Huan Wen's expeditions

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Huan Wen's expeditions
Date 354 CE- 369 CE
Location Northern China
Result Stalemate
Belligerents
Jin dynasty Former Qin, Former Yan
Commanders and leaders
Huan Wen Fu Jian, Murong Wei
Strength
50,000-100,000 100,000+
Casualties and losses
40,000+ Heavy losses

Huan Wen's expeditions were a series of expeditions launched by the Jin dynasty general Huan Wen and aimed at attempting to reclaim China's territory north of the Huai. Due to the lack of support from the Jin court, the expeditions were unsuccessful.

Background[edit]

Huan Wen was a general who took control of Jin forces in the 350s. Determined to expand his own prestige and reclaim the territory of China, Huan Wen led several campaigns against the barbarian states of Former Yan and Former Qin.

Expeditions[edit]

1st expedition[edit]

During the first expedition(354 CE), Jin forces moved up the river to engage the army of Former Qin. Jin forces won a decisive victory at Lantian and defeated a Qin army of over 50,000 soldiers, reaching Chang'an. The Jin army was widely applauded by the Chinese civilians, who offered food and provisions for the soldiers. However, due to lack of food, the Jin army was forced to retreat, leaving the area under barbarian control. Over 10,000 Jin soldiers died in the retreat.[1]

2nd expedition[edit]

In 356 CE Jin forces captured Luoyang from Former Yan but was forced to withdraw due to lack of support.[2]

3rd expedition[edit]

Jin launched a major campaign against Former Yan in 369 CE. Jin forces defeated Yan forces and reached Fanto, causing panic in the Yan court. However, the Former Yan general Murong Quai led 50,000 troops and stopped the Jin advance at the Yellow river. Meanwhile Xianbei cavalry cut off the Jin supply lines and forced them to retreat. During the retreat, Murong Quai led an army to pursue the Jin forces and over 30,000 Jin soldiers were killed in the resulting battle.[3]

Aftermath[edit]

Due to the failure of Jin to reclaim the Northern heartlands, Jin forces were soon faced with the gigantic threat of Former Qin.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Li and Zheng, pg 390
  2. ^ Li and Zheng, pg 390
  3. ^ Li and Zheng, pg 391-392
  4. ^ Li and Zheng, pg 392

Sources[edit]

  • Book of Jin
  • Li, Bo; Zheng Yin (Chinese) (2001) 5000 years of Chinese history, Inner Mongolian People's publishing corp, ISBN 7-204-04420-7,

External links[edit]