|Republic of Croatia
|Anthem: Lijepa naša domovino
Our Beautiful Homeland
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2011)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Zoran Milanović|
|-||Speaker of Parliament||Josip Leko|
|-||Chief Justice||Jasna Omejec|
|-||Personal union with Hungary||1102|
|-||Joined Habsburg Empire||1 January 1527|
|29 October 1918|
|-||Creation of Yugoslavia||4 December 1918|
|-||Decision on independence||
25 June 1991
|-||Total||56,594 km2 (126th)
21,851 sq mi
|-||2011 census||4,284,889 (128th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|Gini (2012)|| 30.5
|HDI (2013)|| 0.812
very high · 47th
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||HR|
|a.||The .eu domain is also used, as in other European Union member states.|
Croatia (i//; Croatian: Hrvatska pronounced [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska listen (help·info)) is a sovereign state at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with the twenty counties. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles) and has diverse, mostly continental and Mediterranean climates. Croatia's Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The country's population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, with the most common religious denomination being Roman Catholicism.
The Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Peter Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir. Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognised State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary and merged into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. A fascist Croatian puppet state existed during World War II. After the war, Croatia became a founding member and a federal constituent of Second Yugoslavia, a constitutionally socialist state. In June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came into effect on 8 October of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration.
A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system. The country today has a very high Human Development Index rank. The International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union (EU), United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term.
The service sector dominates Croatia's economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia; the rest is imported. Croatia provides a universal health care system and free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and through corporate investments in media and publishing.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia – compare DUX CRUATORVM [sic] ("Leader of the Croats") attested in the Branimir inscription – itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from proposed Common Slavic period *Xorvat-, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xarwāt- (*Xъrvatъ) or *Xŭrvatŭ (*xъrvatъ).
The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, Croatian king").
The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts on the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription (found near Benkovac), where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not dated accurately, however, Branimir ruled Croatia in 879–892.
Prehistory and antiquity
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country. The largest proportion of the sites is in the northern Croatia river valleys, and the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Starčevo, Vučedol and Baden cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture and the Celtic La Tène culture.
Greek and Roman rule
Much later, the region was settled by Liburnians and Illyrians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Korčula, Hvar and Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian built a large palace in Split when he retired in AD 305.
During the 5th century, one of the last Emperors of the Western Roman Empire, Julius Nepos, ruled his small empire from the palace. The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of almost all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast, islands and mountains. The city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum.
The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain and there are several competing theories, Slavic and Iranian being the most frequently put forward. The most widely accepted of these, the Slavic theory, proposes migration of White Croats from the territory of White Croatia during the Migration Period. Conversely, the Iranian theory proposes Iranian origin, based on Tanais Tablets containing Greek inscription of given names Χορούαθ[ος], Χοροάθος and Χορόαθος (Khoroúathos, Khoroáthos, and Khoróathos) and their interpretation as anthroponyms of Croatian people.
According to the work De Administrando Imperio written by the 10th-century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats had arrived in what is today Croatia in the early 7th century, however that claim is disputed and competing hypotheses date the event between the 6th and the 9th centuries. Eventually two dukedoms were formed—Duchy of Pannonia and Duchy of Dalmatia, ruled by Ljudevit Posavski and Borna, as attested by chronicles of Einhard starting in 818. The record represents the first document of Croatian realms, vassal states of Francia at the time.
The Frankish overlordship ended during the reign of Mislav two decades later. According to the Constantine VII Christianization of Croats began in the 7th century, but the claim is disputed and generally Christianization is associated with the 9th century. The first native Croatian ruler recognised by the Pope was duke Branimir, whom Pope John VIII referred to as Dux Croatorum ("Duke of Croats") in 879.
Tomislav was the first ruler of Croatia who was styled a king in a letter from the Pope John X, dating kingdom of Croatia to year 925. Tomislav defeated Hungarian and Bulgarian invasions, spreading the influence of Croatian kings. The medieval Croatian kingdom reached its peak in the 11th century during the reigns of Petar Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Dmitar Zvonimir (1075–1089). When Stjepan II died in 1091 ending the Trpimirović dynasty, Ladislaus I of Hungary claimed Croatian crown. Opposition to the claim led to a war and personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102, ruled by Coloman.
For the next four centuries, the Kingdom of Croatia was ruled by the Sabor (parliament) and a Ban (viceroy) appointed by the king. The period saw increasing threat of Ottoman conquest and struggle against the Republic of Venice for control of coastal areas. The Venetians gained control over most of Dalmatia by 1428, with exception of the city-state of Dubrovnik which became independent. Ottoman conquests led to the 1493 Battle of Krbava field and 1526 Battle of Mohács, both ending in decisive Ottoman victories. King Louis II died at Mohács, and in 1527, the Croatian Parliament met in Cetin and chose Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg as new ruler of Croatia, under the condition that he provide protection to Croatia against the Ottoman Empire while respecting its political rights. This period saw the rise of influential nobility such as the Frankopan and Zrinski families to prominence and ultimately numerous Bans from the two families.
Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary (1538–1918)
Following the decisive Ottoman victories, Croatia was split into civilian and military territories, with the partition formed in 1538. The military territories would become known as the Croatian Military Frontier and were under direct Imperial control. Ottoman advances in the Croatian territory continued until the 1593 Battle of Sisak, the first decisive Ottoman defeat, and stabilisation of borders.
During the Great Turkish War (1667–1698), Slavonia was regained but western Bosnia, which had been part of Croatia before the Ottoman conquest, remained outside Croatian control. The present-day border between the two countries is a remnant of this outcome. Dalmatia, the southern part of the border, was similarly defined by the Fifth and the Seventh Ottoman–Venetian Wars.
The Ottoman wars instigated great demographic changes. Croats migrated towards Austria and the present-day Burgenland Croats are direct descendants of these settlers. To replace the fleeing population the Habsburgs encouraged the Christian populations of Bosnia and Serbia to provide military service in the Croatian Military Frontier. Serb migration into this region peaked during the Great Serb Migrations of 1690 and 1737–39.
Between 1797 and 1809 the First French Empire gradually occupied the entire eastern Adriatic coastline and a substantial part of its hinterland, ending the Venetian and the Ragusan republics, establishing the Illyrian Provinces. In response the Royal Navy started the blockade of the Adriatic Sea leading to the Battle of Vis in 1811. The Illyrian Provinces were captured by the Austrians in 1813, and absorbed by the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. This led to formation of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and restoration of the Croatian Littoral to the Kingdom of Croatia, now both under the same crown.
The 1830s and 1840s saw romantic nationalism inspire the Croatian National Revival, a political and cultural campaign advocating the unity of all South Slavs in the empire. Its primary focus was the establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian, along with the promotion of Croatian literature and culture. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Croatia sided with the Austrians, Ban Josip Jelačić helping defeat the Hungarian forces in 1849, and ushering a period of Germanization policy.
By the 1860s, failure of the policy became apparent, leading to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and creation of a personal union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The treaty left the issue of Croatia's status to Hungary, and the status was resolved by the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868, when kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were united. The Kingdom of Dalmatia remained under de facto Austrian control, while Rijeka retained the status of Corpus separatum introduced in 1779.
After Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina following the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, the Croatian Military Frontier was abolished and the territory returned to Croatia in 1881, pursuant to provisions of the Croatian-Hungarian settlement. Renewed efforts to reform Austria-Hungary, entailing federalisation with Croatia as a federal unit, were stopped by advent of World War I.
On 29 October 1918 the Croatian Sabor declared independence and decided to join the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which in turn entered into union with the Kingdom of Serbia on 4 December 1918 to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The 1921 constitution defining the country as a unitary state and abolition of historical administrative divisions effectively ended Croatian autonomy. The new constitution was opposed by the most widely supported national political party—the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) led by Stjepan Radić.
The political situation deteriorated further as Radić was assassinated in the National Assembly in 1928, leading to the dictatorship of King Alexander in January 1929. The dictatorship formally ended in 1931 when the king imposed a more unitarian constitution, and changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia. The HSS, now led by Vladko Maček, continued to advocate federalisation of Yugoslavia, resulting in the Cvetković–Maček Agreement of August 1939 and the autonomous Banovina of Croatia. The Yugoslav government retained control of defence, internal security, foreign affairs, trade, and transport while other matters were left to the Croatian Sabor and a crown-appointed Ban.
In April 1941, Yugoslavia was occupied by Germany and Italy. Following the invasion the territory, parts of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the region of Syrmia were incorporated into the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), a Nazi-backed puppet state. Parts of Dalmatia were annexed by Italy and the northern Croatian regions of Baranja and Međimurje were annexed by Hungary. The NDH regime was led by Ante Pavelić and ultranationalist Ustaše. The regime introduced anti-semitic laws and conducted a campaign of ethnic cleansing and genocide against Serb and Roma inhabitants of the NDH, exemplified by the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška concentration camps.
It is estimated that out of 39,000 Jews in the country only 9,000 survived; the rest were either killed or deported to Germany, both by the local authorities and the German Army itself. Croatian and Serbian sources disagree on the exact figures. Furthermore, a significant number of Serbs were killed by the Ustaše on the territory of the NDH during the war. According to Midlarsky, number of Serbs killed by the regime was at least half a million,[verification needed] but the figure is contradicted by both Bogoljub Kočović and Vladimir Žerjavić. Kočović estimated total number of Serbs killed throughout Yugoslav territory in various circumstances at 487,000, while Žerjavić put the figure at 530,000. Furthermore, Žerjavić indicated that 320,000 Serbs were killed in the NDH, including 82,000 killed among the Yugoslav Partisans, 23,000 killed as Axis collaborators, 25,000 victims of typhoid epidemic, 45,000 killed by Germans and 15,000 by Italians. Kočović's and Žerjavić's total Yugoslav losses are in agreement with estimates made by Mayers and Campbell of the United States Census Bureau. The number of Croats killed in the NDH is estimated to be approximately 200,000, either by the Croatian fascist regime, as members of the armed resistance, or as Axis collaborators.
A resistance movement soon emerged. On 22 June 1941, the 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment was formed near Sisak, as the first military unit formed by a resistance movement in occupied Europe. This sparked the beginning of the Yugoslav Partisan movement, a communist multi-ethnic anti-fascist resistance group led by Josip Broz Tito. The movement grew rapidly and at the Tehran Conference in December 1943 the Partisans gained recognition from the Allies.
With Allied support in logistics, equipment, training and air power, and with the assistance of Soviet troops taking part in the 1944 Belgrade Offensive, the Partisans gained control of Yugoslavia and the border regions of Italy and Austria by May 1945, during which time thousands of members of the Ustaše, as well as Croat refugees, were killed by the Yugoslav Partisans. The political aspirations of the Partisan movement were reflected in the ZAVNOH (National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Croatia), which developed in 1943 as the bearer of Croatian statehood and later transformed into the Parliament of Croatia in 1945, and AVNOJ—its counterpart at the Yugoslav level.
After the World War II, Croatia became a single-party Socialist federal unit of the SFR Yugoslavia, ruled by the Communists, but enjoying a degree of autonomy within the federation. In 1967, Croatian authors and linguists published a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language demanding greater autonomy for Croatian language. The declaration contributed to a national movement seeking greater civil rights and decentralisation of the Yugoslav economy, culminating in the Croatian Spring of 1971, suppressed by Yugoslav leadership. Still, the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution gave increased autonomy to federal units, basically fulfilling a goal of the Croatian Spring, and providing a legal basis for independence of the federative constituents.
In the 1980s the political situation in Yugoslavia deteriorated with national tension fanned by the 1986 Serbian SANU Memorandum and the 1989 coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro. In January 1990, the Communist Party fragmented along national lines, with the Croatian faction demanding a looser federation. In the same year, the first multi-party elections were held in Croatia, with Franjo Tuđman's win raising nationalist tensions further. Serbs in Croatia left Sabor and declared the autonomy of areas that would soon become the unrecognised Republic of Serbian Krajina, intent on achieving independence from Croatia.
As tensions rose, Croatia declared independence in June 1991, however the declaration came into effect on 8 October 1991. In the meantime, tensions escalated into the Croatian War of Independence when the Yugoslav National Army and various Serb paramilitaries attacked Croatia. By the end of 1991, a high intensity war fought along a wide front reduced Croatia to control of about two-thirds of its territory. On 15 January 1992, Croatia gained diplomatic recognition by the European Economic Community members, and subsequently the United Nations. The war effectively ended in 1995 with a decisive victory by Croatia in August 1995. The remaining occupied areas were restored to Croatia pursuant to the Erdut Agreement of November 1995, with the process concluded in January 1998. Croatia became a World Trade Organization (WTO) member on 30 November 2000. The country signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) with the European Union in October 2001. Croatia became member of NATO on 1 April 2009, and joined the European Union on 1 July 2013.
Croatia is located in Central and Southeast Europe, bordering Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the southeast, Montenegro to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest and Slovenia to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Part of the territory in the extreme south surrounding Dubrovnik is a practical exclave connected to the rest of the mainland by territorial waters, but separated on land by a short coastline strip belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina around Neum.
The territory covers 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles), consisting of 56,414 square kilometres (21,782 square miles) of land and 128 square kilometres (49 square miles) of water. It is the 127th largest country in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Dinaric Alps with the highest point of the Dinara peak at 1,831 metres (6,007 feet) near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the south to the shore of the Adriatic Sea which makes up its entire southwest border. Insular Croatia consists of over a thousand islands and islets varying in size, 48 of which are permanently inhabited. The largest islands are Cres and Krk, each of them having an area of around 405 square kilometres (156 square miles).
The hilly northern parts of Hrvatsko Zagorje and the flat plains of Slavonia in the east (which is part of the Pannonian Basin) are traversed by major rivers such as Sava, Drava, Kupa and Danube. The Danube, Europe's second longest river, runs through the city of Vukovar in the extreme east and forms part of the border with Serbia. The central and southern regions near the Adriatic coastline and islands consist of low mountains and forested highlands. Natural resources found in the country in quantities significant enough for production include oil, coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt and hydropower.
Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps. There are a number of deep caves in Croatia, 49 of which are deeper than 250 m (820.21 ft), 14 of them deeper than 500 m (1,640.42 ft) and three deeper than 1,000 m (3,280.84 ft). Croatia's most famous lakes are the Plitvice lakes, a system of 16 lakes with waterfalls connecting them over dolomite and limestone cascades. The lakes are renowned for their distinctive colours, ranging from turquoise to mint green, grey or blue.
Most of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate as defined by the Köppen climate classification. Mean monthly temperature ranges between −3 °C (27 °F) (in January) and 18 °C (64 °F) (in July). The coldest parts of the country are Lika and Gorski Kotar where snowy forested climate is found at elevations above 1,200 metres (3,900 feet). The warmest areas of Croatia are at the Adriatic coast and especially in its immediate hinterland characterised by the Mediterranean climate, as the temperature highs are moderated by the sea. Consequently, temperature peaks are more pronounced in the continental areas—the lowest temperature of −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) was recorded on 3 February 1919 in Čakovec, and the highest temperature of 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) was recorded on 5 July 1950 in Karlovac.
Mean annual precipitation ranges between 600 millimetres (24 inches) and 3,500 millimetres (140 inches) depending on geographic region and prevailing climate type. The least precipitation is recorded in the outer islands (Vis, Lastovo, Biševo, Svetac) and in the eastern parts of Slavonia, however in the latter case, it is mostly occurring during the growing season. The maximum precipitation levels are observed on the Dinara mountain range and in Gorski kotar.
Prevailing winds in the interior are light to moderate northeast or southwest, and in the coastal area prevailing winds are determined by local area features. Higher wind velocities are more often recorded in cooler months along the coast, generally as bura or less frequently as sirocco. The sunniest parts of the country are the outer islands, Hvar and Korčula, where more than 2700 hours of sunshine are recorded per year, followed by the southern Adriatic Sea area in general, northern Adriatic coast, and Slavonia, all with more than 2000 hours of sunshine per year.
Croatia can be subdivided between a number of ecoregions because of its climate and geomorphology, and the country is consequently one of the richest in Europe in terms of biodiversity. There are four types of biogeographical regions in Croatia—Mediterranean along the coast and in its immediate hinterland, Alpine in most of Lika and Gorski Kotar, Pannonian along Drava and Danube, and continental in the remaining areas. One of the most significant are karst habitats which include submerged karst, such as Zrmanja and Krka canyons and tufa barriers, as well as underground habitats. The karst geology harbours approximately 7,000 caves and pits, some of which are habitat of the only known aquatic cave vertebrate—the olm. Forests are also significantly present in the country, as they cover 2,490,000 hectares (6,200,000 acres) representing 44% of Croatian land surface. The other habitat types include wetlands, grasslands, bogs, fens, scrub habitats, coastal and marine habitats.
In terms of phytogeography, Croatia is a part of the Boreal Kingdom and is a part of Illyrian and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region and the Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region. The World Wide Fund for Nature divides Croatia between three ecoregions—Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyrian deciduous forests.
There are 37,000 known species in Croatia, but their actual number is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000. The claim is supported by nearly 400 new taxa of invertebrates discovered in Croatia in the first half of the 2000s (decade) alone. There are more than a thousand endemic species, especially in Velebit and Biokovo mountains, Adriatic islands and karst rivers. Legislation protects 1,131 species.
The most serious threat to species is loss and degradation of habitats. A further problem is presented by appearance of invasive alien species, especially Caulerpa taxifolia algae. The invasive algae are regularly monitored and removed to protect the benthic habitat. Indigenous sorts of cultivated plants and breeds of domesticated animals are also numerous. Those include five breeds of horses, five breeds of cattle, eight breeds of sheep, two breeds of pigs and a poultry breed. Even the indigenous breeds include nine endangered or critically endangered ones.
There are 444 protected areas of Croatia, encompassing 9% of the country. Those include eight national parks, two strict reserves, and ten nature parks. The most famous protected area and the oldest national park in Croatia is the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Velebit Nature Park is a part of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The strict and special reserves, as well as the national and nature parks, are managed and protected by the central government, while other protected areas are managed by counties. In 2005, the National Ecological Network was set up, as the first step in preparation of the EU accession and joining of the Natura 2000 network.
The Republic of Croatia is a unitary state using a parliamentary system of governance. With the collapse of the ruling communist party in SFR Yugoslavia, Croatia adopted its present constitution in 1990 and organised its first multi-party elections. It declared independence on 8 October 1991 leading to the break-up of Yugoslavia and the country was internationally recognised by the United Nations in 1992. Under its 1990 constitution, Croatia operated a semi-presidential system until 2000 when it switched to a parliamentary system. Government powers in Croatia are divided into legislative, executive and judiciary powers. The legal system of Croatia is civil law, strongly influenced, as is the institutional framework, by the legal heritage of Austria-Hungary. By the time EU accession negotiations were completed on 30 June 2010, Croatian legislation was fully harmonised with the Community acquis.
The President of the Republic (Croatian: Predsjednik Republike) is the head of state, directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the commander in chief of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing the prime minister with the consent of the parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy. The most recent presidential elections were held on 10 January 2010, when Ivo Josipović won. He took the oath of office on 18 February 2010.
The government is headed by the prime minister, who has four deputy prime ministers and 17 ministers in charge of particular sectors of activity. As the executive branch, it is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of the republic. The government is seated at Banski dvori in Zagreb. Since 23 December 2011, the prime minister of the government has been Zoran Milanović.
The parliament (Sabor) is a unicameral legislative body. A second chamber, the House of Counties, set up in 1993 pursuant to the 1990 Constitution, was abolished in 2001. The number of Sabor members can vary from 100 to 160; they are all elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The sessions of the Sabor take place from 15 January to 15 July, and from 15 September to 15 December. The two largest political parties in Croatia are the Croatian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia.
Croatia has a three-tiered judicial system, made up of the Supreme Court, County courts, and Municipal courts. The Constitutional Court rules on matters regarding the Constitution. In addition there are misdemeanour courts, commercial courts and administrative courts. Law enforcement in Croatia is the responsibility of the Croatian police force, which is under the control of the Ministry of the Interior. In recent years, the force has been undergoing a reform with assistance from international agencies, including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) since its mission to Croatia began on 18 April 1996.
Croatia was first subdivided into counties in the Middle Ages. The divisions changed over time to reflect losses of territory to Ottoman conquest and subsequent liberation of the same territory, changes of political status of Dalmatia, Dubrovnik and Istria. Traditional division of the country into counties was abolished in the 1920s, when the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and subsequent Kingdom of Yugoslavia introduced oblasts and banovinas respectively.
Communist ruled Croatia, as a constituent part of post-WWII Yugoslavia, abolished earlier divisions and introduced municipalities, subdividing Croatia into approximately one hundred municipalities. Counties were reintroduced in 1992 legislation, significantly altered in terms of territory relative to the pre-1920s subdivisions: In 1918, the Transleithanian part of Croatia was divided into eight counties with their seats in Bjelovar, Gospić, Ogulin, Požega, Vukovar, Varaždin, Osijek and Zagreb, and the 1992 legislation established 14 counties in the same territory.
Since the counties were re-established in 1992, Croatia is divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, the latter having the authority and legal status of a county and a city at the same time. Borders of the counties changed in some instances since, with the latest revision taking place in 2006. The counties subdivide into 127 cities and 429 municipalities. Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) division of Croatia is performed in several tiers. NUTS 1 level places the entire country in a single unit, while there are three NUTS 2 regions. Those are Northwest Croatia, Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia and Adriatic Croatia. The latter encompasses all the counties along the Adriatic coast. The Northwest Croatia includes the city of Zagreb, Zagreb, Krapina-Zagorje, Varaždin, Koprivnica-Križevci and Međimurje counties, and the Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia includes the remaining areas—Bjelovar-Bilogora, Virovitica-Podravina, Požega-Slavonia, Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Vukovar-Syrmia, Karlovac and Sisak-Moslavina counties. Individual counties and the city of Zagreb also represent NUTS 3 level subdivision units in Croatia. The NUTS Local administrative unit divisions are two-tiered. LAU 1 divisions match the counties and the city of Zagreb in effect making those the same as NUTS 3 units, while LAU 2 subdivisions correspond to the cities and municipalities of Croatia.
|County||Seat||Area (km²)||Population at
|City of Zagreb||Zagreb||641||792,875|
Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 174 countries. As of 2009, Croatia maintains a network of 51 embassies, 24 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions abroad. Furthermore, there are 52 foreign embassies and 69 consulates in the Republic of Croatia in addition to offices of international organisations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Organization for Migration, OSCE, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), United Nations Development Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and UNICEF. In 2009, the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration employed 1,381 personnel and expended 648.2 million kuna (€86.4 million). Stated aims of Croatian foreign policy include enhancing relations with neighbouring countries, developing international co-operation and promotion of the Croatian economy and Croatia itself.
Since 2003, Croatian foreign policy has focused on achieving the strategic goal of becoming a member state of the European Union (EU). In December 2011, Croatia completed the EU accession negotiations and signed an EU accession treaty on 9 December 2011. Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013 marking the end of a process started in 2001 by signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement and Croatian application for the EU membership in 2003. A recurring obstacle to the negotiations was Croatia's ICTY co-operation record and Slovenian blocking of the negotiations because of Croatia–Slovenia border disputes. The latter was resolved through an Arbitration Agreement of 4 November 2009, approved by national parliaments and a referendum in Slovenia.
Another strategic Croatian foreign policy goal for the 2000s was NATO membership. Croatia was included in the Partnership for Peace in 2000, invited to NATO membership in 2008 and formally joined the alliance on 1 April 2009. Croatia became a member of the United Nations Security Council for the 2008–2009 term, assuming presidency in December 2008. The country is preparing to join the Schengen Area by 2015.
Croatian Armed Forces (CAF) consist of the Army, Navy and Air Force branches in addition to the Education and Training Command and Support Command. The CAF is headed by the General Staff, which reports to the Defence Minister, who in turn reports to the President of Croatia. According to the constitution, the President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and in case of immediate threat during wartime he issues orders directly to the General Staff.
Following the 1991–95 war defence spending and CAF size have been in constant decline. As of 2005 military spending was an estimated 2.39% of the country's GDP, which placed Croatia 64th in a ranking of all countries. Since 2005 the budget was kept below 2% of GDP, down from the record high of 11.1% in 1994. Traditionally relying on a large number of conscripts, CAF also went through a period of reforms focused on downsizing, restructuring and professionalisation in the years prior to Croatia's accession to NATO in April 2009. According to a presidential decree issued in 2006 the CAF is set to employ 18,100 active duty military personnel, 3,000 civilians and 2,000 voluntary conscripts between the ages of 18 and 30 in peacetime.
Compulsory conscription was abolished in January 2008. Until 2008 military service was compulsory for men at age 18 and conscripts served six-month tours of duty, reduced in 2001 from the earlier scheme of nine-month conscription tours. Conscientious objectors could instead opt for an eight-month civilian service.
As of April 2011[update] the Croatian military had 120 members stationed in foreign countries as part of United Nations-led international peacekeeping forces, including 95 serving as part of the UNDOF in the Golan Heights. As of 2011 an additional 350 troops serve as part of the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan and another 20 with the KFOR in Kosovo.
Croatia also has a significant military industry sector which exported around US$120 million worth of military equipment and armament in 2010. Croatian-made weapons and vehicles used by CAF include the standard sidearm HS2000 manufactured by HS Produkt and the M-84D battle tank designed by the Đuro Đaković factory. Uniforms and helmets worn by CAF soldiers are also locally produced and successfully marketed to other countries.
|The largest Croatian companies by turnover in 2010|
|3||Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP)||1,677||200.3|
Croatia has a high-income economy. International Monetary Fund data shows that Croatian nominal GDP stood at $63.842 billion, or $14,457 per capita, at the same time in 2011 while purchasing power parity GDP was $80.334 billion or $18,191 per capita. According to Eurostat data, Croatian PPS GDP per capita stood at 61% of the EU average in 2012.
Real GDP growth in 2007 was 6.0 per cent. The average net salary of a Croatian worker in March 2013 was 5,516 kuna (US$ 988) per month. As of March 2013, registered unemployment rate in Croatia was 20.9%.
In 2010, economic output was dominated by the service sector which accounted for 66% of GDP, followed by the industrial sector with 27.2% and agriculture accounting for 6.8% of GDP. According to 2004 data, 2.7% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, 32.8% by industry and 64.5% in services. The industrial sector is dominated by shipbuilding, food processing, pharmaceuticals, information technology, biochemical and timber industry. In 2010, Croatian exports were valued at 64.9 billion kuna (€8.65 billion) with 110.3 billion kuna (€14.7 billion) worth of imports. The largest trading partner is the European Union.
Privatization and the drive toward a market economy had barely begun under the new Croatian Government when war broke out in 1991. As a result of the war, the economic infrastructure sustained massive damage, particularly the revenue-rich tourism industry. From 1989 to 1993, the GDP fell 40.5%. The Croatian state still controls a significant part of the economy, with government expenditures accounting for as much as 40% of GDP. A backlogged judiciary system, combined with inefficient public administration, especially on issues of land ownership and corruption, are particular concerns. In 2011 the country has been ranked 66th by Transparency International with a Corruption Perceptions Index of 4.0. In June 2013, the national debt stood at 59.5% of the nation's GDP.
Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector and accounts for up to 20% of Croatian GDP. Annual tourist industry income for 2011 was estimated at €6.61 billion. Its positive effects are felt throughout the economy of Croatia in terms of increased business volume observed in retail business, processing industry orders and summer seasonal employment. The industry is considered an export business, because it significantly reduces the country's external trade imbalance. Since the conclusion of the Croatian War of Independence, the tourist industry has grown rapidly, recording a fourfold rise in tourist numbers, with more than 10 million tourists each year. The most numerous are tourists from Germany, Slovenia, Austria and the Czech Republic as well as Croatia itself. Length of a tourist stay in Croatia averages 4.9 days.
The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Opatija was the first holiday resort since the middle of the 19th century. By the 1890s, it became one of the most significant European health resorts. Later a large number of resorts sprang up along the coast and numerous islands, offering services ranging from mass tourism to catering and various niche markets, the most significant being nautical tourism, as there are numerous marinas with more than 16 thousand berths, cultural tourism relying on appeal of medieval coastal cities and numerous cultural events taking place during the summer. Inland areas offer mountain resorts, agrotourism and spas. Zagreb is also a significant tourist destination, rivalling major coastal cities and resorts.
Croatia has unpolluted marine areas reflected through numerous nature reserves and 116 Blue Flag beaches. Croatia is ranked as the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world. About 15% of these visitors (over one million per year) are involved with naturism, an industry for which Croatia is world famous. It was also the first European country to develop commercial naturist resorts.
The highlight of Croatia's recent infrastructure developments is its rapidly developed motorway network, largely built in the late 1990s and especially in the 2000s (decade). By September 2011, Croatia had completed more than 1,100 kilometres (680 miles) of motorways, connecting Zagreb to most other regions and following various European routes and four Pan-European corridors. The busiest motorways are the A1, connecting Zagreb to Split and the A3, passing east–west through northwest Croatia and Slavonia. A widespread network of state roads in Croatia acts as motorway feeder roads while connecting all major settlements in the country. The high quality and safety levels of the Croatian motorway network were tested and confirmed by several EuroTAP and EuroTest programs.
Croatia has an extensive rail network spanning 2,722 kilometres (1,691 miles), including 985 kilometres (612 miles) of electrified railways and 254 kilometres (158 miles) of double track railways. The most significant railways in Croatia are found within the Pan-European transport corridors Vb and X connecting Rijeka to Budapest and Ljubljana to Belgrade, both via Zagreb. All rail services are operated by Croatian Railways.
There are international airports in Zagreb, Zadar, Split, Dubrovnik, Rijeka, Osijek and Pula. As of January 2011, Croatia complies with International Civil Aviation Organization aviation safety standards and the Federal Aviation Administration upgraded it to Category 1 rating.
The busiest cargo seaport in Croatia is the Port of Rijeka and the busiest passenger ports are Split and Zadar. In addition to those, a large number of minor ports serve an extensive system of ferries connecting numerous islands and coastal cities in addition to ferry lines to several cities in Italy. The largest river port is Vukovar, located on the Danube, representing the nation's outlet to the Pan-European transport corridor VII.
There are 610 kilometres (380 miles) of crude oil pipelines in Croatia, connecting the Port of Rijeka oil terminal with refineries in Rijeka and Sisak, as well as several transhipment terminals. The system has a capacity of 20 million tonnes per year. The natural gas transportation system comprises 2,113 kilometres (1,313 miles) of trunk and regional natural gas pipelines, and more than 300 associated structures, connecting production rigs, the Okoli natural gas storage facility, 27 end-users and 37 distribution systems.
Croatian production of energy sources covers 85% of nationwide natural gas demand and 19% of oil demand. In 2008, 47.6% of Croatia's primary energy production structure comprised use of natural gas (47.7%), crude oil (18.0%), fuel wood (8.4%), hydro power (25.4%) and other renewable energy sources (0.5%). In 2009, net total electrical power production in Croatia reached 12,725 GWh and Croatia imported 28.5% of its electric power energy needs. The bulk of Croatian imports are supplied by the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, 50% owned by Hrvatska elektroprivreda, providing 15% of Croatia's electricity.
With its population of 4.28 million in 2011, Croatia ranks 125th by population in the world. Its population density stands at 75.9 inhabitants per square kilometre. The overall life expectancy in Croatia at birth was 78 years in 2012. The total fertility rate of 1.5 children per mother, is one of the lowest in the world. Since 1991, Croatia's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate. Since the late 1990s, there has been a positive net migration into Croatia, reaching a level of more than 7,000 net immigrants in 2006.
The Croatian Bureau of Statistics forecast that the population may shrink to 3.1 million by 2051, depending on actual birth rate and the level of net migration. The population of Croatia rose steadily from 2.1 million in 1857 until 1991, when it peaked at 4.7 million, with exception of censuses taken in 1921 and 1948, i.e. following two world wars. The natural growth rate of the population is currently negative with the demographic transition completed in the 1970s. In recent years, the Croatian government has been pressured each year to add 40% to work permit quotas for foreign workers. In accordance with its immigration policy, Croatia is trying to entice emigrants to return.
The population decrease was also a result of the Croatian War of Independence. During the war, large sections of the population were displaced and emigration increased. In 1991, in predominantly Serb areas, more than 400,000 Croats and other non-Serbs were either removed from their homes by the Croatian Serb forces or fled the violence. During the final days of the war in 1995, more than 120,000 Serbs, and perhaps as many as 200,000, fled the country before arrival of Croatian forces during Operation Storm. Within a decade following the end of the war, only 117,000 Serb refugees returned out of 300,000 displaced during the entire war. Most of Croatia's remaining Serbs never lived in areas occupied in the Croatian War of Independence. Serbs have been only partially re-settled in the regions they previously inhabited while some of the settlements previously inhabited by Serbs were settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly from Republika Srpska.
Croatia is inhabited mostly by Croats (90.4%) and is ethnically the most homogeneous of the six countries of former Yugoslavia. Minority groups include Serbs (4.4%), Bosniaks, Hungarians, Italians, Slovenes, Germans, Czechs, Romani people and others (5.9%). The main religions of Croatia are Roman Catholicism 86.28%, Eastern Orthodoxy 4.44%, Protestantism 0.34%, other Christianity 0.30%, and Islam 1.47%.
|Most populous cities of Croatia|
|Rank||City||County||Urban population||City-governed population|
|1||Zagreb||City of Zagreb||688,163||790,017|
|Source: 2011 Census|
Croatian is the official language of Croatia, and became the 24th official language of the European Union upon its accession in 2013. Minority languages are in official use in local government units where more than a third of population consists of national minorities or where local legislation defines so. Those languages are Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Ruthenian, Serbian and Slovakian.
According to the 2011 Census, 95.6% of citizens of Croatia declared Croatian as their native language, 1.2% declared Serbian as their native language, while no other language is represented in Croatia by more than 0.5% of native speakers among population of Croatia. Croatian is a South Slavic language. Most Croatian vocabulary is derived from the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. Croatian is written using the Latin alphabet. Croatian has three major dialects, with Shtokavian dialect used as the standard Croatian and Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects distinguished by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax.
From 1961 to 1991, the official language was Serbo-Croatian. Even during socialist rule, Croats often referred to their language as Croato-Serbian (instead of Serbo-Croatian) or as Croatian. Croatian and Serbian variants of the language were not officially recognised as different at the time, but referred to as the west and east version, and had different alphabets: the Latin alphabet and Serbian Cyrillic. Croatians are protective of their Croatian language from foreign influences, as the language was under constant change and threats imposed by previous rulers (i.e. Austrian German, Hungarian, Italian and Turkish words were changed and altered to "Slavic" looking/sounding ones). Efforts made to impose policies to alter Croatian into "Serbo-Croatian" or "South Slavic" language, met resistance from Croats in form of Croatian linguistic purism. Croatian replaced Latin as the official language of the Croatian government in the 19th century.
A 2009 survey revealed that 78% of Croatians claim knowledge of at least one foreign language. According to a survey ordered by the European commission in 2005, 49% of Croatians speak English as the second language, 34% speak German, and 14% speak Italian. French and Russian are spoken by 4% each, and 2% of Croatians speak Spanish. A substantial proportion of Slovenes (59%) have a certain level of knowledge of Croatian.
Literacy in Croatia stands at 99.2 per cent. A worldwide study about the quality of living in different countries published by Newsweek in August 2010 ranked the Croatian education system at 22nd, to share the position with Austria. Primary education in Croatia starts at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades. In 2007 a law was passed to increase free, noncompulsory education until 18 years of age. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school. Secondary education is provided by gymnasiums and vocational schools. As of 2010, there are 2,131 elementary schools and 713 schools providing various forms of secondary education. Primary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognised minorities in Croatia, where classes are held in Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Serbian and German languages.
There are 84 elementary level and 47 secondary level music and art schools, as well as 92 schools for disabled children and youth and 74 schools for adults. Nationwide leaving exams (Croatian: državna matura) were introduced for secondary education students in the school year 2009–2010. It comprises three compulsory subjects (Croatian language, mathematics, and a foreign language) and optional subjects and is a prerequisite for university education.
Croatia has eight universities, the University of Zagreb, University of Split, University of Rijeka, University of Osijek, University of Zadar, University of Dubrovnik, University of Pula and Dubrovnik International University. The University of Zadar, the first university in Croatia, was founded in 1396 and remained active until 1807, when other institutions of higher education took over until the foundation of the renewed University of Zadar in 2002. The University of Zagreb, founded in 1669, is the oldest continuously operating university in Southeast Europe. There are also 11 polytechnics and 23 higher education institutions, of which 19 are private. In total, there are 132 institutions of higher education in Croatia, attended by more than 145 thousand students.
There are 205 companies, government or education system institutions and non-profit organisations in Croatia pursuing scientific research and development of technology. Combined, they spent more than 3 billion kuna (€400 million) and employed 10,191 full-time research staff in 2008. Among the scientific institutes operating in Croatia, the largest is the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb is a learned society promoting language, culture, arts and science from its inception in 1866. Croatia has also produced inventors and two Croatians received the Nobel Prize.
Croatia has a universal health care system, whose roots can be traced back to the Hungarian-Croatian Parliament Act of 1891, providing a form of mandatory insurance of all factory workers and craftsmen. The population is covered by a basic health insurance plan provided by statute and optional insurance. In 2009, annual healthcare related expenditures reached 20.6 billion kuna (€2.75 billion). Healthcare expenditures comprise only 0.6% of private health insurance and public spending. In 2010, Croatia spent 6.9% of its GDP on healthcare.
There are hundreds of healthcare institutions in Croatia, including 79 hospitals and clinics with 23,967 beds. The hospitals and clinics care for more than 700 thousand patients per year and employ 5,205 medical doctors, including 3,929 specialists. There are 6,379 private practice offices, and a total of 41,271 health workers in the country. There are 63 emergency medical service units, responding to more than a million calls. The principal cause of death in 2008 was cardiovascular disease at 43.5% for men and 57.2% for women, followed by tumours, at 29.4% for men and 21.4% for women. In 2009 only 13 Croatians had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 6 had died from the disease. In 2008 it was estimated by the WHO that 27.4% of Croatians over age of 15 are smokers. According to 2003 WHO data, 22% of the Croatian adult population is obese.
Because of its geographic position, Croatia represents a blend of four different cultural spheres. It has been a crossroad of influences of the western culture and the east—ever since division of the Western Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire—as well as of the Mitteleuropa and the Mediterranean culture. The Illyrian movement was the most significant period of national cultural history, as the 19th-century period proved crucial in emancipation of the Croatian language and saw unprecedented developments in all fields of art and culture, giving rise to a number of historical figures.
The Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia is tasked with preserving the nation's cultural and natural heritage and overseeing its development. Further activities supporting development of culture are undertaken at local government level. The UNESCO inscribed seven sites in Croatia on the World Heritage List. The country is also rich with Intangible culture and holds ten of UNESCO's World's intangible culture masterpieces, surpassing all countries in Europe except Spain which possesses an equal number of the listed items. A global cultural contribution from Croatia is the necktie, derived from the cravat originally worn by the 17th-century Croatian mercenaries in France.
As of 2009, Croatia has 23 professional theatres, 14 professional children's theatres and 27 amateur theatres visited by more than two million viewers per year. The professional theatres employ 1,100 artists. There are 24 professional orchestras, ensembles and choirs in the country, attracting an annual attendance of 323 thousand. There are 117 cinemas with attendance exceeding 3.5 million. Croatia has 175 museums, visited by nearly 2.2 million people in 2009. Furthermore, there are 1,685 libraries in the country, containing more than 23.5 million volumes, and 15 archives.
In 2009, more than 7,200 books and brochures were published, along with 2,678 magazines and 314 newspapers. There are also 146 radio stations and 21 TV stations operating in the country. In past five years, film production in Croatia produced up to five feature films and 10 to 51 short films, with an additional 76 to 112 TV films. As of 2009, there are 784 amateur cultural and artistic associations and more than 10 thousand cultural, educational and artistic events held annually. The book publishing market is dominated by several major publishers and the industry's centrepiece event—Interliber exhibition held annually at Zagreb Fair.
Croatia has established a high level of human development and gender equality in terms of the Human Development Index. It promotes disability rights. Recognition of same-sex unions in Croatia has gradually improved over the past decade, culminating in registered civil unions in July 2014, granting same-sex couples equal inheritance rights, tax deductions and limited adoption rights. However, in December 2013 Croatians voted in favour of a constitutional referendum, backed by conservative groups, defining marriage as a "union of man and woman".
Arts and literature
Architecture in Croatia reflects influences of bordering nations. Austrian and Hungarian influence is visible in public spaces and buildings in the north and in the central regions, architecture found along coasts of Dalmatia and Istria exhibits Venetian influence. Large squares named after culture heroes, well-groomed parks, and pedestrian-only zones, are features of these orderly towns and cities, especially where large scale Baroque urban planning took place, for instance in Osijek (Tvrđa), Varaždin and Karlovac. Subsequent influence of the Art Nouveau was reflected in contemporary architecture. Along the coast, the architecture is Mediterranean with a strong Venetian and Renaissance influence in major urban areas exemplified in works of Giorgio da Sebenico and Niccolò Fiorentino such as the Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik. The oldest preserved examples of Croatian architecture are the 9th-century churches, with the largest and the most representative among them being Donatus of Zadar.
Besides the architecture encompassing the oldest artworks in Croatia, there is a long history of artists in Croatia reaching to the Middle Ages. In that period the stone portal of the Trogir Cathedral was made by Radovan, representing the most important monument of Romanesque sculpture in the Balkans. The Renaissance had the greatest impact on the Adriatic Sea coast since the remainder of Croatia was embroiled in the Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War. With the waning of the Ottoman Empire, art flourished during the Baroque and Rococo. The 19th and the 20th centuries brought about affirmation of numerous Croatian artisans, helped by several patrons of the arts such as bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer. Croatian artists of the period achieving worldwide renown were Vlaho Bukovac and Ivan Meštrović.
The Baška tablet, a stone inscribed with the glagolitic alphabet found on the Krk island and dated to 1100, is considered to be the oldest surviving prose in Croatian. The beginning of more vigorous development of Croatian literature is marked by the Renaissance and Marko Marulić. Besides Marulić, Renaissance playwright Marin Držić, Baroque poet Ivan Gundulić, Croatian national revival poet Ivan Mažuranić, novelist, playwright and poet August Šenoa, poet and writer Antun Gustav Matoš, poet Antun Branko Šimić, expressionist and realist writer Miroslav Krleža, poet Tin Ujević and novelist and short story writer Ivo Andrić are often cited as the greatest figures in Croatian literature.
The freedom of the press and the freedom of speech are guaranteed by the constitution of Croatia. Croatia ranked 62nd in the 2010 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders. The state-owned news agency HINA runs a wire service in Croatian and English on politics, economics, society and culture.
Nevertheless, despite the provisions fixed in the constitution, freedoms of press and speech in Croatia have been classified as partly free since 2000 by Freedom House, the independent nongovernmental organisation that monitors press freedom worldwide. Namely the country has been ranked 85th (on 196th countries), and the 2011 Freedom House report noted improvement of applicable legislation reflecting Croatia's accession to the EU, yet pointed out instances of politicians' attempts to hinder investigative journalism and influence news reports contents, difficulties regarding public access to information, and that most of print media market is controlled by German-owned Europapress Holding and Austrian-owned Styria Media Group. Amnesty International reports that in 2009 in Croatia there was an increase in the number of physical attacks and murders of journalists. The incidents were mainly perpetrated against journalists investigating war crimes and organised crime.
As of October 2011, there are nine nationwide free-to-air DVB-T television channels, with Croatian Radiotelevision (HRT), Nova TV and RTL Televizija operating two of the channels each, and the remaining three operated by the Croatian Olympic Committee, Kapital Net d.o.o. and Author d.o.o. companies. In addition there are 21 regional or local DVB-T television channels. The HRT is also broadcasting a satellite TV channel. In 2009, there were 146 radio stations and 21 TV stations in Croatia. Cable television and IPTV networks are gaining ground in the country, as the cable TV networks already serve 450 thousand people, 10% of the total population of the country.
There are 314 newspapers and 2,678 magazines published in Croatia. The print media market is dominated by Europapress Holding and Styria Media Group who publish their flagship dailies Jutarnji list, Večernji list and 24sata. Other influential newspapers are Novi list, Slobodna Dalmacija and state-owned Vjesnik. According to a 2006 survey, Jutarnji list is the most widely circulated daily newspaper, followed by Večernji list and 24sata.
Croatia's film industry is small and heavily subsidised by the government, mainly through grants approved by the Ministry of Culture with films often being co-produced by HRT. Pula Film Festival, the national film awards event held annually in Pula, is the most prestigious film event featuring national and international productions. The greatest accomplishment by Croatian filmmakers was achieved by Dušan Vukotić when he won the 1961 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film for Ersatz (Croatian: Surogat).
Croatian traditional cuisine varies from one region to another. Dalmatia and Istria draw upon culinary influences of Italian and other Mediterranean cuisines which prominently feature various seafood, cooked vegetables and pasta, as well as condiments such as olive oil and garlic. The continental cuisine is heavily influenced by Hungarian, Austrian and Turkish culinary styles. In that area, meats, freshwater fish and vegetable dishes are predominant.
There are two distinct wine-producing regions in Croatia. The continental region in the north-east of the country, especially Slavonia is capable of producing premium wines, particularly whites. Along the north coast, Istrian and Krk wines are similar to those produced in neighbouring Italy, while further south in Dalmatia, Mediterranean-style red wines are the norm. Annual production of wine exceeds 140 million litres. Croatia was almost exclusively a wine-consuming country up until the late 18th century when a more massive production and consumption of beer started, the annual consumption of beer in 2008 was 83.3 litres per capita which placed Croatia on a relatively high 15th place among the world's countries.
There are more than 400,000 active sportspeople in Croatia. Out of that number, 277,000 are members of sports associations and nearly 4,000 are members of chess and contract bridge associations. Association football is the most popular sport. The Croatian Football Federation (Croatian: Hrvatski nogometni savez), with more than 118,000 registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country. The Prva HNL football league attracts the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the country. In season 2010–11, it attracted 458,746 spectators.
Croatian athletes competing at international events since Croatian independence in 1991 won 34 Olympic medals, including ten gold medals—at the 2012 Summer Olympics in discus throw, trap shooting, and water polo; at the 1996 Summer Olympics and the 2004 Summer Olympics in handball, at the 2000 Summer Olympics in weightlifting and four gold medals in alpine skiing at the 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2006 Winter Olympics. In addition, Croatian athletes won 13 gold medals at world championships, including two in athletics at the World Championships in Athletics held in 2007 and 2009, one in handball at the 2003 World Men's Handball Championship, one in water polo at the 2007 World Aquatics Championships, one in rowing at the 2010 World Rowing Championships, six in alpine skiing at the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships held in 2003 and 2005 and two at the World Taekwondo Championships in 2011 and 2007. Croatian athletes also won the 2005 Davis Cup.
Croatia hosted several major sport competitions, including the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship, the 2007 World Table Tennis Championships, the 2000 World Rowing Championships, the 1987 Summer Universiade, the 1979 Mediterranean Games and several European Championships. The governing sports authority in the country is the Croatian Olympic Committee (Croatian: Hrvatski olimpijski odbor), founded on 10 September 1991 and recognised by the International Olympic Committee since 17 January 1992, in time to permit the Croatian athletes to appear at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France representing the newly independent nation for the first time at the Olympic Games.
|Olympic Games||Olympic medals|
|2002 Salt Lake City||3||1||0|
- "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- "Croatia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Croatia: Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita GDP".
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- Alemko Gluhak (1993). Hrvatski etimološki rječnik [Croatian Etymological Dictionary] (in Croatian). August Cesarec. ISBN 953-162-000-8.
- Marc L. Greenberg (April 1996). "The Role of Language in the Creation of Identity: Myths in Linguistics among the Peoples of the Former Yugoslavia" (PDF). University of Kansas. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Fučić, Branko (September 1971). "Najstariji hrvatski glagoljski natpisi" [The Oldest Croatian Glagolitic Inscriptions]. Slovo (in Croatian) (Old Church Slavonic Institute) 21: 227–254. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Mužić (2007), p. 27
- Mužić (2007), pp. 195–198
- Igor Salopek (December 2010). "Krapina Neanderthal Museum as a Well of Medical Information". Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica (Hrvatsko znanstveno društvo za povijest zdravstvene kulture) 8 (2): 197–202. ISSN 1334-4366. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Tihomila Težak-Gregl (April 2008). "Study of the Neolithic and Eneolithic as reflected in articles published over the 50 years of the journal Opuscula archaeologica". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog zavoda (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department) 30 (1): 93–122. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Jacqueline Balen (December 2005). "The Kostolac horizon at Vučedol". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog zavoda (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department) 29 (1): 25–40. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Tihomila Težak-Gregl (December 2003). "Prilog poznavanju neolitičkih obrednih predmeta u neolitiku sjeverne Hrvatske" [A Contribution to Understanding Neolithic Ritual Objects in the Northern Croatia Neolithic]. Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog zavoda (in Croatian) (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department) 27 (1): 43–48. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Hrvoje Potrebica; Marko Dizdar (July 2002). "Prilog poznavanju naseljenosti Vinkovaca i okolice u starijem željeznom dobu" [A Contribution to Understanding Continuous Habitation of Vinkovci and its Surroundings in the Early Iron Age]. Prilozi Instituta za arheologiju u Zagrebu (in Croatian) (Institut za arheologiju) 19 (1): 79–100. ISSN 1330-0644. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- John Wilkes (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
... in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros, famed for its marble. In traditional fashion they accepted the guidance of an oracle, ...
- John Wilkes (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
The third Greek colony known in this central sector of the Dalmatian coast was Issa, on the north side of the island Vis.
- Edward Gibbon; John Bagnell Bury; Daniel J. Boorstin (1995). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Modern Library. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-679-60148-7. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- J. B. Bury (1923). History of the later Roman empire from the death of Theodosius I. to the death of Justinian. Macmillan Publishers. p. 408. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Andrew Archibald Paton (1861). Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic. Trübner. pp. 218–219. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Emil Heršak; Boris Nikšić (September 2007). "Hrvatska etnogeneza: pregled komponentnih etapa i interpretacija (s naglaskom na euroazijske/nomadske sadržaje)" [Croatian Ethnogenesis: A Review of Component Stages and Interpretations (with Emphasis on Eurasian/Nomadic Elements)]. Migracijske i etničke teme (in Croatian) (Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies) 23 (3): 251–268. ISSN 1333-2546.
- Mužić (2007), pp. 249–293
- Mužić (2007), pp. 157–160
- Mužić (2007), pp. 169–170
- Antun Ivandija (April 1968). "Pokrštenje Hrvata prema najnovijim znanstvenim rezultatima" [Christianization of Croats according to the most recent scientific results]. Bogoslovska smotra (in Croatian) (University of Zagreb, Catholic Faculty of Theology) 37 (3–4): 440–444. ISSN 0352-3101.
- Vladimir Posavec (March 1998). "Povijesni zemljovidi i granice Hrvatske u Tomislavovo doba" [Historical maps and borders of Croatia in age of Tomislav]. Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest (in Croatian) 30 (1): 281–290. ISSN 0353-295X. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Lujo Margetić (January 1997). "Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae u doba Stjepana II." [Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae in age of Stjepan II]. Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest (in Croatian) 29 (1): 11–20. ISSN 0353-295X. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Ladislav Heka (October 2008). "Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije" [Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian) (Hrvatski institut za povijest – Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje) 8 (1): 152–173. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "Povijest saborovanja" [History of parliamentarism] (in Croatian). Sabor. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- Frucht 2005, p. 422–423
- Márta Font (July 2005). "Ugarsko Kraljevstvo i Hrvatska u srednjem vijeku" [Hungarian Kingdom and Croatia in the Middlea Ages]. Povijesni prilozi (in Croatian) (Croatian Institute of History) 28 (28): 7–22. ISSN 0351-9767. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Lane (1973), p. 409
- "Povijest Gradišćanskih Hrvatov" [History of Burgenland Croats] (in Croatian). Croatian Cultural Association in Burgenland. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- John R. Lampe; Marvin R. Jackson (1982). Balkan economic history, 1550–1950: from imperial borderlands to developing nations. Indiana University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-253-30368-4. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Adkins, pp. 359–362
- Harold Nicolson (2000). The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812–1822. Grove Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8021-3744-9. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Nikša Stančić (February 2009). "Hrvatski narodni preporod – ciljevi i ostvarenja" [Croatian National Revival – goals and achievements]. Cris: časopis Povijesnog društva Križevci (in Croatian) 10 (1): 6–17. ISSN 1332-2567. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- Ante Čuvalo (December 2008). "Josip Jelačić – Ban of Croatia". Review of Croatian History (Croatian Institute of History) 4 (1): 13–27. ISSN 1845-4380. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary". H-net.org. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Ladislav Heka (December 2007). "Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba u zrcalu tiska" [Croatian-Hungarian compromise in light of press clips]. Zbornik Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci (in Croatian) (University of Rijeka) 28 (2): 931–971. ISSN 1330-349X. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Branko Dubravica (January 2002). "Političko-teritorijalna podjela i opseg civilne Hrvatske u godinama sjedinjenja s vojnom Hrvatskom 1871–1886" [Political and territorial division and scope of civilian Croatia in the period of unification with the Croatian military frontier 1871–1886]. Politička misao (in Croatian) (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences) 38 (3): 159–172. ISSN 0032-3241. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Max Polatschek (1989). Franz Ferdinand: Europas verlorene Hoffnung (in German). Amalthea. p. 231. ISBN 978-3-85002-284-2. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Spencer Tucker; Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). World War I: encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 1286. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "Parlamentarni izbori u Brodskom kotaru 1923. godine" [Parliamentary Elections in the Brod District in 1932]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian) (Croatian Institute of History – Slavonia, Syrmium and Baranya history branch) 3 (1): 452–470. November 2003. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Zlatko Begonja (November 2009). "Ivan Pernar o hrvatsko-srpskim odnosima nakon atentata u Beogradu 1928. godine" [Ivan Pernar on Croatian-Serbian relations after 1928 Belgrade assassination]. Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru (in Croatian) (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts) (51): 203–218. ISSN 1330-0474. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Cvijeto Job (2002). Yugoslavia's ruin: the bloody lessons of nationalism, a patriot's warning. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7425-1784-4. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- Klemenčić, Žagar 2004, p. 121–123
- Klemenčić, Žagar 2004, p. 153–156
- Josip Kolanović (November 1996). "Holocaust in Croatia – Documentation and research perspectives". Arhivski vjesnik (Croatian State Archives) (39): 157–174. ISSN 0570-9008. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Richard S. Levy (2005). Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice and persecution. ABC-CLIO. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-1-85109-439-4. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Bogoljub Kočović (2005). Sahrana jednog mita: žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji [Burial of a Myth: World War II Victims in Yugoslavia] (in Serbian). Otkrovenje. ISBN 978-86-83353-39-2. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Midlarsky (2005), p. 131
- Philip J. Cohen; David Riesman (1996). Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-89096-760-7. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Philip J. Cohen; David Riesman (1996). Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 106–111. ISBN 978-0-89096-760-7. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Dragutin Pavličević, Povijest Hrvatske, Naklada Pavičić, Zagreb, 2007., ISBN 978-953-6308-71-2, str. 441. – 442.
- Dragutin Pavličević (2007). Povijest Hrvatske. Naklada Pavičić. pp. 441–442. ISBN 978-953-6308-71-2.
- Matea Vipotnik (22 June 2011). "Josipović: Antifašizam je duhovni otac Domovinskog rata" [Josipović: Anti-Fascism is a Spiritual Forerunner of the Croatian War of Independence]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Karakaš Obradov Marica (December 2008). "Saveznički zračni napadi na Split i okolicu i djelovanje Narodne zaštite u Splitu tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata" [Allied aerial attacks on Split and its surrounding and Civil Guard activity in Split during the World War II]. Historijski zbornik (in Croatian) (Društvo za hrvatsku povjesnicu) 61 (2): 323–349. ISSN 0351-2193. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- C.W. Bracewell, John R. Lampe (2012). "History of Croatia, World War II". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Marko Maurović (May 2004). "Josip protiv Josifa" [Josip vs. Iosif]. Pro tempore – časopis studenata povijesti (in Croatian) (Klub studenata povijesti ISHA) (1): 73–83. ISSN 1334-8302. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Predsjednik Sabora Luka Bebić na obilježavanju 64. obljetnice pobjede nad fašizmom i 65. obljetnice trećeg zasjedanja ZAVNOH-a u Topuskom" [Speaker of the Parliament, Luka Bebić, at celebration of the 64th anniversary of the victory over fascism and the 65th anniversary of the 3rd session of the ZAVNOH session in Topusko] (in Croatian). Sabor. 9 May 2009. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Ivica Šute (April 1999). "Deklaracija o nazivu i položaju hrvatskog književnog jezika – Građa za povijest Deklaracije" [Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language – Declaration History Articles]. Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest (in Croatian) 31 (1): 317–318. ISSN 0353-295X.
- Vlado Vurušić (6 August 2009). "Heroina Hrvatskog proljeća" [Heroine of the Croatian Spring]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Roland Rich (1993). "Recognition of States: The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union". European Journal of International Law 4 (1): 36–65. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Frucht 2005, p. 433
- "Leaders of a Republic In Yugoslavia Resign". The New York Times. Reuters. 12 January 1989. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- Davor Pauković (1 June 2008). "Posljednji kongres Saveza komunista Jugoslavije: uzroci, tijek i posljedice raspada" [Last Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia: Causes, Consequences and Course of Dissolution] (PDF). Časopis za suvremenu povijest (in Croatian) (Centar za politološka istraživanja) 1 (1): 21–33. ISSN 1847-2397. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Branka Magas (13 December 1999). "Obituary: Franjo Tudjman". The Independent. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Chuck Sudetic (2 October 1990). "Croatia's Serbs Declare Their Autonomy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Routledge. 1998. pp. 272–278. ISBN 978-1-85743-058-5. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
- Chuck Sudetic (26 June 1991). "2 Yugoslav States Vote Independence To Press Demands". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- "Ceremonial session of the Croatian Parliament on the occasion of the Day of Independence of the Republic of Croatia". Official web site of the Croatian Parliament. Sabor. 7 October 2004. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Chuck Sudetic (4 November 1991). "Army Rushes to Take a Croatian Town". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Croatia Clashes Rise; Mediators Pessimistic". The New York Times. 19 December 1991. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Charles T. Powers (1 August 1991). "Serbian Forces Press Fight for Major Chunk of Croatia". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Stephen Kinzer (24 December 1991). "Slovenia and Croatia Get Bonn's Nod". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Paul L. Montgomery (23 May 1992). "3 Ex-Yugoslav Republics Are Accepted Into U.N.". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Dean E. Murphy (8 August 1995). "Croats Declare Victory, End Blitz". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Chris Hedges (16 January 1998). "An Ethnic Morass Is Returned to Croatia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- "2010 – Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia" (PDF). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Mate Matas (18 December 2006). "Raširenost krša u Hrvatskoj" [Presence of Karst in Croatia]. geografija.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "The best national parks of Europe". BBC. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Jasminka Radović; Kristijan Čivić; Ramona Topić, eds. (2006). Biodiversity of Croatia (PDF). State Institute for Nature Protection, Ministry of Culture (Croatia). ISBN 953-7169-20-0. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Venue". 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; Conservatives Win in Croatia". The New York Times. 9 May 1990. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Croatia country profile". BBC News. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Political Structure". Government of Croatia. 6 May 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Tomasz Giaro (2006). Modernisierung durch Transfer im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert Von Tomasz Giaro (in German). Vittorio Klostermann. ISBN 978-3-465-03489-6. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "Overview of EU – Croatia relations". Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Croatia. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Ivo Josipović – biography". Office of the President of the Republic of Croatia. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Members of the Government". Government of Croatia. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Marinela Vidić-Ivoš (23 December 2011). "Premijer Zoran Milanović i ministri položili prisegu kao članovi Vlade" [Prime minister Zoran Milanović and ministers sworn in as members of the government]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- "About the Parliament". Sabor. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Members of the 6th Parliament". Sabor. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Ustavne odredbe" [Provisions of the Constitution] (in Croatian). Croatian Supreme Court. 21 May 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "STATUS REPORT No.16 ON CROATIA'S PROGRESS IN MEETING INTERNATIONAL COMMITMENTS SINCE NOVEMBER 2004" (PDF). Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 7 July 2005. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Oleg Mandić (1952). "O nekim pitanjima društvenog uređenja Hrvatske u srednjem vijeku" [On some issues of social system of Croatia in the Middle Ages] (PDF). Historijski zbornik (in Croatian) (Školska knjiga) 5 (1–2): 131–138. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Frucht 2005, pp. 429–429
- Biondich 2000, p. 11
- "Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne novine (in Croatian). 30 December 1992. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne novine (in Croatian). 28 July 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Nacionalno izviješće Hrvatska" [Croatia National Report] (PDF) (in Croatian). Council of Europe. January 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Drago Pilsel (5 May 2011). "S kojim državama nemamo diplomatske odnose?" [Which countries do we have no diplomatic relations with?] (in Croatian). t-portal. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Diplomatic Missions and Consular Offices to Croatia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Izviješće o obavljenoj reviziji – Ministarstvo vanjskih poslova i europskih integracija" [Audit Report – Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration] (PDF) (in Croatian). State Audit Office (Croatia). August 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- "Foreign Policy Aims". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- Eduard Šoštarić (17 October 2005). "Mesićeva podrška UN-u blokira ulazak Hrvatske u NATO" [Mesić's support to the UN blocks Croatian NATO accession] (in Croatia). Nacional (weekly). Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Izvješća o aktivnostima saborskih dužnosnika – rujan 2005: Odbor za parlamentarnu suradnju i odnose s javnošću Skupštine Zapadnoeuropske unije posjetio Hrvatski sabor" [Report on activities of Parliament officials – September 2005: Western European Union parliamentary cooperation and public relations committee visits Croatian Parliament] (in Croatian). Sabor. 26 September 2005. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "EU closes accession negotiations with Croatia". European Commission. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Croatia signs EU accession treaty". European Union. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Stephen Castle (10 June 2011). "Croatia Given Conditional Approval to Join E.U. in 2013". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "EU stalls over talks with Croatia". BBC News. 10 March 2005. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Slovenia unblocks Croatian EU bid". BBC News. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Slovenians Seem to Favor Arbitration in Border Dispute With Croatia". The New York Times. Reuters. 6 June 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- Steven Lee Myers (5 April 2008). "Bush Champions Expansive Mission for NATO". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Nato welcomes Albania and Croatia". BBC News. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Membership of the Republic of Croatia in the UN Security Council 2008–2009". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- Stojan de Prato (4 February 2011). "Karamarko: Granični nadzor prema EU ukidamo 2015." [Karamarko: Border control towards the EU shall be abolished in 2015]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- "Chain of Command in the CAF". Croatian Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Milan Jelovac (23 January 2001). "Vojni rok u Hrvatskoj kraći, nego drugdje u Europi i NATO-u". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Broj pripadnika OSRH u mirovnim misijama UN-a" (in Croatian). Croatian Ministry of Defence. 16 April 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Hrvatska šalje još vojnika u Afganistan". eZadar (in Croatian). 8 December 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Kosorica u službenom posjetu Kosovu". Index.hr (in Croatian). 24 August 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Franičević, Mile (6 March 2011). "Hrvatski izvoz oružja i opreme lani narastao na 650 milijuna kuna". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe" [500 largest Central European companies] (in Croatian). Deloitte. 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Rang lista 500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe" [Ranking of the 500 Largest Central European Companies] (PDF) (in Croatian). Deloitte. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "World Bank Country Classifications 2008". World Bank. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Real GDP growth rate". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
- "Republic Of Croatia – Croatian Bureau Of Statistics". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Prvi rezultati". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- International Financial Statistics, IMF, May 2011
- "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. October 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- "Foreign Trade in Goods of the Republic of Croatia, 2010 Final Data". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Background Note: Croatia". United States Department of State. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
- Simon Rogers; Claire Provost (1 December 2011). "Corruption index 2011 from Transparency International: find out how countries compare". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Croatia National Debt on Country Economy". countryeconomy.com. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Tomislav Pili; Davor Verković (1 October 2011). "Iako čini gotovo petinu BDP-a, i dalje niskoprofitabilna grana domaće privrede" [Even though it comprises nearly a fifth of the GDP, it is still a low-profit branch of the national economy]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Turistički prihod porast će prvi put nakon 2008." [Tourist income to rise for the first time since 2008]. t-portal.hr (in Croatian). T-Hrvatski Telekom. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "History of Opatija". Opatija Tourist Board. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Activities and attractions". Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Croatia". Foundation for Environmental Education. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer". October 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- "Croatian highlights, Croatia". Euro-poi.com. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Tanja Poletan Jugović (11 April 2006). "The integration of the Republic of Croatia into the Pan-European transport corridor network". Pomorstvo (University of Rijeka, Faculty of Maritime Studies) 20 (1): 49–65. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- "Odluka o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste" [Decision on classification of public roads as motorways]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 25 July 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- "Odluka o izmjenama i dopunama odluke o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste" [Decision on amendments and additions to the Decision on classification of public roads as motorways]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 30 January 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- "Traffic counting on the roadways of Croatia in 2009 – digest" (PDF). Hrvatske ceste. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- "EuroTest". Eurotestmobility.com. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- "Brinje Tunnel Best European Tunnel". Javno.com. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- Tomislav Pili (10 May 2011). "Skuplje korištenje pruga uništava HŽ" [More Expensive Railway Fees Ruin Croatian Railways]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "Air transport". Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "FAA Raises Safety Rating for Croatia". Federal Aviation Administration. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- "Riječka luka –jadranski "prolaz" prema Europi" [The Port of Rijeka – Adriatic "gateway" to Europe] (in Croatian). World Bank. 3 March 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Luke" [Ports] (in Croatian). Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "Plovidbeni red za 2011. godinu" [Sailing Schedule for Year 2011] (in Croatian). Agencija za obalni linijski pomorski promet. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "The JANAF system". Jadranski naftovod. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Transportni sustav" [Transport system] (in Croatian). Plinacro. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Croatia, Slovenia's nuclear plant safe: Croatian president". EU Business. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "WHO Life Expectancy at birth". World Health Organization. 2012. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
- "U Hrvatskoj dvostruko više doseljenika" [Twice as many immigrants in Croatia]. Limun.hr. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Projekcija stanovništva Republike Hrvatske 2004. – 2051." [Projection of Population of the Republic of Croatia 2004–2051] (PDF) (in Croatian). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Snježana Mrđen; Mladen Friganović (June 1998). "The demographic situation in Croatia". Geoadria (Hrvatsko geografsko društvo – Zadar) 3 (1): 29–56. ISSN 1331-2294.
- "Traži se 40% više kvota za strane radnike". Poslovni dnevnik. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Nick Vidak (2008). "The Policy of Immigration in Croatia". Politička misao: Croatian Political Science Review (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Science) 35 (5): 57–75. ISSN 0032-3241. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
- "Summary of judgement for Milan Martić". United Nations. 12 June 2007. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- Steven Erlanger (16 January 2000). "For Serbs in Croatia, a Pledge Unkept". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Matt Prodger (5 August 2005). "Evicted Serbs remember Storm". BBC News. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "Savez udruga Hrvata iz BiH izabrao novo čelništvo" [Union of associations of Bosnia and Herzegovina Croats elects new leadership] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 28 June 2003. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "29 06 2010 – Benkovac" (in Croatian). Office of the President of Croatia. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Stanovništvo Prema Narodnosti Po Gradovima/Općinama, Popis 2011." [Population by Nationality by City/Municipality, 2011 Census] (in Croatian). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Stanovništvo Prema Vjeri, Popisi 2001. i 2011." [Population by Religion, 2001 and 2011 Censuses] (in Croatian). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" [Constitution of the Republic of Croatia]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 9 July 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Sandra Veljković; Stojan de Prato (5 November 2011). "Hrvatski postaje 24. službeni jezik Europske unije" [Croatian Becomes the 24th Official Language of the European Union]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "Izviješće o provođenju ustavnog zakona o pravima nacionalnih manjina i utrošku sredstava osiguranih u državnom proračunu Republike Hrvatske za 2007. godinu za potrebe nacionalnih manjina" [Report on Implementation of Constitutional Act on National Minority Rights and Expenditure of Funds Appropriated by the 2007 State Budget for Use by the National Minorities] (in Croatian). Sabor. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "STANOVNIŠTVO PREMA MATERINSKOM JEZIKU PO GRADOVIMA/OPĆINAMA, POPIS 2011." [Population by mother tongue, by city/municipality, 2011 census] (in Croatian). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Organska podloga hrvatskog jezika" [Organic Base of the Croatian Language] (in Croatian). Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Mate Kapović (2009). "Položaj hrvatskoga jezika u svijetu danas" [Position of Croatian Language in the World Today]. Kolo (in Croatian) (Matica hrvatska) (1–2). ISSN 1331-0992. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- Branka Tafra (February 2007). "Značenje narodnoga preporoda za hrvatski jezik" [Significance of the National Revival for Croatian Language]. Croatica et Slavica Iadertina (in Croatian) 2: 43–55. ISSN 1845-6839. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Istraživanje: Tri posto visokoobrazovanih ne zna niti jedan strani jezik, Hrvati uglavnom znaju engleski" [Survey: Three per cent of higher educated people can not speak any foreign languages, Croats mostly speak English] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 5 April 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "Europeans and their languages – European commission special barometer FEB2006" (PDF). European Commission. February 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "STANOVNIŠTVO STARO 10 I VIŠE GODINA PREMA SPOLU, A NEPISMENI I PREMA STAROSTI, POPIS 2011." [POPULATION AGED 10 AND ABOVE BY SEX, THE ILLITERATE BY AGE TOO, CENSUS 2011] (in Croatian). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Newsweek study of Health, Education, Economy and Politics ranks the globe's top nations". Newsweek. 15 August 2010. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- "Državna matura" (in Croatian). Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (Croatia). Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "O nama" [About us] (in Croatian). University of Zadar. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "University of Zagreb 1699–2005". University of Zagreb. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "60. rođendan Instituta Ruđer Bošković: Svijetu je dao ciklotron, spojeve i novi katalizator" [The 60th Anniversary of the Ruđer Bošković Institute: It Presented the World with a Cyclotron, Compounds and a New Catalyst]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 9 June 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "The Founding of the Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- Siniša Zrinščak (February 2003). "Socijalna politika u kontekstu korjenite društvene transformacije postkomunističkih zemalja" [Social Policy in the Context of Thorough Social Transformation of Post-Communist Countries]. Revija za socijalnu politiku (in Croatian) 10 (2): 135–159. doi:10.3935/rsp.v10i2.124. ISSN 1330-2965. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- Marijana Matković (27 September 2011). "Ulaskom u EU Hrvatska će imati najveću potrošnju za zdravstvo" [After the EU accession Croatia will have the maximum healthcare spending]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Svjetska banka podržava gospodarski oporavak Hrvatske" [World Bank Supports Economic Recovery of Croatia] (in Croatian). World Bank. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Croatia". World Health Organization. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- Marija Crnjak (10 January 2008). "U Hrvatskoj se puši manje nego u EU" [Fewer smokers in Croatia than in the EU] (in Croatian). Poslovni dnevnik. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Croatia". World Health Organization. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Trakošćan" (in Croatian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "Culture and History". Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "Djelokrug" [Scope of authority] (in Croatian). Ministry of Culture (Croatia). Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "World Heritage Sites in Croatia". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "Intangible Heritage Lists". UNESCO. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- Eric P. Nash (30 July 1995). "STYLE; Dressed to Kill". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- Vladimir Huzjan (July 2008). "Pokušaj otkrivanja nastanka i razvoja kravate kao riječi i odjevnoga predmeta" [The origin and development of the tie (kravata) as a word and as a garment]. Povijesni prilozi (in Croatian) (Croatian Institute of History) 34 (34): 103–120. ISSN 0351-9767. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Adriana Piteša (10 November 2010). "Interliber: Nobelovci se prodaju za 20, bestseleri za 50, remek-djela za 100 kuna" [Interliber: Nobel Laureates Sold for 20, Bestsellers for 50, Masterpieces for 100 Kuna]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Human Development Report 2010 Table 4 Gender Inequality Index" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "Conference on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Croatia, with regard to the persons with intellectual disabilities". European Union. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "Croatia passes civil partnerships law". PinkNews. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Radosavljević, Zoran (1 December 2013). "Croats set constitutional bar to same-sex marriage". Reuters.com. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Stephen Clissold; Henry Clifford Darby (1968). A short history of Yugoslavia from early times to 1966. CUP Archive. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-0-521-09531-0. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
- MacGregor, Sandra (17 June 2013). "Varaždin: Croatia's 'little Vienna'". Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Najljepši gradovi Sjeverne Hrvatske – Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin" [The Most Beautiful Cities of the Northern Croatia – Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 14 August 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Darja Radović Mahečić (2006). "Sekvenca secesije – arhitekt Lav Kalda" [Sequence of the Art Nouveau – Architect Lav Kalda] (PDF). Radovi Instituta za povijest umjetnosti (in Croatian) (Institute of Art History (Croatia)) 30: 241–264. ISSN 0350-3437. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "CROATIAN ART HISTORY – OVERVIEW OF PREHISTORY". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Church of Saint Donat". Zadar Tourist Board. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Pavao Nujić (September 2011). "Josip Juraj Strossmayer – Rođeni Osječanin" [Josip Juraj Strossmayer – Native of Osijek]. Essehist (in Croatian) (University of Osijek – Faculty of Philosophy) 2: 70–73. ISSN 1847-6236. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "The Baška tablet". Island of Krk Tourist Board. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Hrvatska književnost u 270.000 redaka" [Croatian Literature in 270,000 Lines] (in Croatian). Miroslav Krleža Lexicographical Institute. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Robert D. Kaplan (18 April 1993). "A Reader's Guide to the Balkans". The New York Times.
- Darko Tomorad (July 2002). "Marina Mučalo: Radio in Croatia, book review". Politička misao (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences) 38 (5): 150–152. ISSN 0032-3241.
- Benfield, Richard W. "Croatia". In Quick, Amanda C. World Press Encyclopedia 1 (2 ed.). Detroit: Gale. ISBN 0-7876-5583-X. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Press Freedom Index 2010". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "About Hina". HINA. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Global Press Freedom Rankings" (PDF). Freedom House. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Croatia". Freedom House. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Amnesty International report 2009". Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Popis programa digitalne televizije" [List of Digital Television Programmes] (in Croatian). Odašiljači i veze. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "HRT broadcasting via satellite". Croatian Radiotelevision. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Sandra Babić (15 January 2007). "Prva Internet televizija u Hrvatskoj" [The First Internet Television in Croatia] (in Croatian). Lider. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Merita Arslani (6 November 2010). "Već je 450 tisuća Hrvata prešlo na kabelsku i gleda 200 TV programa" [450 thousand Croats already switched to cable, watching 200 TV channels]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Print Products". Europapress Holding. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Daily papers". Styria Media Group. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Jutarnji najčitaniji dnevni list u Hrvatskoj" [Jutarnji [list] is the most read daily newspaper in Croatia]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 15 May 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Adriana Piteša (12 September 2006). "Ministarstvo financira rekordan broj filmova" [Ministry [of Culture] funding a record number of films]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Potpora hrvatskim filmovima i koprodukcijama" [Supporting Croatian Films and Co-Productions] (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Vedran Jerbić (12 July 2011). "Trierova trijumfalna apokalipsa" [Trier's Triumphant Apocalypse]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Božidar Trkulja (29 May 2011). ""Surogat" napunio pola stoljeća" ["Ersatz" celebrates half a century]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Gastronomy and enology". Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Skenderović, Robert (2002). "Kako je pivo došlo u Hrvatsku". Hrvatska revija (in Croatian). Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "2008 Per-Capita Beer Consumption by Country". Kirin Institute of Food and Lifestyle Report Vol. 22. Kirin Brewery Company. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Biserka Perman (May 2011). "Is sports system fair?". JAHR (University of Rijeka) 2 (3): 159–171. ISSN 1847-6376. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "About Croatian Football Federation". Croatian Football Federation. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Evo vam Lige 16: Na utakmicama HNL-a prosječno 1911" [There's league 16: Average attendance at HNL matches stands at 1911] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Olympic medalists". Croatian Olympic Committee. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- "Croatian Olympic Committee". hoo.hr. Croatian Olympic Committee. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- "Croatia". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Roy Adkins; Lesley Adkins (2008). The War for All the Oceans. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-311392-8. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Damir Agičić; Dragutin Feletar; AnitaFilipčić; Tomislav Jelić; Zoran Stiperski (2000). Povijest i zemljopis Hrvatske: priručnik za hrvatske manjinske škole [History and Geography of Croatia: Minority School Manual] (in Croatian). ISBN 978-953-6235-40-7. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Ivo Banac (1984). The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9493-2. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Mark Biondich (2000). Stjepan Radić, the Croat Peasant Party, and the politics of mass mobilization, 1904–1928. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-8294-7. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Peterjon Cresswell (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia (First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- Sharon Fisher (2006). Political change in post-Communist Slovakia and Croatia: from nationalist to Europeanist. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7286-6. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Joerg Forbrig; Pavol Demeš (2007). Reclaiming democracy: civil society and electoral change in central and eastern Europe. The German Marshall Fund of the United States. ISBN 978-80-969639-0-4. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Richard C. Frucht (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Mirjana Kasapović, ed. (2001). HRVATSKA POLITIKA 1990.-2000. [Croatian Politics 1990–2000] (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Science. ISBN 978-953-6457-08-3. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Matjaž Klemenčič; Mitja Žagar (2004). The former Yugoslavia's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-294-3. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Frederic Chapin Lane (1973). Venice, a Maritime Republic. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-1460-0. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Manus I. Midlarsky (20 October 2005). The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century (First ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-44539-9. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Branka Magaš (2007). Croatia Through History: The Making of a European State. Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-775-9. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Ivan Mužić (2007). Hrvatska povijest devetoga stoljeća [Croatian Ninth Century History] (PDF) (in Croatian). Naklada Bošković. ISBN 978-953-263-034-3. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
|Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Official website
- Croatia entry at The World Factbook
- Croatia from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Croatia at DMOZ
- Croatia profile from the BBC News
- Wikimedia Atlas of Croatia
- Geographic data related to Croatia at OpenStreetMap
- Key Development Forecasts for Croatia from International Futures
- Croatia – Land and People
|Italy||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Adriatic Sea||Adriatic Sea||Montenegro|