Meat and alcohol are not served within the city. Cows roam freely in the streets and always have the right of way if they stop traffic.[11]

Geography[edit]

View of rishikesh from beach

Rishikesh is located at 30°06′12″N 78°17′41″E / 30.103368°N 78.294754°E / 30.103368; 78.294754. It has an average elevation of 372 metres (1,745 feet).[12]

The Tehri Dam is just 80 km uphill on the way to Gangotri. Rishikesh is the starting point for travelling to the four Chota Char Dham pilgrimage places — Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri. Rishikesh is also famous for ayurvedic treatments. Many ayurveda centre are run where ayurvedic classes are given by ayurvedic doctors.

According to Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, its climate is humid subtropical (Cwa).

Despite the pollution of the Ganges, the water in Rishikesh is relatively unaffected by the pollution as the major polluting points are down the course of the river in the neighbouring state of Uttar Pradesh.[13]

Climate data for Rishikesh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 20
(68)
23
(73)
29
(84)
35
(95)
39
(102)
38
(100)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
30
(86)
26
(79)
22
(72)
29.9
(85.8)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(45)
9
(48)
14
(57)
18
(64)
23
(73)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
17
(63)
11
(52)
8
(46)
17
(62.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51
(2.01)
33
(1.3)
34
(1.34)
9
(0.35)
20
(0.79)
94
(3.7)
482
(18.98)
495
(19.49)
219
(8.62)
76
(2.99)
9
(0.35)
17
(0.67)
1,539
(60.59)
Avg. rainy days 3 2 3 1 2 7 15 16 8 2 0 1 60
Mean daily sunshine hours 6 7 8 9 9 7 6 6 7 8 8 7 7.3
Source: Weather2Travel[14]

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional data of 2011 census Rishikesh had a population of 102,138, out of which males were 54,466 and females were 47,672. The literacy rate was 86.86 per cent compared to national average of 74.04%.[15]

Yoga Center[edit]

Rishikesh, sometimes nicknamed "The World Capital of Yoga",[16] has numerous yoga centres that also attract tourists. It is believed that meditation in Rishikesh brings one closer to attainment of moksha, as does a dip in the holy river that flows through it. Rafting season starts from the month of March and ends in September.

Rishikesh is also home to the 133 year old Kailash Ashram Brahmavidyapitham, an institution dedicated to preserve and promote the traditional Vedantic Studies. Prominent personalities such as Swami Vivekananda, Swami Rama Tirtha and Swami Shivananda have studied in this institution.

In February 1968, The Beatles visited the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's ashram in Rishikesh.[17] John Lennon recorded a song titled, "The Happy Rishikesh Song".[18][19] The Beatles composed numerous songs during their time at the Maharishi's ashram, some of which appear on the White Album.[20] Several other artists, including Mike Love, The Beach Boys, Donovan and Gyp Mills visited the site to contemplate and meditate.[21] Former royal palace of the Maharaja of Tehri Garhwal at near by Narendranagar, now houses the Ananda–In the Himalayas destination spa and yoga retreat, estb. 2000.[22]

Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles visited Rishikesh in 2013, and participated in the Ganga aarti.They also conducted a special hawan for world peace at the ashram . Charles said: "I am amazed by the experience of sitting on the bank of one of the ancients rivers of the world. It is the right time for us to rediscover our connection with nature."[23]

Adventure sports[edit]

Rishikesh is becoming a popular spot for white water rafting enthusiasts, both from India and abroad, as the Ganges offers medium to rough rapids rated class 3 and class 4.[24] It is also a center for hiking, backpacking, rock climbing, rappelling and kayaking. In previous years bungee jumping was also introduced in Rishikesh.[25] One can also enjoy mountain biking at Mohanchatti [26] which is near the popular place called Lakshman Jhula in Rishikesh.

Environmental concerns[edit]

As tourists from all over the world are attracting towards Rishikesh for yoga, rafting, and travelling, Rishikesh has become an international attraction. Rafting in Rishikesh is a popular sport in summer, but due to violations of rules most rafting camps in Rishikesh cause pollution to the river.

Rafting camps[edit]

View of Rishikesh
Beaches in rishikesh

According to environmental activists, "These camps are not only in violation of Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 but also the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 as well as the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 as it is leading to pollution of Ganga by discharging effluent, throwing of solid waste directly and adversely affecting the ecological integrity of the river system."

Environmental activists alleged that these camps, which are located and established as temporary sites, do not have adequate sewage and sanitation facilities, disturb the habitat of wild animals and "affect the peace, tranquility and serenity of the forest area."

"At the camp sites, the camp owners permit employees and the visitors to have food and alcohol. They leave empty bottles, cans, unconsumed food and waste including bones and filth in and around the camp site."

In a 2008 study on the beach camps between Kaudiyala and Rishikesh, experts from the Govind Ballabh Pant Himalayan Environment and Development Institute - RK Maikhuri, Nihaal Farukhi and Tarun Budhal - found that wildlife conservation standards and norms, particularly for waste management were being routinely disregarded.

A bench headed by NGT chairperson Justice Swatanter Kumar was on 1st aprail hearing a plea filed by non-governmental organisation Social Action for Forest and Environment (SAFE),The National Green Tribunal has sought explanations from the central government and the Uttarakhand state government on the "unregulated" operation of rafting camps on the banks of Ganga between Shivpuri and Rishikesh in Uttarakhand. The state government has assured the tribunal that it will not grant permission to any new camp till the next hearing in May.[27][28][29][30][31][32]

Effecting spiritual environment[edit]

The banks of Ganges are no less than any beaches in the world in terms of tourist footfall and picturesque scenery, The overall setting of the Bank of Ganges near Rishikesh induces peace and tranquility, thus, making it ideal for serious meditation and yoga since ancient times but Due to large number of tourists from different cultures from India and worlds unknown of spiritual culture of rishikesh consumes drugs and alcohol and gets semi-nude or almost nudes at beaches in picnic mode in beaches, which effects the spiritual environment of area.Mingle, drink and indulge in objectionable activities on the banks of the holy river, where sadhus and sants gather to meditate". [33] According to many rishikesh is more becoming like goa then spiritual city for which it is well known.[34][35][36]

“This stretch is important from spirituality and religion point of view as the Ganga takes shape from Devprayag in the Garhwal Himalayas and reaches the plains in Rishikesh. Saints and Yogi's meditate on the Ganga banks but these are now being polluted with unethical activities such as couples could be seen doing sexual activity openly disturbing meditating yogi's and saints at ganges beahes and consuming alcohol, with liquor bottles littered at camps.[37][38][39][40][41][42][43]

Health[edit]

AIIMS Rishikesh is one of the SIX Apex healthcare institutes being established by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India under the Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojna (PMSSY).With the aim of correcting regional imbalances in quality tertiary level healthcare in the country and attaining self-sufficiency in graduate and postgraduate medical education & training.[44][45]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Template:Cite web and
  2. ^ http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/uttarakhand/rishikesh-s-identity-as-yoga-capital-to-be-maintained/48548.html
  3. ^ a b http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-04-03/news/48834907_1_international-yoga-festival-iyengar-yoga-deep-yoga
  4. ^ Monier-Williams: "lord of the senses".
  5. ^ a b Rishikesh History
  6. ^ Glossary of terms in Hinduism#R
  7. ^ Rishikesh Official website Dehradun district.
  8. ^ Rishikesh History
  9. ^ District Profile Official website of Uttarakhand Govt.
  10. ^ "Places of Tourist Interest in Rishikesh". 
  11. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2014/06/world/rishikesh/
  12. ^ "Rishikesh Coordinates". 
  13. ^ "Invigorating Rishikesh". 
  14. ^ "Rishikesh Climate and Weather Averages, India". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 2014-01-14. 
  15. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  16. ^ "Leh and Rishikesh in Tripadvisor’s Asia ‘top 10 destinations on the rise for 2015′ list". 
  17. ^ Beatles in Rishikesh at Paul Saltzman web site
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ The Happy Rishikesh Song
  20. ^ Richard A Bustraan. The Jesus People Movement: A Story of Spiritual Revolution Among the Hippies. Wipf and Stock. p. 28. 
  21. ^ SPOTLIGHT: Nancy Veitch Cooke de Herrera, ’43 TM Believer ’78 Stanford Magazine, May/June 2010
  22. ^ Himalayan Spa for Sybarites By CELIA W. DUGGER. New york Times. July 30, 2000.
  23. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/prince-charles-camilla-prince-charles-in-india-rishikesh/1/321964.html
  24. ^ Ratnam, Dhamini (August 3, 2009). "Up your ante". Hindustan Times. 
  25. ^ Bungee Jumping: Rishikesh beckons
  26. ^ Top 10 Adventure Activities in Rishikesh
  27. ^ http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/rafting-in-rishikesh-green-tribunal-asks-centre-to-respond-115040101299_1.html
  28. ^ http://navbharattimes.indiatimes.com/state/uttarakhand/dehradun/rafting-in-rishikesh-explanation-of-the-center/articleshow/46774706.cms
  29. ^ http://www.samaylive.com/regional-news-in-hindi/uttarakhand-news-in-hindi/309797/green-tribunal-raps-modi-government-over-unregulated-operation-rafting-in-rishikesh.html
  30. ^ http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-04-03/news/60787393_1_camps-waste-management-environment-ministry
  31. ^ http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/green-tribunal-notice-over-rafting-camps-in-uttarakhand-115040600378_1.html
  32. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/dehradun/Despite-Ukhand-assurance-to-NGT-licences-being-issued-for-camping-rafting/articleshow/46789434.cms
  33. ^ http://www.samaylive.com/gallery/photo-gallery/pics-it-s-goa-beach-of-rishikesh-foreign-tourists-nude-and-topless-take-sunbathing/620911/66613.html
  34. ^ http://www.newindianexpress.com/lifestyle/travel/Where-Rishikesh-Meets-Goa/2015/03/22/article2721758.ece
  35. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Rafting-in-Ganga-promotes-obscene-activities-VHP-says-wants-it-banned/articleshow/47437432.cms
  36. ^ http://www.andhraheadlines.com/news/national/146568/adventure-tours-rishikesh-end-up-in-rave-parties
  37. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Rafting-in-Ganga-promotes-obscene-activities-VHP-says-wants-it-banned/articleshow/47437432.cms
  38. ^ http://www.firstpost.com/india/vhp-now-demands-ban-river-rafting-ganges-says-leads-many-objectionable-activities-2264840.html
  39. ^ http://www.india.com/news/india/wtf-now-the-vhp-wants-to-ban-river-rafting-in-rishikesh-398590/
  40. ^ http://www.news18.com/news/uttarakhand/vhp-demands-ban-on-rafting-in-ganga-citing-pollution-govt-hits-back-740917.html
  41. ^ http://www.thequint.com/2015/may/27/river-rafting-promotes-obscenity-vhp-seeks-ban-in-rishikesh
  42. ^ http://news.haridwaronline.in/VHP-demands-ban-on-Rishikesh-rafting-443870
  43. ^ http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/uttarakhand/vhp-demands-ban-on-river-rafting-in-ganga/85779.html
  44. ^ http://www.aiimsrishikesh.edu.in/details.php?pgID=_about
  45. ^ http://www.news18.com/videos/uttarakhand/aiims-rishikesh-to-get-100-bed-hospital-within-three-months-112341.html