|Gmina||Hrubieszów (urban gmina)|
|• Mayor||Tadeusz Garaj|
|• Total||33.03 km2 (12.75 sq mi)|
|Elevation||200 m (700 ft)|
|• Density||560/km2 (1,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Hrubieszów [xruˈbʲɛʂuf] (Yiddish: הרויעשאוו) is a town in southeastern Poland, with a population of 18,661 (2004). It is the capital of Hrubieszów County. Since 1999 Hrubieszów has been part of Lublin Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubelskie). Earlier, 1975–98, it had been part of Zamość Province (województwo zamojskie). Prior to 1919, it was part of the Russian Empire.
The town was founded in 1400 by Poland's King Władysław Jagiełło. He returned there in 1411, 1413 and 1430. A castle and church were later added. Kazimierz Jagiellończyk built a road from Lublin to Lviv passing by Hrubieszów. The town was eventually destroyed by Ukrainians and Tatars.
During World War II, the region witnessed the Zamość Uprising. Many inhabitants, including the 7,000 residents of the town's Jewish ghetto, perished in the war. The city is also notable for being the site of the largest joint action between the partisans of the Polish Freedom and Independence anti-communist movement and those of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.
The Jewish population numbered 709 in 1765, 3,276 in 1856, 5,352 (out of 10,636) in 1897, and 11,750 in 1939.
The German army entered the city on Sept. 15, 1939, and immediately organized a series of pogroms. Ten days later the Germans withdrew and the Soviet army occupied the town, but after a fortnight returned it to the Germans, per a newly formed Soviet-German agreement. Over 2,000 Jews, having experienced the Nazi terror, left together with the withdrawing Soviet army. On December 2, 1939 1,000 Jews from Hrubieszow and 1,100 from Chełm were led on a death March to the Bug River, where 1,500 died. In early 1940, around 6,000 Jews, including refugees were confined to a ghetto. In June 1942, around 3,000 Jews from the ghetto were sent to the Sobibor Death Camp and exterminated. The second deportation from Hrubieszow took place on October 28, 1942, when 2,500 Jews were deported to Sobibor and exterminated. Around 400 who resisted were executed at the Jewish cemetery and the last 160 Jews were sent to a forced labor camp in Budzyn.
In the summer of 1941, Julek (Joel/Jakób) Brandt, a leader of the Zionist youth movement Betar from Chorzów who was a relative of the chairman of the Hrubieszów Judenrat (Jewish Council) Samuel Brandt, arranged for several hundred members of the Betar youth movement in the Warsaw Ghetto to work on local farms and estates, including one in Dłużniów and Werbkowice. Before the war, the estate in Dłużniów had belonged to Maks Glazermann, a Jewish engineer from Lwów who was left to run the property. Among those sent to Dłużniów was a young woman from Warsaw named Hanka Tauber. Her account of what went on there was recorded in the ghetto diary of Abraham Lewin.
Most of the Betar youth were killed in the spring of 1942 and in subsequent months together with the local Jewish population. A small number, however, managed to return to the ghetto and later took part in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. Julek Brandt escaped from a transport heading for the death camp at Sobibor. He was denounced by local peasants who tuned him over to the Gestapo in Hrubieszów. There he was put to work by Gestapo Obersturmbannführer Ebner, who named him chief of a small work camp on Jatkowa Street. At the end of 1942 or the beginning of 1943, Ebner killed him.
Notable residents of Hrubieszow have included:
- Yosef Almogi, member of the Israeli Knesset
- Bolesław Leśmian, poet
- Henry Orenstein, poker-player, author, and entrepreneur
- Bolesław Prus, novelist
- Milton Rokeach, psychologist
Others with ancestry from the city include:
Hrubieszów boasts a number of monuments:
- An outdoor sculpture of Bolesław Prus.
- Orthodox church with 13 cupolas (1875).
- Saint Nicholas Catholic Church (17th-century).
- Madonna of Ceaseless Help Catholic Church (1903-5).
- Du Chateau manor complex, housing a regional museum.
- Madonna of Sokal Catholic Church.
- Jewish cemeteries (Old and New)
- Krakowski, Stefan. Jewish Virtual Library: Hrubieszow, Poland, Retrieved on 6 December 2013.
- Libionka, Dariusz and Laurence Weinbaum, A New Look at the Betar 'Idyll' in Hrubieszów, Yad Vashem Studies, volume XXXVII (2009).
- Official website of Hrubieszów
- Hrubieszów information service
- Hrubieszów Jewish genealogy site
- Official Hrubieszów County website
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