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Hu Qili (simplified Chinese: 胡启立; traditional Chinese: 胡啟立; pinyin: Hú Qǐlì; born October 1929 in Yulin, Shaanxi) is a politician of the People's Republic of China and a member of the Communist Party of China (CPC). He was a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and a member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee between 1987 and 1989. In 1989, he was purged because of sympathies he held for the students carrying out the Tiananmen Square protests and his support for General Secretary Zhao Ziyang. However, he was able to get back into politics in 1991. Since 2001, he has served as the chairman of the China Soong Ching Ling Foundation .
Hu was born in October 1929 in Yulin, Shaanxi. In 1946, he was admitted to the Peking University to pursue a major in physics. In 1948 and at the age of 19, Hu joined the CPC. When the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949, Hu changed his studies to focus on politics.
From 1951 to 1956, Hu was secretary of the Youth League Committee of Peking University. From 1956 to 1966, he served as the president of the All-China Students’ Federation. In 1958, Hu was granted an audience with Mao Zedong.
During the Cultural Revolution, Hu began to work in the lower levels of the May Seventh Cadre Schools. From 1972 to 1977, he served as the deputy secretary of the Ningxia County Communist Party Committee, the deputy secretary of the Guyuan district Communist Party Committee, and the office director of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Party Committee.
After the Cultural Revolution, he served as the deputy president of Tsing hua University . From 1978 to 1980, Hu was a member of the Secretariat of the Communist Youth League Central Committee and was president of the All-China Youth Federation. From 1980 to 1982, he was the party secretary and the mayor of Tianjin. From 1982 to 1987, he was the director of the General Office, a member of the Secretariat, and a member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee . From 1987 to 1989, Hu served as a member of the Standing Committee, the Political Bureau, and the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee.
Tiananmen Square protests
On 15 April 1989, after the death of Hu Yaobang, Beijing university students began to assemble in Tiananmen Square to protest. This was the beginning of the Tiananmen Democracy Movement. Zhao Ziyang thought that the government should talk with the student protestors. As a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and a member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, Hu was placed in charge of propaganda. Hu followed Zhao’s instructions and began a propaganda policy for openness and tolerance in engaging the students in dialogue.
On 29 April 1989, the People’s Daily published an editorial titled, Keep Stable, Keep Overall Situation. Hu made comments that the Beijing students had begun to act reasonably and that the Chinese government needed to offer more accurate news for the students. He also believed that the student movement should be reported on accurately and without misinformation. Hu also agreed with Zhao Ziyang’s speech. On 3 May 1989, Zhao made a speech to commemorate the May Fourth Movement for its 90th anniversary. In it, he stated that the Beijing students loved China and called of continued talks with the student leaders.
On 19 May 1989, there was an evening meeting to brief the Standing Committee. Zhao refused to accept the command of instituting martial law as proposed by Premier Li peng . Out of all the members of the Standing Committee, only two were opposed to martial law: Zhao and Hu. This began the change of Hu’s political future.
The Fourth Plenum of the Thirteenth Central Committee was held on the 23 and 24 of June 1989. They approved the decision made two days earlier at a meeting of the Politburo to strip Hu and Zhao as well as Rui Xingwen and Yan Mingfu of their party posts.For the time being. Hu was finished in politics in China.
Return to government
In 1991, Hu returned to politics and was appointed as vice minister and Leading Party Members' Group member of the Ministry of the Machine-Building and Electronics Industry . From 1993 to 1998, he was the minister of the Ministry of the Machine-Building and Electronics Industry .
In 1998, Hu was elected vice chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. He had a mandate to restore proper political treatment of leaders of the Party and state. By convention, persons who holding positions of the Vice-Chairs of the NPC, vice chairman of the CPPCC or above are referred to " Leaders of the Party and the State " (党和国家领导人) in the official media. He was appointed the chairman of the China Soong Ching Ling Foundation in 2001, which deals with Chinese charities and welfare projects.
Hu Qili were known in the 1980s because of the country's economic reform program champion. After Deng Xiaoping returned to government in 1978, Hu start rise rapidly. Also Hu Once seen as a potential party general secretary canadiate. After 1987, Hu was a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, was purged apparently because of sympathies he held for the students carrying out the Tiananmen Square protests and opposed use armed force to suppress those student and public peoples .
- 中国宋庆龄基金会领导成员, [The introduction for China Soong Ching Ling Foundation leadership]. http://www.sclf.org/jgjj/
- 胡启立简历, [The biographical notes for Hu Qili]. http://news.xinhuanet.com/rwk/2013-03/08/c_114950225.htm
- 毛泽东主席接见全国学联主席、北大团委书记胡启立 , [Mao Zedong interview Hu Qili]. http://www.southcn.com/news/community/shzt/mao/photo/200212240999.htm
- 多维历史：胡启立仕途“六四”遭重创, [Hu Qili during June Fourth Movement]. http://history.dwnews.com/news/2012-09-25/58869609-all.html
- 历史的大爆炸——六四事件全景实录,[The big bang of history-June Fourth Movement Record]. Zhang Wanshu. May, 2009. TianDi Publish. P90 and 110
- Zhao Ziyang. Prisoner of the State: The Secret Journal of Premier Zhao Ziyang. Trans & Ed. Bao Pu, Renee Chiang, and Adi Ignatius. New York: Simon and Schuster. 2009. ISBN 1-4391-4938-0. p. 29
- Zhang Liang. The Tiananmen Papers. New York: PublicAffairs, 2001. p. 438.
- 党和国家领导人, [Orders of precedence in the People's Republic of China: Leaders of the Party and the State ]. http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2004-06/22/content_1540150.htm
- Removed From Their Posts As a Result of Shifts in Power. The New York Times. Published in June 25, 1989. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/06/25/world/4-removed-from-their-posts-as-a-result-of-shifts-in-power.html
|Mayor of Tianjin
1980 – 1982
||Minister of Electronic Industry
1993 – 1998