Hsinchu County (Chinese: 新竹縣; pinyin: Xīnzhú Xiàn; Wade–Giles: Hsin1-chu2 Hsien4) is a county in north-western Taiwan. The population of the county is mainly Hakka; there is a Taiwanese aboriginal minority in the southeastern part of the county. Zhubei is the capital of Hsinchu, where the government office and county office is located. Hsinchu is where most of the industrial factory and office of computer related companies are located, and is often called the Hsinchu Technology Zone (Chinese: 新竹科學園區; pinyin: Xīnzhú kēxuéyuán qū; Wade–Giles: Hsin1-chu2 K'o1-hsüeh2-yüan2 Ch'ü1).
Before Han people migrated to Hsinchu, the area was originally called Chukung, the homeland of Dukas Pingpu, Saisha and Taiya tribes. Fukienese and Hakkanese people came since the Ming Dynasty era. They began to cultivate the land from the plain area near the sea towards the river valleys and hills. In the late 19th century, Fukiense people dominated the coastal plain area, forcing the Saisha and Taiya tribes to move to Jianshi and Wufeng area, while the Hakkanese and Dukas Pingpu tribes settled together in the river valleys and hills area.