Huawei

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.
华为技术有限公司
Type Private
Industry Telecommunications equipment
Networking equipment
Founded 1987
Founder(s) Ren Zhengfei
Headquarters Longgang District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Area served Worldwide
Products Mobile and fixed broadband networks, consultancy and managed services, multimedia technology, smartphones, tablet computers
Revenue Increase CNY 240.0 billion (2013)
Profit Increase CNY 29.4 billion (2013)
Owner(s) Employee-owned corporation[1]
Employees 140,000 (2012)[2]
Subsidiaries HiSilicon
Website www.huawei.com, www.huaweidevice.com, www.gethuawei.com
Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.
Traditional Chinese 華為技術有限公司
Simplified Chinese 华为技术有限公司
Literal meaning Huawei Technology Limited Company
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 華為
Simplified Chinese 华为
Literal meaning Chinese-Doing

Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. is a Chinese multinational networking and telecommunications equipment and services company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong.[3] It is the largest telecommunications equipment maker in the world, having overtaken Ericsson in 2012.[4]

Huawei was founded in 1987 by ex-military officer Ren Zhengfei and formed as a private company owned by its employees. Its core missions are building telecommunications networks; providing operational and consulting services and equipment to enterprises inside and outside of China; and manufacturing communications devices for the consumer market.[5] Huawei has over 140,000 employees, around 46% of whom are engaged in research and development (R&D).[6][7] It has 21 R&D institutes in countries including China, the United States,[8] Canada,[9] UK,[10] Pakistan, France, Germany, Colombia, Sweden, Ireland, India, Russia, and Turkey,[11][12] and in 2013 invested US$5 billion in R&D.[13]

In 2010, Huawei recorded profit of 23.8 billion CNY (3.7 billion USD).[14] Its products and services have been deployed in more than 140 countries and it currently serves 45 of the world's 50 largest telecoms operators.[15]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Huawei was founded by Ren Zhengfei in 1987, with an initial registered capital of RMB21,000.[16] Established in Shenzhen, Huawei started off as a sales agent for a Hong Kong company producing private branch exchange (PBX) switches. By 1990, Huawei began its own independent research and commercialization of PBX technologies targeting hotels and small enterprises.[17] After accumulating knowledge and resources on the PBX business, Huawei achieved its first breakthrough into the mainstream telecommunications market in 1992, when it launched its C&C08 digital telephone switch, which had the largest switching capacity in China at the time. By initially deploying in small cities and rural areas, the company gradually gained market share and made its way into the mainstream market.[18]

International expansion[edit]

Huawei office in Voorburg, Netherlands
Huawei Office in Ontario, Canada

In 1997, Huawei won its first overseas contract,[19] providing fixed-line network products to Hong Kong company Hutchison Whampoa.[18] Later that year, Huawei launched its wireless GSM-based products and eventually expanded to offer CDMA and UMTS. In 1999, the company opened a research and development (R&D) center in Bangalore, India to develop a wide range of telecom software.[17] From 1998 to 2003, Huawei contracted with IBM for management consulting, and underwent significant transformation of its management and product development structure. After 2000, Huawei increased its speed of expansion into overseas markets, having achieved international sales of more than US$100 million by 2000[19] and establishing an R&D center in Stockholm, Sweden. In 2001, Huawei established four R&D centers in the United States, divested non-core subsidiary Avansys to Emerson for US$750 million and joined the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). By 2002, Huawei’s international market sales had reached US$552 million.[17]

In 2004 Huawei continued its overseas expansion with a contract to build a third-generation network for Telfort, the Dutch mobile operator.[17] This contract, valued at more than $US25 million, was the first such contract for the company in Europe.[20]

In 2005, Huawei’s international contract orders exceeded its domestic sales for the first time. Huawei signed a Global Framework Agreement with Vodafone. This agreement marked the first time a telecommunications equipment supplier from China had received Approved Supplier status from Vodafone Global Supply Chain. The agreement established the terms and conditions for the supply of Huawei's solutions to any one of the Vodafone operating companies worldwide.[21] Huawei also signed a contract with British Telecom (BT) for the deployment of its multi-service access network (MSAN) and Transmission equipment for BT's 21st Century Network (21CN), providing BT and the UK telecommunications industry with some infrastructure necessary to support future growth as these companies are multi vendor infrastructure.[22]

In May 2008, Huawei and Optus developed a mobile innovation centre in Sydney, Australia, providing facilities for engineers to develop new wireless and mobile broadband concepts into "ready for market" products.[23] In 2008, the company embarked on its first large-scale commercial deployment of UMTS/ HSPA in North America providing TELUS's new next generation wireless network and Bell Canada with high-speed mobile access.[24]

Huawei delivered one of the world’s first LTE/EPC commercial networks for TeliaSonera in Oslo, Norway in 2009. The company launched the world's first end-to-end 100G solution from routers to transmission system that same year, to help meet the rapid growth of network traffic and enhance router efficiency and reliability.[17]

In July 2010, Huawei was included in the Global Fortune 500 2010 list published by the U.S. magazine Fortune for the first time, on the strength of annual sales of US$21.8 billion and net profit of US$2.67 billion.[25] In late 2010 it was reported that Huawei is planning to invest around US$500 million (Rs 2,200 crore) to set up a telecom equipment manufacturing facility in Tamil Nadu, India and $US100 million to expand its R&D center in Bangalore.[26][27]

In October 2012, it was announced that Huawei would move its UK headquarters to Green Park, Reading, Berkshire.[28] The company also, in an effort to increase its prominence in the United States, became the main sponsor of the Jonas Brothers' 2013 summer tour.[29]

In September 2013, Huawei opened a new Canadian office in Regina, Saskatchewan—Huawei had collaborated with the local carrier SaskTel to build its HSPA+ and LTE networks. The company also announced that SaskTel would carry its new Ascend Y300 smartphone.[30]

In October 2013, Huawei has been selected by TDC A/S as a sole vendor to modernize the nationwide GSM/UMTS/LTE network in Denmark and provide managed services over a six year period. The value of the contract is over $700 million over the term of the agreement.[31]

Investment and partnerships[edit]

Huawei has focused on expanding its mobile technology and networking solutions through a number of partnerships. In March 2003, Huawei and 3Com Corporation formed a joint venture company, 3Com-Huawei (H3C), which focused on the R&D, production and sales of data networking products. The company later divested a 49% stake in H3C for US$880 million in 2006. In 2005, Huawei began a joint venture with Siemens, called TD Tech, for developing 3G/ TD-SCDMA mobile communication technology products. The US$100 million investment gave the company a 49% stake in the venture, while Siemens held a 51% stake.[17] In 2007, after Nokia and Siemens co-founded Nokia Siemens Networks, Siemens transferred all shares it held in TD Tech to Nokia Siemens Networks. At present, Nokia Siemens Networks and Huawei hold 51% and 49% shares of TD Tech respectively.[32]

In 2006, Huawei established a Shanghai-based joint R&D center with Motorola to develop UMTS technologies.[17] Later that year, Huawei also established a joint venture with Telecom Venezuela, called Industria Electronica Orinoquia, for research and development and sale of telecommunications terminals. Telecom Venezuela holds a 65% stake while Huawei holds the remaining 35% stake.[33]

Huawei and American security firm Symantec announced in May 2007 the formation of a joint-venture company to develop security and storage solutions to market to telecommunications carriers. Huawei initially owned 51% of the new company, named Huawei Symantec Inc. while Symantec owned the rest. The joint-venture was based in Chengdu.[34] In March, 2012, Symantec announced the sale of its portion of the joint venture to Huawei.[35]

Grameenphone Ltd. and Huawei won the Green Mobile Award at the GSMA Mobile Awards 2009.[36] In March 2009, the Wimax Forum announced four new members to its Board of Directors including Thomas Lee, the Vice Director of the Industry Standards Department at Huawei.[37]

In 2008, Huawei launched a joint venture with UK-based marine engineering company, Global Marine Systems, to deliver undersea network equipment and related services.[38]

Recent performance[edit]

In April 2011, Huawei announced an earnings increase of 30% in 2010, driven by significant growth in overseas markets, with net profit rising to RMB23.76 billion (US$3.64 billion; £2.23 billion) from RMB18.27 billion in 2009.[39] In 2010 sales outside China continued to be the main driver of Huawei’s business. Overseas revenue rose 34% to RMB120.41 billion in 2010 from RMB90.02 billion in 2009, fueled by regions including North America and Russia. Revenues from China rose 9.7% to RMB64.77 billion, as the country's big telecom operators reduced their investment last year.[40]

Huawei's revenues in 2010 accounted for 15.7% of the $78.56 billion global carrier-network-infrastructure market, putting the company second behind the 19.6% share of Telefon AB L.M. Ericsson, according to market-research firm Gartner.[40]

Huawei is targeting a revenue of $150 million through its enterprise business solutions in India in next 12 months. It denied using Chinese subsidies to gain global market share after being recently accused by US lawmakers and EU officials of unfair competition at best[41][42]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Huawei classifies itself as a "collective" and does not refer to itself as a private company. Richard McGregor, author of The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers, said that this is "a definitional distinction that has been essential to the company's receipt of state support at crucial points in its development."[43] McGregor argued that "Huawei's status as a genuine collective is doubtful."[43]

Leadership[edit]

Ren Zhengfei is the president of Huawei and has held the title since 1987.[44] Huawei disclosed its list of board of directors for the first time in 2010. Ms. Sun Yafang is board chair. As of 2011, the members of the board [45] are Ms. Sun Yafang,[46][47] Guo Ping, Xu Zhijun, Hu Houkun,[48] Ren Zhengfei,[49] Xu Wenwei, Li Jie, Ding Yun, Meng Wanzhou, Chen Lifang,[50] Wan Biao, Zhang Pingan, and Yu Chengdong.[45] The members of the Supervisory Board are Liang Hua, Peng Zhiping, Ren Shulu, Tian Feng, and Deng Biao.[51] Richard Yu Chengdong is the Chairman of Huawei Device, its mobile phone division.[52] On 1 July 2013, Huawei Device announced former head of Nokia Colin Giles joined the company as Executive Vice President of Consumer Business.[52]

Ownership[edit]

As of 2011 Huawei has not published a corporate structure breakdown. Richard McGregor, author of The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers, said that "[m]ost shares are believed to be owned by" Ren Zhengfei and Ren's managers.[43]

Partners and customers[edit]

As of the start of 2010, approximately 80% of the world's top 50 telecoms companies worked with Huawei.[53] Prominent partners include:

In May 2011 Huawei won a contract with Everything Everywhere, the UK’s biggest communication company, to enhance its 2G network. The four-year deal represents Huawei's first mobile network deal in the UK.[60]

Products and services[edit]

Huawei is organized around three core business segments:

  1. Telecom Carrier Networks, building telecommunications networks and services
  2. Enterprise Business, providing equipment, software and services to enterprise customers, e.g. Government solutions etc
  3. Devices, manufacturing electronic communications devices[5]

Huawei announced its Enterprise business in January, 2011 to provide network infrastructure, fixed and wireless communication, data center, and cloud computing solutions for global telecommunications customers.[61] Huawei has stated that it aims to increase enterprise sales to US$4 billion in 2011 and $15 billion within three to five years.[62][63]

Telecom networks[edit]

Huawei offers a variety of network technologies and solutions to help telecommunications operators expand the capacity of their mobile broadband networks. Huawei’s core network solutions offer mobile and fixed softswitches, plus next-generation home location register and Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystems (IMS). Huawei assists content service providers looking to migrate from copper to fiber with solutions that support xDSL, passive optical network (PON) and next-generation PON (NG PON) on a single platform. The company also offers mobile infrastructure, broadband access and service provider routers and switches (SPRS). Huawei’s software products include service delivery platforms (SDPs), BSSs, Rich Communication Suite and digital home and mobile office solutions.[64]

In 2010, revenues for Telecom Networks were US$18.79 billion.[65]

Global services[edit]

Huawei Global Services provides telecommunications operators with equipment to build and operate networks as well as consulting and engineering services to improve operational efficiencies.[60] These include network integration services such as those for mobile and fixed networks; assurance services such as network safety; and learning services, such as competency consulting.[64]

In 2010, Huawei won 47 managed services contracts to help improve network performance and efficiency for customers, as well as reducing the costs of network operations and maintenance.[66] In 2010 Huawei's global services revenues grew 28.6% to US$4.82 billion.[67]

Ascend smartphones and devices[edit]

Smartphone Huawei Ascend P6

Huawei's Devices division provides white-label products to content-service providers, including USB modems, wireless modems, embedded modules, fixed wireless terminals, wireless gateways, set-top boxes, mobile handsets and video products.[68] Huawei also produces and sells a variety of devices under its own name, such as the IDEOS smartphones and tablet PCs. Recent products include U8800, U8860, E220, Ascend, U7519, Huawei Mercury M886, and U8150. In 2010, Huawei Devices shipped 120 million devices around the world.[5] 30 million cell phones, of which 3.3 million units were smartphones, were shipped to markets such as Japan, the United States and Europe.[69]

Tecal servers[edit]

Competitive position[edit]

Huawei Technologies Co Ltd, is the world's largest telecom equipment maker[4][70] and China’s largest telephone-network equipment maker.[71] As of 2008, Huawei ranked first in terms of global market share in the mobile softswitches market,[72] tied with Sony Ericsson for lead market share in mobile broadband cards by revenue,[73] ranked second in the optical hardware market,[74] stayed first in the IP DSLAM market,[75] and ranked third in mobile network equipment.[76] In 2009, Huawei was ranked No. 2 in global market share for radio access equipment.[77] In addition, Huawei was the first vendor to launch end-to-end (E2E) 100G solutions, enabling operators to establish enhanced ultra-broadband networks, improving their service and simplifying their network architecture.[78][79]

According to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) on 27 January 2009, Huawei was ranked as the largest applicant under WIPO's Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), with 1,737 applications published in 2008. Overall, the total number of international patent filings under WIPO's PCT for 2008 represents the highest number of applications received under the PCT in a single year and China improved its ranking by one place, to become the sixth largest user of the PCT, with 6,089 filings.[80] As of February 2011, Huawei has applied for 49,040 patents globally and has been granted 17,765 to date.[81]

Sales[edit]

Huawei's global contract sales for 2006 reached US$11 billion (a 34% increase from 2005), 65% of which came from overseas markets.[82][83] By the end of 2008, global contract sales of Huawei Technologies, China's largest telecoms gear maker, jumped 46 percent to US$23.3 billion.[84] Huawei experienced sales exceeding US$30 billion in 2009,[84][85] and global sales increased by 24 percent to 185.2 billion yuan in 2010.[86]

Recognition[edit]

Huawei Technologies was one of six telecom industry companies included in the World's Most Respected 200 Companies list compiled by Forbes magazine in May 2007.[87] In December 2008, BusinessWeek magazine included Huawei in their inaugural list of "The World's Most Influential Companies".[88]

In 2010 Fast Company ranked Huawei the fifth most innovative company in the world.[89] The same year, Huawei received three honors at the Global Telecom Business Innovation Awards including "Green base station innovation", "Wholesale network innovation" and "Consumer voting innovation" awards with Vodafone, BT and TalkTalk, respectively.[90] In 2010 Frost & Sullivan recognized Huawei as the 2010 SDM Equipment Vendor of the Year[91] and in the contact center application market with the 2010 Asia Pacific Growth Strategy Leadership Award.[92] On 29 July 2010, Huawei was recognized by British Telecom with Best in Class 21CN Solution Maturity, Value, Service and Innovation award, for its innovation and contribution in 21CN and Next Generation Access project.[93] Also in 2010 The Economist recognized Huawei with its Corporate Use of Innovation Award.[94] In May 2011 Huawei won two awards at the LTE World Summit 2011 for "Significant Progress for a Commercial Launch of LTE by a Vendor" and "Best LTE Network Elements." As of May 2011, Huawei has deployed over 100 SingleRAN commercial networks, which are capable of evolving into LTE, and of those that have deployed SingleRAN networks, more than 40 operators have announced the launch or the imminent launch of distinct LTE services.[95]

Huawei has been described as "perhaps China's most globally successful company".[43]

Sponsorship[edit]

Huawei sponsors Borussia Dortmund

Huawei sponsors Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund.[96] On 15 September 2013, Huawei were announced as the new shirt sponsors of A-League club Wellington Phoenix F.C. as well as the sponsor of Liga de Fútbol Profesional (LFP) in Spain.[97]

On 17 January 2014, Arsenal F.C. announced that Huawei will become their official "Global Smartphone Partner."[98]

In March 2014, Huawei becomes the shirt sponsor of Rayo Vallecano for two La Liga matches against Real Madrid and Athletic Bilbao.[99]

In April 2014, Huawei became the "Official Partner" of Paris Saint-Germain for the next three seasons.[100]

Huawei debuted to the field of Cricket in April 2014 by becoming the principal sponsor of Royal Challengers Bangalore, a domestic cricket team that plays in the Indian Premier League.

Ghana Football Association has announced Huawei as its latest sponsor for the Black Stars ahead of the 2014 FIFA World Cup finals in Brazil. The one-year sponsorship deal is worth US$100,000 plus products.[101]

Corporate social responsibility[edit]

As part of its international support for technology and telecommunications education and training, Huawei has contributed funding and equipment to a number of universities and training centers in countries such as Kenya,[102] India,[103] Indonesia,[104][105] Bangladesh,[106] and Nigeria.[103] In the U.S., since 2008, Huawei has sponsored MIT’s Communications Futures Program, a research collaboration that studies the future of the telecommunications industry.[107][108][109]

In 2010, Huawei joined the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, formed by the ITU and UNESCO to support broadband deployment to developing nations.[110][111][112] In the same year, Huawei joined the Green Touch consortium, an industry group that aims to make communications networks 1000 times more energy efficient than they are today.[113]

In June 2011, Huawei signed a five-year agreement to contribute donated services, equipment and technical expertise worth over US$1.4 million to Carleton University, in Ottawa, Canada, to establish a research lab dedicated to cloud computing technology and services.[114] The same month, Huawei published its 2010 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Report.[115][116]

Criticisms and controversies[edit]

Intellectual property rights[edit]

In February 2003 Cisco Systems sued Huawei Technologies for allegedly infringing on its patents and illegally copying source code used in its routers and switches.[117] According to statement by Cisco, by July 2004 Huawei removed the contested code, manuals and command-line interfaces and the case was subsequently dropped.[118] Both sides claimed success – with Cisco asserting that "completion of lawsuit marks a victory for the protection of intellectual property rights", and Huawei's partner 3Com (which was not a part of lawsuit) noting that court order prevented Cisco from bringing another case against Huawei asserting the same or substantially similar claims.[119] Although Cisco employees allegedly witnessed counterfeited technology as late as September 2005,[120] in a retrospective Cisco's Corporate Counsel noted that "Cisco was portrayed by the Chinese media as a bullying multi-national corporation" and "the damage to Cisco's reputation in China outweighed any benefit achieved through the lawsuit";[121] however the same article that quoted the remarks of the Corporate Counsel also notes the remarks of Jay Hoenig of Hill and Associates, a security and risk management consultancy, who encouraged foreign companies to take greater advantage of civil litigation and said that it was hard to make the argument that China's civil system was ineffectual if litigants did not pursue all of the legal remedies available to them.[121]

Huawei's chief representative in the US subsequently claimed that Huawei had been vindicated in the case, breaking a confidentiality clause of Huawei's settlement with Cisco. In response Cisco revealed parts of the independent expert's report produced for the case which proved that Huawei had stolen Cisco code and directly copied it into their products.[122]

In June 2004, a Huawei employee was caught after hours diagramming and photographing circuit boards from a competitor booth at the SuperComm tradeshow.[123] The employee denied the accusation, but was later dismissed.[124][125]

In July 2010, Motorola filed an amended complaint that named Huawei as a co-defendant in its case against Lemko for alleged theft of trade secrets.[126][127] The case against Huawei was subsequently dropped in April 2011.[128][129][130] In January 2011, Huawei filed a lawsuit against Motorola to prevent its intellectual property from being illegally transferred to Nokia Siemens Networks ("NSN") as part of NSN’s US$1.2 billion acquisition of Motorola's wireless network business.[131][132][133][134] In April 2011, Motorola and Huawei entered into an agreement to settle all pending litigation,[129][135][136] with Motorola paying an undisclosed sum to Huawei for the intellectual property that would be part of the sale to NSN.[137][138][139]

In a further move to protect its intellectual property, Huawei filed lawsuits in Germany, France and Hungary in April 2011 against ZTE for patent and trademark infringement.[140][141][142] The following day, ZTE countersued Huawei for patent infringement in China.[143][144]

Security concerns[edit]

Unfounded, not evident security concerns exist, especially in the U.S. In the US, Huawei has been challenged due to concerns of United States security officials that Huawei-made telecommunications equipment is designed to allow unauthorized access by the Chinese government and the Chinese People's Liberation Army,[145][146][147][148] given that Ren Zhengfei, the founder of the company, served as an engineer in the army in the early 1980s.[149] In the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party raised concerns about security over Huawei’s bid for Marconi in 2005,[147] and the company's equipment was mentioned as an alleged potential threat in a 2009 government briefing by Alex Allan, chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee.[150] In December 2010, Huawei opened a Cyber Security Evaluation Centre to test its hardware and software to ensure they can withstand growing cyber security threats.[151][152] In the U.S., some members of Congress raised questions about the company's proposed merger with communications company 3Com in 2008,[153] and its bid for a Sprint contract in 2010.[149] In addition, Huawei withdrew its purchase of 3Leaf systems in 2010, following a review by the U.S. Committee on Foreign Investment (CFIUS).[146]

In a 2011 open letter, Huawei stated that the security concerns are "unfounded and unproven" and called on the U.S. government to investigate any aspect of its business.[154][155] The US-based non-profit organization Asia Society carried out a review of Chinese companies trying to invest in the U.S., including Huawei. The organization found that only a few investment deals were blocked following unfavorable findings by the CFIUS or had been given a recommendation not to apply, however all large transactions had been politicized by groups including the U.S. media, members of Congress and the security community.[156] However, another article unrelated to the report published by the Asia Society reported that, "fear that the P.R.C. government could strongarm private or unaffiliated Chinese groups into giving up cyber-secrets is reflected in the U.S. government's treatment of Chinese telecom company Huawei."[157]

In October 2009, the Indian Department of Telecommunications reportedly requested national telecom operators to "self-regulate" the use of all equipment from European, U.S. and Chinese telecoms manufacturers following security concerns.[158] Earlier, in 2005, Huawei was blocked from supplying equipment to India's Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) cellular phone service provider.[159] In 2010, the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) insisted on cancelling the rest of the Huawei contract with BSNL and pressed charges against several top BSNL officers regarding their "doubtful integrity and dubious links with Chinese firms".[160][161] In June 2010, an interim solution was introduced that would allow the import of Chinese-made telecoms equipment to India if pre-certified by international security agencies such as Canada’s Electronic Warfare Associates, US-based Infoguard, and Israel’s ALTAL Security Consulting.[162]

In October 2011, the Wall Street Journal reported that Huawei had become Iran's leading provider of telecommunications equipment, including monitoring technologies that could be used for surveillance.[163] Huawei responded with a statement claiming the story misrepresented the company's involvement: "We have never been involved and do not provide any services relating to monitoring or filtering technologies and equipment anywhere in the world".[164]

In December 2011, Bloomberg reported that the U.S. is invoking Cold War-era national security powers to force telecommunication companies including AT&T Inc. and Verizon Communications Inc. to divulge confidential information about their networks in a hunt for Chinese cyber-spying, with Richard Falkenrath, a senior fellow in the Council on Foreign Relations Cyberconflict and Cybersecurity Initiative, saying, "This is beyond vague suspicions...Congress is now looking at this as well, and they’re doing so based on very specific material provided them in a classified setting by the National Security Agency." The action represents a concern that China and other countries may be using their growing export sectors to develop built-in spying capabilities in U.S. networks. The U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence said it would investigate potential security threats posed by some foreign companies, and mentioned Huawei specifically. A spokesman for Huawei said that the company conducts its businesses according to normal business practices and actually welcomed the investigation.[165]

In 2001, it was alleged that Huawei Technologies India had developed telecommunications equipment for the Taliban in Afghanistan, and newspapers reported that the Indian government had launched a probe into the firm's operations.[166][167] Huawei responded, stating that the company did not have "any link with the Taliban", as its only customers are telecommunications carriers[168] and its facilities "always operate according to U.N. rules and the local laws of each country".[169] On 15 December 2001, the Indian authorities announced that they had not found any evidence that Huawei India had any connection to the Taliban,[170] although the U.S. remains suspicious.[171]

In March 2012, Australia media sources reported that the Australian government had excluded Huawei from tendering for contracts with NBN Co, a government-owned corporation that is managing the construction of the National Broadband Network,[172] following advice from the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation regarding security concerns.[173] The Attorney-General's Department stated in response to these reports that the National Broadband Network is "a strategic and significant government investment, [and] we have a responsibility to do our utmost to protect its integrity and that of the information carried on it."[174]

In July 2012, Felix Lindner and Gregor Kopf gave a conference at Defcon to announce that they uncovered several critical vulnerabilities in Huawei routers (models AR18 and AR29)[175] which could be used to get remote access to the device. The researchers said that Huawei "doesn't have a security contact for reporting vulnerabilities, doesn't put out security advisories and doesn't say what bugs have been fixed in its firmware updates", and as a result, the vulnerabilities have not been publicly disclosed. Huawei replied that they were investigating the claims.[176]

On 8 October 2012, a US House Intelligence Committee panel issued a report describing Huawei as a "national security threat" due to its alleged ties to various Chinese governmental agencies. The panel's report suggested that Huawei should "be barred from doing business with the US government", and additionally alleged that the telecom manufacturer had committed "potential violations" related to immigration, bribery, corruption, and copyright infringement.[177] However, a subsequent White House-ordered review found no concrete evidence to support the House report's espionage allegations.[69]

On 9 October 2012, a spokesman for Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper indicated that the Canadian government invoked a national security exception to exclude Huawei from its plans to build a secure government communications network.[178]

On 25 October 2012, a Reuters report[69] wrote that according to documents and interviews, an Iranian-based seller of Huawei (Soda Gostar Persian Vista) last year tried to sell embargoed American antenna equipment (made by American company Andrew LLC to an Iranian firm MTN Irancell). Specifically, the Andrew antennas were part of a large order for Huawei telecommunications gear that MTN Irancell had placed through Soda Gostar, but the MTN Irancell says it canceled the deal with Huawei when it learned the items were subject to sanctions and before any equipment was delivered.[69] Vic Guyang, a Huawei spokesman, acknowledged that MTN Irancell had canceled the order; Rick Aspan, a spokesman for CommScope, said the company was not aware of the aborted transaction.[69]

On 19 July 2013, Michael Hayden, former head of U.S. National Security Agency and director of Motorola Solutions, said he was aware of hard evidence of spying activity by Huawei. Huawei and Motorola Solutions had previously been engaged in intellectual property disputes for a number of years. Huawei's global cybersecurity Officer, John Suffolk, described the comments made by Hayden as "tired, unsubstantiated, defamatory remarks" and challenged him and other critics to present any evidence publicly.[179][180]

In 2014 the New York Times reported, based upon documents leaked by Edward Snowden, that the U.S. National Security Agency has since 2007 been operating a covert program against Huawei. This involved breaking into Huawei's internal networks, including headquarter networks and founder Ren Zhengfei's communications.[181]

Treatment of workforce and customers[edit]

A U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute report on Argentina published in September 2007 describes Huawei as "known to bribe and trap clients." The report details unfair business practices, such as customers framed by "full-paid trips" to China and monetary "presents" offered and later used by Huawei as "a form of extortion."[182]

According to a WikiLeaks cable, in 2006, Michael Joseph, then-CEO of Safaricom Ltd, allegedly struggled to cancel a contract with Huawei due to poor after-sales experience, after which the Kenyan government pressured him to reinstate the contract.[183] When questioned regarding this incident, Joseph replied, "It [the cable] is not a reflection of the truth as evidenced by Safaricom being a major purchaser of Huawei products including all 3G, switching and the recent OCS billing system upgraded over the weekend."[184]

In May 2010, it was reported in the Times of India, that security agencies in India became suspicious of Chinese Huawei employees after learning that Indian employees allegedly did not have access to part of Huawei's Bangalore research and development (R&D) office building.[185] Huawei responded that the company employs over 2,000 Indian engineers and just 30 Chinese engineers in the R&D center in Bangalore, and "both Indian and Chinese staff have equal access rights to all our information assets and facilities".[186] According to the Times of India, the intelligence agencies also noted that Chinese employees of Huawei had extended their stay in Bangalore for many months.[185] Huawei stated that many of these employees were on one-and-a-half-year international assignments to serve as a technical bridge between in-market teams and China, and that "all the Chinese employees had valid visas and did not overstay".[187]

In October 2007, 7,000 Huawei employees resigned and were then rehired on short-term contracts, thereby apparently avoiding the unlimited contract provisions of the Labour Contract Law of the People's Republic of China. The company denied it was exploiting loopholes in the law, while the move was condemned by local government and trade unions.[188][189]

Huawei's treatment of its workforce in Guangdong Province, Southern China also triggered a media outcry after a 25-year-old software engineer, Hu Xinyu, died in May 2006 from bacterial encephalitis, as a result of what is believed[by whom?] to have been work-related fatigue.[190][191]

In its 2010 Corporate Social Responsibility report, Huawei highlighted the importance of employee health and safety. In 2010, Huawei provided annual health checks to all full-time employees and performed 3,200 checks to employees exposed to occupational health risks.[192]

Also, in 2011 Huawei initiated a Scholarship program, "Huawei Maitree Scholarship", for Indian students studying in China.[193]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Corporate Governance". Huawei. 
  2. ^ "Huawei Finds Youth Not Always A Blessing". WSJ. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  3. ^ "Contact us." Huawei. Retrieved on 4 February 2009.Archived 3 December 2009 at WebCite
  4. ^ a b "Who’s afraid of Huawei?". The Economist. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c Shukla, Anuradha (18 April 2011). "Huawei maintained steady growth in 2010". Computerworld. Retrieved 14 June 2011. 
  6. ^ "Huawei 2010 Profit Gains 30% on Higher International Sales". Businessweek. 17 April 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  7. ^ "2010 Corporate Social Responsibility Report". Huawei.com. Huawei. 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  8. ^ Some of Huawei's US operations include FutureWei Technologies Inc. (in at least Santa Clara CA, Plano TX, and Bridgetwater NJ), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Huawei North America.
  9. ^ Huawei Canada - Corporate Information
  10. ^ "Huawei and Imperial College Open Data Science Innovation Lab". Datacenter Dynamics. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  11. ^ "Huawei has opened its R&D center in Istanbul on 27 February 2010". Huawei.com. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 
  12. ^ "Huawei – Invest in Turkey". Invest.gov.tr. Retrieved 2012-10-12. 
  13. ^ "Huawei to focus more on smartphone business". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  14. ^ "Huawei Reports FY10 Revenues of CNY185.2 Billion, Up 24.2%; Net Profit of CNY23.8 Billion, Up 30.0%" (Press release). Huawei. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  15. ^ Vance, Ashlee; Einhorn, Bruce (15 September 2011). "At Huawei, Matt Bross Tries to Ease U.S. Security Fears". Businessweek. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  16. ^ "Annual Report 2010". Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g "Milestones". Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 
  18. ^ a b Christine Chang, Amy Cheng, Susan Kim, Johanna Kuhn Osius, Jesus Reyes, Daniel Turgel (2009). "Huawei Technologies: A Chinese Trail Blazer In Africa". Business Today. 
  19. ^ a b "Huawei Technologies Profit Rises 30%, Led by Higher International Sales". Bloomberg News. 17 April 2011. 
  20. ^ Alexandra Harney (9 December 2004). "Huawei wins 3G contract from Telfort". Financial Times. 
  21. ^ "Huawei Becomes an Approved Supplier for Vodafone's Global Supply Chain". Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 20 November 2005. 
  22. ^ "Huawei Picked for BT's 21CN". Light Reading. 25 April 2005. 
  23. ^ Marcus Browne (20 May 2008). "Optus opens up mobile research shop with Huawei". ZDNet Australia. 
  24. ^ XFN-ASIA (21 October 2008). "China's Huawei to build UMTS/HSPA networks for Telus, Bell Canada". Chinese stock information. 
  25. ^ "397. Huawei Technologies". Fortune. 26 July 2010. 
  26. ^ "Huawei plans to invest $500 mn in Tamil Nadu". Refiff Business. 19 October 2010. 
  27. ^ "Huawei plans new R&D centre". Deccan Herald. 12 May 2011. 
  28. ^ "Reading move for Chinese communication giant / Reading Chronicle / News / Roundup". Readingchronicle.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-10-12. 
  29. ^ "Huawei and the Jonas Brothers: A match made in paradise?". CNET. 2013-04-29. 
  30. ^ "Huawei opens Regina office, launches new smartphone". Leader Post. Postmedia Network. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  31. ^ "TDC and Huawei Contract". Huawei. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  32. ^ "About TD Tech". TD Tech Ltd. 
  33. ^ "Presidente Chávez inauguró la Industria Electrónica Orinoquia". Correo del Orinoco. 22 May 2010. 
  34. ^ Brett Winterford (22 May 2007). "Huawei, Symantec form joint venture". ZDNet Australia. 
  35. ^ "Symantec Completes Sale of Huawei Symantec Joint Venture to Huawei". Symantec. 2012-03-30. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  36. ^ "GP, Huawei win 'Green Mobile Award'". The Financial Express. 24 November 2009. 
  37. ^ "Clearwire, Comcast, Huawei and ITRI join WiMAX Forum Board of Directors". WiMax News. 8 April 2009. 
  38. ^ Wang Xing (18 December 2008). "Huawei, Global Marine Systems in telecom JV". China Daily. 
  39. ^ "Huawei ups earnings on 'significant overseas growth'". BBC News. 17 April 2011. 
  40. ^ a b Owen Fletcher (18 April 2011). "Huawei Discloses Directors". Wall Street Journal. 
  41. ^ "Huawei denies using Chinese subsidies to grab more business". 18 June 2012. [dead link]
  42. ^ "Huawei eyes $150 m sale in enterprise biz". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 8 June 2012. 
  43. ^ a b c d McGregor, Richard (2012). The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-84614-173-7. 
  44. ^ "Huawei Annual Report 2010: Corporate Governance Report". Huawei.com. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  45. ^ a b Fletcher, Owen (18 April 2011). "Huawei Discloses Directors". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  46. ^ "Executive Profile Yafang Sun". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  47. ^ "Sun Yafang". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  48. ^ "Ken Hu". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  49. ^ Olsen, Robert (24 February 2011). "Huawei's Open Letter to U.S. Investigators". Forbes. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  50. ^ Hille, Kathrin (17 April 2011). "Huawei opens up its board to scrutiny". Financial Times. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  51. ^ "Huawei appoints new directors". Telecomseurope.net. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  52. ^ a b Xiang, Liu (1 July 2013). "Former Nokia Exec Colin Giles Joins Huawei As Executive Vice President of Consumer Business". GSM Insider. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  53. ^ a b Mucci, Jeff (5 February 2010). "Huawei Q&A: 95,000 employees and growing". RCR Wireless. Retrieved 21 June 2011. [dead link]
  54. ^ Huawei Picked for BT's 21CN. Light Reading. 28 April 2005.
  55. ^ Vodafone, Huawei sign deal for 3G handsets. ZDNet News. 15 February 2006.[dead link]
  56. ^ Huawei Meets Vodafone's Needs. Light Reading. 22 November 2005.
  57. ^ Motorola exec's domain is profitable, if not sexy. Chicago Tribune. 12 November 2006.
  58. ^ Huawei wins first major German deal. China Daily. 16 November 2006.
  59. ^ France Telecom adds China's Huawei to pool of UMTS equipment suppliers – report. AFX News Limited. 1 February 2007.[dead link]
  60. ^ a b Millet, Carol (9 May 2011). "Huawei clinches Everything Everywhere network upgrade deal". Mobile Magazine. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  61. ^ "Huawei Reports FY10 Revenues of CNY185.2 Billion, Up 24.2%; Net Profit of CNY23.8 Billion, Up 30.0%". Huawei. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  62. ^ Vitorovich, Lilly; Neal, Molly (9 March 2011). "Huawei has high hopes for enterprise business". Total Telecom. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  63. ^ Chao, Loretta (28 April 2011). "Huawei: Protectionism Hits Revenue Growth". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  64. ^ a b "Information on the Company". Huawei. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  65. ^ "Annual Report 2010". Huawei. 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  66. ^ "Huawei Conference 2011: An ACG Report". ACG Research. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  67. ^ "Huawei becomes world's number two telecom company by revenue". Australian Business Forum. 4 May 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  68. ^ Vendor Rating: Huawei. Gartner. 24 September 2010.
  69. ^ a b c d e Chyen Yee, Lee; Yuntao, Huang (19 April 2011). "INTERVIEW – Huawei makes aggressive push in consumer devices". Reuters. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  70. ^ "Chinese telecom firms fight for rights". China Daily USA. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  71. ^ "Huawei Climbs ‘Food Chain’ in Cisco Enterprise Challenge". Businessweek. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  72. ^ "Mobile Softswitch 2008 Update: Big Growth, New Value". InStat. 16 May 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  73. ^ "Recession isn’t holding back mobile broadband subscribers". Infonetics Research. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  74. ^ Morris, Anne (November 2008). "Hanging On" (PDF). Total Telecom. p. 18. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  75. ^ "China’s appetite for broadband services creates world’s largest broadband aggregation hardware market". Infonetics Research. 20 July 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  76. ^ "Huawei Secures Large Telenor Contract in Norway". Norway.cn. 5 November 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  77. ^ Donegan, Michelle (18 April 2011). "Huawei Profits Climb 30% in 2010". Light Reading Europe. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  78. ^ "Huawei Launches World' s First End-to-End 100G Solutions" (Press release). Huawei. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  79. ^ "Huawei unveils world's first E2E 100 G solutions". Zycko. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  80. ^ "Global Economic Slowdown Impacts 2008 International Patent Filings". World Intellectual Property Organization. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  81. ^ "Huawei's Open Letter to the US". Light Reading. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  82. ^ "Huawei Sales Hit $11B". Light Reading. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  83. ^ "Huawei Sets Bumper Sales Target". Light Readin. 3 April 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  84. ^ a b "UPDATE 1-China Huawei 08 contract sales up 46 pct at $23.3 bln". Reuters. 7 January 2009. 
  85. ^ "China's Huawei Gained Sales of Over USD30 Billion in 2009". China Tech News. 5 January 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  86. ^ "Huawei 2010 Profit Gains 30% on Higher International Sales". Bloomberg. 17 April 2011. 
  87. ^ "World's Most Respected Companies Complete Rankings". Forbes. 21 May 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  88. ^ McGregor, Jenna (11 December 2008). "The World's Most Influential Companies". Businessweek. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  89. ^ "Huawei ranked 5th most innovative firm". Financialexpress.com. 27 March 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2010. 
  90. ^ "Innovators honoured in 2010 GTB Awards". Global Telecoms Business. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  91. ^ "Frost & Sullivan Recognizes Huawei as 2010 SDM Equipment Vendor of the Year". Frost & Sullivan. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  92. ^ "Exemplary Best Practices in Asia Pacific Honoured". Frost & Sullivan. 18 October 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  93. ^ "Company Profile". Huawei. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  94. ^ "Telecommunications leads the way in Corporate Innovation | Economist Conferences UK". Economistconferences.co.uk. Retrieved 30 October 2010. 
  95. ^ "Huawei Wins Two Awards at LTE World Summit 2011". EFY Times. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  96. ^ "Huawei Becomes The Latest Sponsor Of Borussia Dortmund In Germany". 
  97. ^ "Huawei Becomes Global Partner of Liga de Fútbol Profesional (LFP) In Spain". 
  98. ^ "Huawei Becomes Official Smartphone Partner Of Arsenal Football Club". 
  99. ^ "Huawei Sponsors Rayo Vallecano For Two Matches, Against Real Madrid And Bilbao". Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  100. ^ "Players Of Paris Saint-Germain Took A Selfie With Huawei Ascend P7". 
  101. ^ http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/soccer/artikel.php?ID=309070.... Dr. Bentor Paul Addie aka OPOTOO
  102. ^ Mbuvi, Dennis (7 June 2011). "Huawei, Safaricom partner with Kenya universities". Computerworld Uganda. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  103. ^ a b "Huawei, ITU to promote ICT training in Africa". iGovernment. 2 November 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  104. ^ "Chinese firm opens technology training center in Indonesian college". ASEAN-China. Xinhua. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  105. ^ "Huawei inaugurates technology training center in Indonesia". Wireless Federation. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  106. ^ "Huawei, Buet sign deal to set up wireless communication lab". The Daily Star. 18 July 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  107. ^ "MIT Reports to the President 2007–2008" (PDF). MIT. 7 March 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  108. ^ "MIT Reports to the President 2008–2009" (PDF). MIT. 7 March 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  109. ^ "MIT Reports to the President 2009–2010" (PDF). MIT. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  110. ^ "A 2010 Leadership Imperative: The Future Built on Broadband" (PDF). Broadband Commission. 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  111. ^ "Ms. Sun Yafang". Broadband Commission. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  112. ^ "ITU and UNESCO announce top-level global Broadband Commission". UNESCO. 10 May 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  113. ^ Schenker, Jennifer L. (18 February 2010). "China's Huawei Joins GreenTouch Consortium". Informilo. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  114. ^ PILIECI, VITO (15 June 2011). "Telus, Huawei back Carleton cloud project". The Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  115. ^ Njeri, Millicent (14 June 2011). "Huawei releases 2010 corporate social responsibility report". Corporate Social Responsibility Africa. Huawei. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  116. ^ "CSR Report 2010". Huawei. 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  117. ^ "Cisco's motion for preliminary injunction". Cisco.com. 5 February 2003. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  118. ^ Flynn, Laurie J. (29 July 2004). "Technology briefing: Cisco drops Huawei suit". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  119. ^ Harvey, Phil (28 July 2004). "Cisco drops Huawei suit". Light Reading. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  120. ^ "US Embassy Cable 05HARARE1331". wikileaks. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  121. ^ a b "US embassy Cable 10SHANGHAI53". wikileaks. 19 February 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  122. ^ Worth, Dan (2012-10-12). "Cisco upbraids Huawei over source code copying claims". V3.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  123. ^ Burrows, Peter (30 July 2004). "Huawei isn't in the clear yet". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  124. ^ Harvey, Phil (17 August 2004). "Huawei fires SuperComm snooper". Light Reading. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  125. ^ "Statement from Huawei Technologies in response to questions regarding events at the SuperComm trade show". Huawei.com. Huawei. 5 August 2004. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  126. ^ Wahba, Phil; Lee, Melanie (22 July 2010). "Motorola sues Huawei for trade secret theft". Reuters. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  127. ^ Rhoads, Christopher (22 July 2010). "Motorola claims Huawei plot". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  128. ^ Tsukayama, Hayley (13 April 2011). "Motorola, Huawei settle their dispute". Post Tech (The Washington Post). Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  129. ^ a b Rao, Leena (13 April 2011). "Motorola and Huawei settle patent lawsuit". Tech Crunch. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  130. ^ Whitney, Lance (13 April 2011). "Motorola and Huawei settle legal disputes". CNET. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  131. ^ Raice, Shayndi (25 January 2011). "Huawei sues Motorola to block asset sale". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  132. ^ Rao, Leena (24 January 2011). "Huawei Sues Motorola Over Patents Disclosed To Nokia Siemens-Acquired Wireless Network". Tech Crunch. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  133. ^ "Huawei Files Lawsuit Against Motorola for IP Infringement". Huawei.com. Huawei. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  134. ^ Carew, Sinead (24 January 2011). "Huawei sues to alter Motorola-Nokia Siemens deal". Reuters. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  135. ^ "Motorola Solutions and Huawei Issue Joint Statement". Huawei.com. Huawei. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  136. ^ Hille, Kathrin; Taylor, Paul (13 April 2011). "Relief for Huawei as it settles with Motorola". The Financial Times. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  137. ^ Barboza, David (14 April 2011). "Motorola Solutions and Huawei Settle Claims Over Intellectual Property". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  138. ^ Thomasch, Paul (13 April 2011). "Motorola and Huawei settle trade secret dispute". Reuters. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  139. ^ "Huawei settles Motorola Solutions trade secrets dispute". BBC News. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  140. ^ "Huawei sues ZTE in Germany, France, Hungary". Reuters. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  141. ^ Hille, Kathrin (28 April 2011). "Huawei sues ZTE over patents". The Financial Times. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  142. ^ Clarke, Gavin (11 May 2011). "Huawei draws blood in ZTE patent tussle". The Register. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  143. ^ "ZTE sues Huawei in China for patent infringement over 4G tech". Reuters. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  144. ^ "ZTE counter-sues Huawei over LTE technology in China". The Wall Street Journal. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  145. ^ "Annual Report to Congress Military Power of the People’s Republic of China". defenselink.mil. U.S. Department of Defense. 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  146. ^ a b "Chinese telecom company Huawei open to US investigation". BBC News. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  147. ^ a b "The Huawei Way". Newsweek. 15 January 2006. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  148. ^ "Chinese spy fears on broadband frontrunner". The Australian. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2011. [dead link]
  149. ^ a b Markoff, John; Barboza, David (25 October 2010). "Chinese Telecom Giant in Push for U.S. Market". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  150. ^ Smith, Michael (29 March 2009). "Spy chiefs fear Chinese cyber attack". The Times (London). Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  151. ^ Kirk, Jeremy (6 December 2010). "Huawei open security test center in the UK". PC World.com. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  152. ^ "Huawei Opens Cyber Security Evaluation Centre in the UK". Huawei.com. Huawei. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  153. ^ "Congress to probe 3Com-Huawei deal". The Washington Times. 2 February 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  154. ^ Hu, Ken. "Huawei Open Letter". Huawei.com. Huawei. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  155. ^ Chao, Loretta (25 February 2011). "Huawei Executive’s Open Letter to the U.S.". China Real Time Report (The Wall Street Journal). Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  156. ^ Rosen, Daniel H.; Hanemann, Thilo (May 2011). "An American Open Door?" (PDF). Asia Society.org. The Asia Society. p. 62. Retrieved 29 August 2011. [dead link]
  157. ^ Le, Bryan (4 August 2011). "The Chinese Cyber-Threat". Asia Society. 
  158. ^ Basu, Indrajit (8 October 2009). "India's telecom agency raises China spy scare". UPI Asia. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  159. ^ BSNL Cancels Huawei GSM Tender Covering Southern India Cellular News: BSNL cancels Huawei GSM tender
  160. ^ CBI to probe link between BSNL officers, Chinese firm – Hindustan Times Hindustani Times: CBI to probe BSNL's officers Huawei ink
  161. ^ PMO forced BSNL to remove top officials – Hindustan Times Hindustani Times: PMO Forced BSNL to remove top officials
  162. ^ Putcha, Shiv; Grivolas, Julien (4 June 2010). "India lifts ban on Chinese telecoms vendors". Ovum. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  163. ^ Stecklow, Steve (19 October 2011). "Chinese Tech Giant Aids Iran". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  164. ^ "Statement Regarding Inaccurate and Misleading Claims about Huawei's Commercial Operations in Iran". huawei.com. Huawei. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  165. ^ Riley, Michael (1 December 2012). "U.S. Hunting for Chinese Telecom Spyware". Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  166. ^ Satyamurty, K (12 December 2001). "Chinese firm's dealings: police kept in the dark about probe". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  167. ^ Shankar, Jay (10 December 2001). "Indian state government puts Chinese firm under microscope". Agence France-Presse. 
  168. ^ Rajesh, Y.P (11 December 2001). "India probes unit of Chinese firm for Taliban link.". Reuters News. 
  169. ^ Kurtenback, Elaine (12 December 2001). "Chinese firm denies reports that software center in India helped Taliban". Associated Press Newswires. 
  170. ^ Srinivasan, S. (15 December 2001). "No evidence of Taliban links to Chinese firm, Indian authorities say". Associated Press Newswires. 
  171. ^ "Huawei asks US govt to clear its name". Telecompaper. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2011. 
  172. ^ Australian Financial Review (2012). China’s Huawei banned from NBN. Retrieved 26 March 2012].
  173. ^ Australian Financial Review (2012). ASIO forced NBN to dump Huawei. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  174. ^ The Wall Street Journal (2012). Canberra Talks Integrity After Reportedly Banning Huawei From NBN. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  175. ^ "Hackers reveal critical vulnerabilities in Huawei routers at Defcon". Computerworld.com. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  176. ^ "Expert: Huawei routers are riddled with vulnerabilities". News.cnet.com. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  177. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (8 October 2012). "U.S. Panel Cites Risks in Chinese Equipment". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  178. ^ Palmer, Randall (9 October 2012). "Huawei faces exclusion from planned Canada government network". Reuters. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  179. ^ Huawei has spied for Chinese government, ex-CIA boss says | World news. theguardian.com (2013-07-19). Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
  180. ^ Ex-CIA chief accuses Huawei of industrial espionage. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
  181. ^ David E. Sanger and Nicole Perlroth (22 March 2014). "N.S.A. Breached Chinese Servers Seen as Security Threat". New York Times. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  182. ^ Hulse, Janie (September 2007). "China’s expansion into and U.S. withdrawal from Argentina's telecommunications and space industries and the implications for U.S. national security". strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil. U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  183. ^ Le Maistre, Ray (3 March 2011). "WikiLeaks Cable Casts Dim Light on Huawei". lightreading.com. Light Reading Asia. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  184. ^ "Wikileaks exposes US jitters over tender awards to China". Business Daily Africa. March 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  185. ^ a b "Huawei Technologies bans Indians in India". The Times of India. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  186. ^ "Huawei invites Govt to inspect India offices". The Hindu. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  187. ^ "No secret tests at Huawei facility, says company". The Economic Times. 12 May 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  188. ^ Geoffrey Crothall; Karon Snowdon (12 November 2007). "ABC Radio Australia: CHINA: Companies seeking loopholes in new labour laws". China Labour Bulletin. Retrieved 24 February 2010. 
  189. ^ "Is corporate "wolf-culture" devouring China’s over-worked employees?". China Labour Bulletin. 27 May 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2010. 
  190. ^ Metz, Trevor (12 November 2007). "CBC News: Stemming the brain drain". CBC News. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  191. ^ Xu, Zhiqiang (7 June 2006). "Worked to Death in China". OhmyNews International (Korea: OhmyNews International). Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  192. ^ "CSR Report 2010". Huawei.com. Huawei. 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  193. ^ "Huawei Maitree Scholarship Programme 2012". 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]