Hsiung Feng IIE
The Hsiung Feng IIE (HF-2E) (雄風二E, "Brave Wind IIE") is an advanced surface-to-surface cruise missile system developed by the Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology (CSIST) in Taiwan and based upon the earlier HF-2 anti-ship missile.
According to Taiwan Defense Review (TDR), the HF-2E land attack cruise missile is not a derivative of the Hsiung Feng 2 HF-2 anti-ship missile as it is often incorrectly reported. The use of the "HF-2E" designation is the primary cause of this confusion and was intentional misinformation done to divert attention away from the true nature of the project, which is that of a long range offensive cruise missile. The HF-2E is actually a completely different design and is said to serve a similar function in Taiwan's military as the US Navy Tomahawk (RGM-109) cruise missile. Its launch weight is reported to be in the 3,300-3,500 lbs range, including its solid rocket booster.
It is essentially a tactical land attack cruise missile designed for use against military target sets, particularly air-defense fire units and command-and-control facilities and its relatively small warhead size and the rather limited number of missiles planned for procurement clearly suggest that this is not a "first strike" weapon.
The project was first announced in 2001. Following several test firings in 2004 and early 2005 at the Jiu Peng Missile Range in southeastern Taiwan, the baseline HF-2E (Block I) has completed its operational evaluation (OPEVAL) in 2005, the missile flew a low-altitude circuit off Taiwan's southeastern coastline, between Pingtung and Lanyu Island. An improved HF-2E missile was reportedly tested by CSIST at Jui Peng Missile Range on February 2, 2007.
On 10 January 2006, Jane's Defense Weekly reported that Taiwan has built three prototypes of the HF-2E, and plans to build up to 50 of the missiles by 2010, and between 500 to 1000 missiles after 2010. The missiles have a range of over 700 km and could threaten major Chinese cities such as Shanghai. Jane's claimed that the HF-2E could reach ranges of up to 2000 km when equipped with more powerful engines from the US, although the US refuses to provide such technology to Taiwan due to concerns over the Missile Technology Control Regime. This has resulted in Taiwan's high tech industries and government developing their own indigenous Taiwanese high performance engines.
The baseline HF-2E Block I land attack cruise missile (LACM) is said to be powered by an indigenously-developed Taiwanese turbofan engine believed to be rated in the 800 lbf (3.6 kN) thrust range and developed by CSIST partially based on technology and experience from the Microturbo 078 turbojet engine used on the Hsiung Feng 2 (HF-2) anti-ship cruise missiles. When equipped with a standard unitary high-explosive 1,000-lb-class warhead, it is said to have a maximum range of 700 km. Other types of warhead are said to be in development, such as cluster submunitions and a hard target penetrator warhead. TDR also reported that through modification of the existing engine and combined with the redesign and reduction of the missile's control and electronic systems, CSIST was able to free-up enough internal space/weight in the missile to allow it to carry additional fuel and extend its range to over 2,000km, although a Defense News report incorrectly claimed the other version was only an 800km range missile. The ultimate objective is to develop a missile that has an objective range of over 5,000km, using a technologically advanced Taiwanese power plant with superior fuel efficiency and mission endurance, and possibly a more advanced and lighter miniaturized warhead.
The HF-2E Block I missile uses inertial guidance with Global Positioning System (GPS) and TERCOM updates. For terminal guidance, it uses infrared homing (Imaging infrared) with an autonomous digital target recognition system. The IIR terminal seeker is used for target acquisition and to positively identify an optimal aim point. The target image is then compared against digitized files in the memory of the on-board guidance computer (DSMAC terminal guidance). The HF-2E block I missile's cruising speed is high subsonic, typically between Mach 0.75-0.85 range. When the missile approaches hostile territory, it would descend to an altitude of about 15-30m. On its final approach to its target, the missile would climb-up to avoid any physical barriers and to allow its IIR seeker to acquire the target and identify an optimal aim point before plunging down onto the designated impact point. The report in Taiwan Defense Review, credited the HF-2E block I missile with a pre-terminal accuracy of around 15m.
HF-2E missile will primarily be deployed operationally in ground-mobile launchers. The launcher vehicle will carry the HF-2E missiles in protective aluminum box launchers, with wings and control fins retracted, conceptually similar to the trailer-mounted mobile launchers for Tien Kung Sky Bow series surface-to-air missiles and HF-2 coastal defense missiles. The launchers will normally be based in hardened shelters at military installations, with deployment to remote, pre-surveyed launch sites during alert situations.
The low-rate production of the Block I missile was to have started in 7/2005, using funds originally allocated for its R&D, at least five missiles were built. The unit cost per missile was estimated to be at US$3.08 million (2003 US$ dollar value). Another report made in 2006, claimed that three batteries comprising twenty-four mobile launchers and forty-eight missiles were in the final stages of testing and may be fielded within two years.
HF-2E is currently in low volume production in the Project ChiChun (戟隼, jǐ zhǔn, lance hawk). A Taipei Times' news report claimed that President Ma Ying Jeou ordered the production of over 500 to 1000 HF-2E missiles in 2008. Now approved and cleared to enter full volume/serial production in 2011.
- Primary Function: Land attack cruise missile
- Power Plant: Solid propellant rocket booster, turbojet or turbofan engine for sustained cruise flight.
- Range: 2000 km (eventual goal of over 5000 km with a new Taiwanese designed and built turbo fan engine)
- Top Speed: 0.85 Mach
- Guidance: INS and commercial GPS with in-flight waypoints and corrected by digital maps/terrain matching and forward-looking imaging infrared (IIR) seeker with autonomous target recognition for terminal guidance.
- Launch Weight: 3,000-3,500 lbs includes solid rocket booster
- Precision: Within 10 m
- Warhead: 200 kg
- Date deployed: Unknown - approved for official low rate production as of 1/2008
- Fu S. Mei. "Towards a Counter-Deterrent Capability Part I," Taiwan Defense Review, June 21, 2001.
- Fu S. Mei. "HF-2E Cruises Along," Taiwan Defense Review, March 27, 2007.
- Minnick, Wendell. "Taiwan Proceeds on LACM," Defense News, September 15, 2008.
- Stokes, Mark A. "Taiwan's Security - Beyond the Special Budget," American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, March 2006.
- Hazeldine, Richard. "US Trying to block Taiwan missiles: 'Defense News'," TaipeiTimes, October 29, 2008.