Hugh Trevor-Roper

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Hugh Trevor-Roper
Hugh Trevor-Roper.jpg
Trevor-Roper in 1960.
Born Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper
(1914-01-15)15 January 1914
Glanton, Northumberland, England, UK
Died 26 January 2003(2003-01-26) (aged 89)
Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, UK
Nationality British
Education Belhaven Hill School Charterhouse School
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford
Occupation Historian
Known for His studies in 17th century European history
Title Regius Professor of Modern History
Term 1957–1980
Predecessor Vivian Hunter Galbraith
Successor Michael Howard
Spouse(s) Alexandra Henrietta Louisa Haig Howard-Johnston
Children three step-children
Parents Bertie William Edward Trevor-Roper (1885-1978) and Kathleen Elizabeth Davidson (died 1964)

Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was an English historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany and Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford University. He was made a life peer in 1979 on the advice of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, choosing the title Baron Dacre of Glanton.[1] Trevor-Roper was a conversationalist and essayist on a wide range of historical topics, centred on England in the 16th and 17th centuries, and on Adolf Hitler. He was known for the intense intellectual controversies he engaged in, and his frequent attacks on the Catholic Church. Although he was appointed Regius Professor, perhaps the most prestigious position in the British history profession, he failed decade after decade to produce a major scholarly study beyond his doctoral dissertation. His biographer writes, "the mark of a great historian is that he writes great books, on the subject which he has made his own. By this exacting standard Hugh failed."[2]

Trevor-Roper's most widely read and financially rewarding book covered the The Last Days of Hitler (1947). It emerged from his assignment as a British intelligence officer in 1945 to discover what happened in the last days of Hitler's bunker. From his interviews with a range of witnesses and study of surviving documents he demonstrated that Hitler was dead and had not escaped from Berlin. He also showed that Hitler's dictatorship was not an efficient unified machine but a hodge-podge of overlapping rivalries. However, his reputation was damaged in 1983 when he authenticated the Hitler Diaries and they were soon shown to be forgeries.

Early life and education[edit]

Trevor-Roper was born in Glanton, Northumberland, England, the son of a doctor, and the brother of Patrick Trevor-Roper (who became a leading eye surgeon and gay rights activist). Trevor-Roper was educated at Belhaven, Charterhouse and at Christ Church, Oxford, in Classics and Modern History, later moving to Merton College, Oxford, as a research fellow. Trevor-Roper took a first in Classical Moderations in 1934 and won the Craven, the Ireland and the Hertford scholarships in Classics. Initially, he intended to make his career in the Classics, but became bored with what he regarded as the pedantic technical aspects of the Greats course at Oxford, and switched to History, where he obtained an honours first in 1936.[3] Trevor-Roper's first book was a 1940 biography of Archbishop William Laud, in which he challenged many of the prevailing perceptions surrounding Laud.

Military service in World War II[edit]

During World War II, Trevor-Roper served as an officer in the Radio Security Service of the Secret Intelligence Service, and then on the interception of messages from the German intelligence service, the Abwehr.[4] In early 1940, Trevor-Roper and E.W.B.Gill decrypted some of these intercepts, demonstrating the relevance of the material and spurring Bletchley Park efforts to decrypt the traffic. Intelligence from Abwehr traffic later played an important part in many operations including the Double Cross System.[5]

He formed a low opinion of most pre-war professional intelligence agents, but a higher one of some of the post-1939 recruits. In The Philby Affair (1968) Trevor-Roper argues that the Soviet spy Kim Philby was never in a position to undermine efforts by the Chief of German Military Intelligence Abwehr, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, to overthrow the Nazi regime and negotiate with the British government.[4]

Investigating Hitler's last days[edit]

In November 1945, Trevor-Roper was ordered by Dick White, then head of counter-intelligence in the British sector of Berlin to investigate the circumstances of Adolf Hitler's death, and to rebut the Soviet propaganda that Hitler was alive and living in the West.[6] Using the alias of "Major Oughton", Trevor-Roper interviewed or wrote questions for several officials, high and low, who had been present in the Führerbunker with Hitler, and who had been able to escape to the West, including Bernd Freytag von Loringhoven.[7] For the most part, however, Trevor-Roper relied primarily on the investigations and interviews already finished by hundreds of British, American and Canadian intelligence officers.[8][9] He did not have access to Soviet materials. Working very rapidly, Trevor-Roper drafted his most famous book, The Last Days of Hitler in which he described the last ten days of Hitler's life, and the fates of some of the higher-ranking members of the inner circle as well of key lesser figures. Trevor-Roper transformed the evidence into a literary work, with sardonic humour and drama, and was much influenced by the prose styles of two of his favourite historians, Edward Gibbon and Thomas Babington Macaulay. Trevor-Roper claimed he received a death threat from someone in Portugal who claimed to represent the Stern Gang for exalting Hitler.[10] The book was cleared by British officials in 1946 for publication as soon as the war crimes trials ended. It was published in English in 1947; six English editions and many foreign language editions followed.[8]

Anti-communism[edit]

In June 1950, Trevor-Roper attended a conference in Berlin of anti-Communist intellectuals such as Sidney Hook, Melvin J. Lasky, Ignazio Silone, Arthur Koestler, Raymond Aron and Franz Borkenau that resulted in the founding of the Congress for Cultural Freedom and its magazine Encounter. In the 1950s and 1960s, he was a frequent contributor to Encounter, but he had reservations about what he regarded as the over-didactic tone of some of its contributors, particularly Koestler and Borkenau.[11]

Academic controversies[edit]

Trevor-Roper was famous for his lucid and acerbic writing style. In his reviews and essays he could be pitilessly sarcastic, and devastating in his mockery. In his attack on Arnold J. Toynbee's A Study of History, he accused him as regarding himself as a Messiah complete with "the youthful Temptations; the missionary Journeys; the Miracles; the Revelations; the Agony".[12]

For Trevor-Roper, the major themes of early modern Europe were its intellectual vitality, and the quarrels between Protestant and Catholic States, the latter being outpaced by the former, both economically and constitutionally. In Trevor-Roper's view, one of the major themes of early modern Europe was that of expansion.[13] By expansion, he meant both overseas expansion in the form of colonies and intellectual expansion in the form of the Reformation, and the Enlightenment.[13] In Trevor-Roper's view, the witch hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries were a reaction against doctrinal pluralism, and can ultimately be traced back to the conflict between the spiritual values of the Reformation, and the rationalistic approach which eventually became the Enlightenment.[13]

Trevor-Roper argued that history should be understood as an art, not a science, and that the key attribute of a successful historian was the power of imagination.[13] He viewed history as full of contingency, and the past as neither a story of continuous advance nor of continuous decline, but as the result of particular choices made by particular individuals at the time in question.[13] In his studies of early modern Europe, Trevor-Roper did not focus exclusively upon political history, but sought to examine the interaction between the political, intellectual, social and religious trends of the period.[13]His preferred medium of expression was the essay rather than the book. In his essays in social history, written during the 1950s and '60s, Trevor-Roper was influenced by the work of the French Annales School, especially Fernand Braudel, and did much to introduce the work of the Annales school to the English-speaking world.

English Civil War[edit]

In Trevor-Roper's opinion, the dispute between the Puritans and the Arminians was a major, although not the sole, cause of the English Civil War.[13] For him, the dispute was over issues of free will and predestination, and the role of preaching versus the sacraments, and only later over the structure of the Church of England.[13] The Puritans desired a more decentralised and egalitarian church with an emphasis on the laity, while the Arminians wished for ordered church with a firm hierarchy, with an emphasis on divine right and salvation via free will.[13]

As a historian of early modern Britain, Trevor-Roper was known for his disputes with fellow historians such as Lawrence Stone and Christopher Hill, whose materialist (and in some measure "inevitablist") explanations of the English Civil War he enthusiastically attacked. Trevor-Roper was a leading player in the historiographical "storm over the gentry" (also known as the "gentry controversy"), a dispute with historians R. H. Tawney and Stone about whether the English gentry were, economically, on the way down or up in the century before the English Civil War, and whether this helped cause that war.

Stone, Tawney and Hill argued that the gentry were rising economically, and that this caused the Civil War. Trevor-Roper argued that, while office-holders and lawyers were prospering, the lesser gentry were in decline. A third group, grouped around J. H. Hexter and Geoffrey Elton, argued that the causes of the Civil War had nothing to do with the gentry. In 1948, a paper put forward by Stone in support of Tawney's thesis was vigorously attacked by Trevor-Roper, who showed that Stone had exaggerated the debt problems of the Tudor nobility.[14] He then attacked Tawney's theories about the rising gentry and declining nobility, arguing that he was guilty of selective use of evidence and that he misunderstood the statistics.[14][15]

Second World War and Hitler[edit]

Trevor-Roper attacked the philosophies of history advanced by Arnold J. Toynbee and Edward Hallett Carr, and his colleague A. J. P. Taylor's account of the origins of Second World War. Another dispute was with Taylor and Alan Bullock over the question of whether Adolf Hitler had any fixed aims. In the 1950s, Trevor-Roper was ferocious in his criticism of Bullock for his portrayal of Hitler as a "mountebank" (i.e., opportunistic adventurer) instead of the ideologue Trevor-Roper believed him to be.[16] When Taylor offered a picture of Hitler similar to Bullock's in his 1961 book The Origins of the Second World War, the debate continued. Another feud was with the novelist and Catholic convert Evelyn Waugh, who was angered by Trevor-Roper's repeated harsh attacks on the Catholic Church.[17]

In the Globalist-Continentalist debate between those who argued that Hitler had as his aim the conquest of the entire world, and those who argued that he sought only the conquest of the continent of Europe, Trevor-Roper was one of the leading Continentalists. He argued that the Globalist case seeks to turn a scattering of Hitler's remarks made over several decades into a systematic ideology. In his analysis, the only consistent objective Hitler sought was the domination of Europe, as laid out in blueprint form in Mein Kampf.[18]

General crisis of the 17th century[edit]

A notable thesis propagated by Trevor-Roper was the “general crisis of the 17th century.” He argued that the middle years of the 17th century in Western Europe saw a widespread break-down in politics, economics and society caused by demographic, social, religious, economic and political problems.[13]In this "general crisis,” various events, such as the English Civil War, the Fronde in France, the climax of the Thirty Years' War in Germany, troubles in the Netherlands, and revolts against the Spanish Crown in Portugal, Naples and Catalonia, were all manifestations of the same problems.[19] The most important causes of the “general crisis,” in Trevor-Roper’s opinion, were conflicts between “Court” and “Country”; that is between the increasingly powerful centralising, bureaucratic, sovereign princely states, represented by the court, and the traditional, regional, land-based aristocracy and gentry, representing the country.[19] In addition, he said that the religious and intellectual changes introduced by the Reformation and the Renaissance were important secondary causes of the "general crisis."[13]

The "general crisis" thesis generated controversy between supporters of this theory and those, such as the Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm, who agreed with him that there was a "general crisis,” but saw the problems of 17th century Europe as more economic in origin than Trevor-Roper would allow. A third faction denied that there was any "general crisis,” for example the Dutch historian Ivo Schöffer, the Danish historian Niels Steengsgaard, and the Soviet historian A. D. Lublinskaya.[20] Trevor-Roper's "general crisis" thesis provoked much discussion, which led to experts in 17th century history such as Roland Mousnier, J. H. Elliott, Lawrence Stone, E. H. Kossmann, Eric Hobsbawm and J. H. Hexter to become advocates of the pros and cons of the theory.

At times, the discussion became quite heated; the Italian Marxist historian Rosario Villari, speaking of the work of Trevor-Roper and Mousnier, claimed that: "The hypothesis of imbalance between bureaucratic expansion and the needs of the state is too vague to be plausible, and rests on inflated rhetoric, typical of a certain type of political conservative, rather than on effective analysis."[21] Villari accused Trevor-Roper of downgrading the importance of what Villari called the English Revolution (the usual Marxist term for the English Civil War), and insisted that the "general crisis" was part of a Europe-wide revolutionary movement.[22] Another Marxist critic of Trevor-Roper the Soviet historian A. D. Lublinskaya attacked the concept of a conflict between "Court" and "Country" as fiction, arguing there was no "general crisis;" instead she maintained that the so-called "general crisis" was merely the emergence of capitalism.[23]

First World War[edit]

In 1973, Trevor-Roper in the foreword to a book by John Röhl endorsed the view that Germany was largely responsible for World War I.[24] Trevor-Roper wrote that, in his opinion, far too many British historians had allowed themselves to be persuaded of the theory that the outbreak of war in 1914 had been the fault of all the great powers.[25] He went on to note that this theory had been promoted by the German government's policy of selective publication of documents, aided and abetted by most German historians in a policy of "self-censorship."[26] He praised Röhl for finding and publishing two previously secret documents that showed German responsibility for the war.[27]

Backhouse frauds[edit]

One of Trevor-Roper's most successful later books was his 1976 biography of the Sinologist Sir Edmund Backhouse, 2nd Baronet (1873–1944), who had long been regarded as a leading expert on China. In his biography, Trevor-Roper exposed the vast majority of Backhouse's life-story and virtually all of his scholarship as a fraud, and the discrediting of Backhouse as a source led to much of China's history being re-written in the West.

Activities[edit]

In 1960, Trevor-Roper waged a successful campaign against the candidacy of Sir Oliver Franks who was backed by the heads of houses marshalled by Maurice Bowra, for the Chancellorship of the University of Oxford, and had his friend and publisher the Prime Minister Harold Macmillan elected instead.[citation needed] In 1964, Trevor-Roper edited a Festschrift in honour of his friend Sir Keith Feiling's 80th birthday. In 1970, he was the author of The Letters of Mercurius, a satirical work on the student revolts and university politics of the late 1960s, originally published as letters in The Spectator.[28]

Trevor-Roper was mentioned in History and the Imagination, the Festschrift in his honour. Some of the contributors were Sir Geoffrey Elton, John Clive, Arnaldo Momigliano, Frances Yates, Jeremy Catto, Robert S. Lopez, Michael Howard, David S. Katz, Dimitri Obolensky, J. H. Elliott, Richard Cobb, Walter Pagel, Hugh Lloyd-Jones, Valerie Pearl and Fernand Braudel.[29]

The topics contributed by this group of American, British, French, Russian, Italian, Israeli, Canadian and German historians extended from whether the Odyssey was a part of an oral tradition that was later written down, to the question of the responsibility for the Jameson Raid.[30]

Debates on African history[edit]

Another aspect of Trevor-Roper’s general outlook on history and on scholarly research that has inspired controversy is his viewpoint on historical experiences of pre-literate societies. In accordance with Hegel[31] he made the now-famous remark that Africa had no history prior to European exploration and colonisation, declaring that "there is only the history of Europeans in Africa. The rest is darkness" with its past "the unedifying gyrations of barbarous tribes in picturesque but irrelevant corners of the globe."[32] These comments, recapitulated in a later article which called Africa "unhistoric",[33] spurred intense debate between historians, anthropologists, sociologists, in the emerging fields of postcolonial and cultural studies about the definition of "history."[34][35][36]

The conflict centres around what must be present in order for a society to qualify as having a "history,” Trevor-Roper arguing that it required documented evidence.[37] Many historians agreed with this central claim but think historical evidence should also include oral traditions as well as written history, the previous litmus test for a society having left "prehistory" behind.[38][39] Critics of Trevor-Roper’s claim have questioned the validity of systematic interpretations of the African past, whether by materialist, Annalist, or, like Trevor-Roper, traditional historical methods.[40][41] Some try to argue that all approaches which compare Africa with Europe or directly integrate it into European history cannot be an accurate description of African societies and cultures.[42] Nevertheless, although virtually all scholars now agree that Africa qualifies as having a "history," Trevor-Roper's statements played an indirect, but important role in the development of post-colonial African studies by motivating discussions about Africa’s role in the present and historical world, and concede his major point, that evidence is required for accurate understanding.

Election as Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge[edit]

In 1980 at the age of sixty-seven, he became Master of Peterhouse, the oldest and smallest college at the University of Cambridge. His election, which surprised his friends, was engineered by a group of fellows led by Maurice Cowling, then the leading Peterhouse Historian. The Fellows chose him because Cowling's reactionary clique thought he would be an arch-conservative who would oppose the admission of women. In the event, Trevor-Roper feuded constantly with Cowling and his allies, while launching a series of administrative reforms. Women were admitted in 1983 at his urging. In 1987 he retired complaining of "seven wasted years."[43]

"Hitler Diaries" hoax[edit]

The nadir of his career came in 1983, when as a director of The Times he "authenticated" the so-called Hitler Diaries. The opinion among experts in the field was by no means unanimous; David Irving for example, initially decried them as forgeries but subsequently changed his mind and declared that they could be genuine, before finally stating that they were a forgery. Historians Gerhard Weinberg and Eberhard Jäckel had also expressed doubt regarding the authenticity of the diaries.[44] Within two weeks forensic scientist Julius Grant demonstrated that the diaries were a forgery. The incident gave Trevor-Roper's enemies the opportunity to criticise him openly.

Trevor-Roper's initial endorsement of the diaries raised questions not only about his perspicacity as a historian but also about his integrity, because The Sunday Times, a newspaper to which he regularly contributed book reviews and of which he was an independent director, had already paid a considerable sum for the right to serialise the diaries. Trevor-Roper denied any dishonest motivation, explaining that he had been given assurances about how the diaries had come into the possession of their "discoverer" which had been wrong, prompting the satirical magazine Private Eye to nickname him Hugh Very-Ropey (Lord Lucre of Claptout).

Despite the shadow that this incident cast over his later career, he continued to write and publish, and his work continued[citation needed] to be well received.

He was portrayed in the 1991 TV miniseries Selling Hitler by Alan Bennett.

Personal life[edit]

On 4 October 1954, Trevor-Roper married Lady Alexandra Henrietta Louisa Howard-Johnston (9 March 1907 – 15 August 1997),[45] eldest daughter of Field Marshal the Earl Haig by his wife, the former Hon. Dorothy Maud Vivian. Lady Alexandra was a goddaughter of Queen Alexandra and had previously been married to Rear-Admiral Clarence Dinsmore Howard-Johnston, by whom she had had three children. There were no children in his own marriage to her.

Hugh Trevor-Roper was awarded a life peerage in 1979 and chose the title Baron Dacre of Glanton, of Glanton in the County of Northumberland, because he was the great-great-great-grandson of Reverend the Hon. Richard Henry Roper, second and youngest son of Anne, 16th Baroness Dacre, from her second marriage to Henry Roper, 8th Baron Teynham.

He was the first life peer created during Margaret Thatcher's term as Prime Minister.[46]

Trevor-Roper died of cancer in a hospice in Oxford, aged 89.[47] In his last years he had suffered from sight problems, which were corrected by surgery.

Posthumous books[edit]

Five books by Trevor-Roper were published posthumously. The first was Letters from Oxford, a collection of letters written by Trevor-Roper between 1947–59 to his close friend the American art collector Bernard Berenson. The second book was 2006's Europe’s Physician, an unfinished biography of Sir Theodore de Mayerne, the Franco-Swiss court physician to Henri IV, James I and Charles I. The latter work was largely completed by 1979, but for some unknown reasons was not finished. The third book was The Invention of Scotland: Myth and History, a critique written in the mid-1970s of what Trevor-Roper regarded as the myths of Scottish nationalism. It was published in 2008. The fourth book collecting together some of his influential essays on History and the Enlightenment: Eighteenth Century Essays was published in 2010. The fifth book was The Wartime Journals, edited by Richard Davenport-Hines, published in 2011. The Wartime Journals are from Trevor-Roper's journals that he kept during his years in the Secret Intelligent Service.

Works[edit]

  • Archbishop Laud, 1573–1645, 1940.
  • The Last Days of Hitler, 1947 (revised editions followed, until the last in 1995)
  • "The Elizabethan Aristocracy: An Anatomy Anatomized," Economic History Review (1951) 3 No 3 pp. 279–298 in JSTOR
  • Secret Conversations, 1941–1944 (published later as Hitler's Table Talk, 1941–1944), 1953.
  • Historical Essays, 1957 (pulished in the United States in 1958 as Men and Events).
  • "The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century" pages 31–64 from Past and Present, Volume 16, 1959.
  • "Hitlers Kriegsziele" pages 121–133 from Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitsgeschichte, Volume 8, 1960, translated into English as "Hitler's War Aims" pages 235–250 from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch, London: Macmillan Ltd, 1985.
  • "A. J. P. Taylor, Hitler and the War" pages 86–96 from Encounter, Volume 17, July 1961.
  • "E. H. Carr's Success Story" pages 69–77 from Encounter, Volume 84, Issue No 104, 1962
  • Blitzkrieg to Defeat: Hitler's War Directives, 1939–1945, 1964, 1965.
  • Essays in British history presented to Sir Keith Feiling edited by H.R. Trevor-Roper; with a foreword by Lord David Cecil (1964)
  • The Rise of Christian Europe, 1965.
  • Hitler's Place in History, 1965.
  • The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Religion, the Reformation, and Social Change, and Other Essays, 1967.
  • The Age of Expansion, Europe and the World, 1559–1600, edited by Hugh Trevor-Roper, 1968.
  • The Philby Affair: Espionage, Treason and Secret Services, 1968.
  • The Romantic Movement and the Study of History: the John Coffin memorial lecture delivered before the University of London on 17 February 1969, 1969.
  • The European Witch-Craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 1969
  • The Plunder of the Arts in the Seventeenth Century, 1970.
  • Queen Elizabeth's First Historian: William Camden and the Beginning of English "Civil History", 1971.
  • "Fernand Braudel, the Annales, and the Mediterranean," The Journal of Modern History Vol. 44, No. 4, December 1972
  • "Foreword" pages 9–16 from 1914: Delusion or Design The Testimony of Two German Diplomats edited by John Röhl, 1973.
  • A Hidden Life: The Enigma of Sir Edmund Backhouse (published in the US as The Hermit of Peking: The Hidden Life of Sir Edmund Backhouse), 1976.
  • Princes and Artists: Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg Courts, 1517–1633, 1976.
  • History and Imagination: A Valedictory Lecture Delivered before the University of Oxford on 20 May 1980, 1980.
  • Renaissance Essays, 1985.
  • Catholics, Anglicans and Puritans: Seventeenth Century Essays, 1987.
  • From Counter-Reformation to Glorious Revolution, 1992.
  • Edward Gibbon – The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 1 introduction (London: Everyman's Library, 1993).
  • Letters from Oxford: Hugh Trevor-Roper to Bernard Berenson. Edited by Richard Davenport-Hines. L.: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006, ISBN 0-297-85084-9.
  • Europe’s Physician: The Various Life of Sir Theodore De Mayerne, 2007, ISBN 0-300-11263-7.
  • The Invention of Scotland: Myth and History, 2008, ISBN 0-300-13686-2
  • History and the Enlightenment: Eighteenth Century Essays, 2010, ISBN 0-300-13934-9
  • The Wartime Journals: Hugh Trevor-Roper, Edited by Richard Davenport-Hines, 2011 ISBN 1-84885-990-2.

Primary sources[edit]

  • Letters from Oxford: Hugh Trevor-Roper to Bernard Berenson edited by Richard Davenport-Hines (2007)
  • My Dear Hugh: Letters from Richard Cobb to Hugh Trevor-Roper and Others edited by Tim Heald (2011) [NB does not contain any letters written by Trevor-Roper]
  • One Hundred Letters From Hugh Trevor-Roper, edited by Richard Davenport-Hines, and Adam Sisman (2013) except and text search

See also[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Lord Dacre of Glanton". The Telegraph (obituary). 27 January 2003. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Adam Sisman, Hugh Trevor-Roper (2010) p 400
  3. ^ Know Beran, Michael (30 January 2003). "H.R. Trevor-Roper, R.I.P.". National Review. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  4. ^ a b P. R. J. Winter, "A Higher Form of Intelligence: Hugh Trevor-Roper and Wartime British Secret Service," Intelligence & National Security (Dec 2007), 22#6 pp 847–880,
  5. ^ Batey, Keith (2011). "Chapter 17: How Dilly Knox and His Girls Broke the Abwehr Enigma". In Erskine, Ralph; Smith, Michael. The Bletchley Park Codebreakers. Biteback Publishing. pp. 35–39. ISBN 978-1849540780.  (Updated and extended version of Action This Day: From Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer Bantam Press 2001)
  6. ^ MI5 Security Service (2005) Hitler's last days
  7. ^ In The Bunker with Hitler – Bernd Freytag von Loringhoven with Francois d' Alancon – Weidenfeld & Nicholson/Orion Books – 2006 ISBN 0-297-84555-1
  8. ^ a b Parker (2014)
  9. ^ Douglas (2014)
  10. ^ Ron Rosenbaum (1999). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. HarperCollins. p. 66. 
  11. ^ An Honourable Englishman: The Life of Hugh Trevor-Roper. Random House of Canada. 2011. pp. 278–9. 
  12. ^ Sisman, 2010
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Robinson, Kristen (1999). "Trevor-Roper, Hugh". In Kelly Boyd. The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 2. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. pp. 1024–5. ISBN 1-884964-33-8. 
  14. ^ a b Brown, Kenneth "Tawney, R.H." pages 1172–1173 from The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing page 1173.
  15. ^ H. R. Trevor-Roper, "The Elizabethan Aristocracy: An Anatomy Anatomized," Economic History Review (1951) 3#3 pp. 279–298 in JSTOR
  16. ^ Ron Rosenbaum (2011). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. Faber & Faber. pp. 118–19. 
  17. ^ Sisman, (2010) pp 178, 261, 291
  18. ^ Stephen J. Lee (2012). European Dictatorships 1918–1945. Routledge. p. 242. 
  19. ^ a b Rabb, Theodore K.The Struggle for Stability in Early Modern Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, 1975 page 18.
  20. ^ Rabb, Theodore K.The Struggle for Stability in Early Modern Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, 1975 pages 20–21 & 25–26.
  21. ^ Rabb, Theodore K.The Struggle for Stability in Early Modern Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, 1975 page 22.
  22. ^ Rabb, Theodore K.The Struggle for Stability in Early Modern Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, 1975 pages 22–23.
  23. ^ Rabb, Theodore K.The Struggle for Stability in Early Modern Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, 1975 page 26.
  24. ^ Trevor-Roper, Hugh "Foreword" to 1914: Delusion or Design? page 11
  25. ^ Trevor-Roper, Hugh "Foreword" to 1914: Delusion or Design? page 10
  26. ^ Trevor-Roper, Hugh "Foreword" to 1914: Delusion or Design? pages 9–10
  27. ^ Trevor-Roper, Hugh "Foreword" to 1914: Delusion or Design? pages 13–15
  28. ^ "Guest Speaker: Nigel Lawson". Standpoint. August 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  29. ^ Lloyd-Jones, Hugh & Pearl, Valerie History & the Imagination, New York: Holmes & Meier, 1981 page vii
  30. ^ Lloyd-Jones, Hugh & Pearl, Valerie History & the Imagination, New York: Holmes & Meier, 1981 pages viii–ix
  31. ^ Hegel, G.W.F. (1821–31), The Philosophy of History, trans. J. Jibree. New York: Dover, 1956, p.99 Africa is "no historical part of the World; it has no movement or development to exhibit".
  32. ^ What's New About African History?, By John Edward Philips, History news network, 6 April 2006
  33. ^ Hugh Trevor-Roper, "The Past and Present: History and Sociology,” Past and Present 42 (1969): 6.
  34. ^ R. Hunt Davis, "Interpreting the Colonial Period in African History,” African Affairs 72, no. 289 (1973): 383–400.
  35. ^ Gus Deveneaux, "The Frontier in Recent African History,” The International Journal of African Studies 11, no. 1 (1978): 63–85.
  36. ^ Shepard Krech III, "The State of Ethnohistory,” Annual Review of Anthropology 20 (1991): 345.
  37. ^ Ali A. Mazrui, "European Exploration and Africa’s Self-Discovery,” The Journal of Modern African Studies 7, no. 4 (1969): 661–676.
  38. ^ Kenneth C. Wylie, "The Uses and Misuses of Ethnohistory,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 3, no. 4 (1973): 707–720.
  39. ^ Alan Gailey, "The Nature of Tradition,” Folklore 100, no. 2 (1989): 143–161.
  40. ^ Deveneaux, 67.
  41. ^ Mount, Ferdinand (2006). "Voltaire of St Aldates, The". The Spectator. 
  42. ^ Finn Fugelstad, "The Trevor-Roper Trap or the Imperialism of History. An Essay,” History in Africa 19 (1992): 309–326.
  43. ^ Sisman, pp 483, 487, 490, 493, 506, 558, 562
  44. ^ Richard J. Evans, Telling Lies About Hitler: The Holocaust, History and the David Irving Trial (London, 2002), p. 25.
  45. ^ "Lady Alexandra Henrietta Louisa Haig (later Alexandra Trevor-Roper, Lady Dacre) (1907–1997), Wife of Hugh Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre; daughter of Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig". National Portrait Gallery. 
  46. ^ http://www.electric-review.com/archives/000024.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  47. ^ Knox Beran, Michael (31 January 2003). "H. R. Trevor-Roper, R.I.P. – Michael Knox Beran – National Review Online". nationalreview.com. Retrieved 8 November 2012. 

References[edit]

  • Ascherson, Neal. "Liquidator," London Review of Books Vol. 32 No. 16 · 19 August 2010 pages 10–12
  • Douglas, Sarah K. "The Search for Hitler: Hugh Trevor-Roper, Humphrey Serle and the Last Days of Hitler: text," Journal of Military History (Jan 2014) 78 No 1 pp 165–210
    • Parker, Geoffrey. ""The Search for Hitler: Hugh Trevor-Roper, Humphrey Serle, and the Last Days of Hitler: Prologue," Journal of Military History (Jan 2014) 78 No 1 pp 159–64
  • Lloyd-Jones, Hugh (1981). Valerie Pearl & Blair Worden, ed. History and Imagination: Essays in Honor of H.R. Trevor-Roper. London: Duckworth. 
  • Rabb, Theodore (1975). The Struggle for Stability in Early Modern Europe. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195019563. 
  • Robinson, Kristen. "Trevor-Roper, Hugh" pages 1204–1205 from The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing edited by Kelly Boyd, Volume 2 M-Z, London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999, ISBN 1-884964-33-8.
  • Rosenbaum, Ron (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-43151-9. 
  • Saleh, Zaki (1958). Trevor-Roper's Critique of Arnold Toynbee: A Symptom of Intellectual Chaos. Baghdad: Al-Ma'eref Press. 
  • Sisman, Adam (2010). Hugh Trevor-Roper, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-85214-8; published in North America as Sisman, Adam (2011). An Honourable Englishman: The Life of Hugh Trevor-Roper. Random House of Canada. 
  • Winter, P. R. (December 2007). "A Higher Form of Intelligence: Hugh Trevor-Roper and Wartime British Secret Service". Intelligence and National Security 22 (6): 847–880. doi:10.1080/02684520701770642. 
  • “Discussion of H. R. Trevor-Roper: "The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century"” pages 8–42 from Past and Present, No. 18, November 1960 with contributions from Roland Mousnier, J. H. Elliott, Lawrence Stone, H. R. Trevor-Roper, E. H. Kossmann, E. J. Hobsbawm and J. H. Hexter.

External links[edit]

About Trevor-Roper
By Trevor-Roper
Academic offices
Preceded by
Grahame Clark
Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge
1980–1987
Succeeded by
Henry Chadwick