Hugh of Lucca was appointed surgeon for Bologna in Italy in 1214 for a salary of 600 Bolognini per year. His contract required that he serve the army in times of war, and in the Fifth Crusade he joined the army in Egypt. He discovered, probably through empirical observation (there was no notion of infection by germs at this time), that wine was very effective at cleaning a wound and preventing infection. Regardless of what Hugh asserted, many surgeons still used ointments, or just cauterisation. Unlike many other doctors and surgeons at that time, Hugh and Theodoric were aware that pus was not a healthy sign. Other doctors referred to it as "praiseworthy pus" and believed it got rid of any toxins in the blood, and so, that it was a good sign.