Hughes Medal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
J. J. Thomson, who won the first medal in 1902 "for his numerous contributions to electric science, especially in reference to the phenomena of electric discharge in gases"

The Hughes Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London "in recognition of an original discovery in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism or their applications".[1] Named after David E. Hughes, the medal is awarded with a gift of £1000. The medal was first awarded in 1902 to J. J. Thomson "for his numerous contributions to electric science, especially in reference to the phenomena of electric discharge in gases", and has since been awarded 105 times. The only year in which no medal was awarded was 1924; the Royal Society have not provided a reason for the lack of an award. Unlike other Royal Society medals, the Hughes Medal has never been awarded to the same individual more than once. A recent recipient was Michele Dougherty, who was awarded the medal "for innovative use of magnetic field data that led to discovery of an atmosphere around one of Saturn's moons and the way it revolutionised our view of the role of planetary moons in the Solar System".[1]

The medal has on occasion been awarded to multiple people at a time; in 1938 it was won by John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton "for their discovery that nuclei could be disintegrated by artificially produced bombarding particles",[2] in 1981 by Peter Higgs and Tom Kibble "for their international contributions about the spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries in elementary-particle theory",[2] in 1982 by Drummond Matthews and Frederick Vine "for their elucidation of the magnetic properties of the ocean floors which subsequently led to the plate tectonic hypothesis" and in 1988 by Archibald Howie and M.J. Whelan "for their contributions to the theory of electron diffraction and microscopy, and its application to the study of lattice defects in crystals".[2]

List of recipients[edit]

Year Name Rationale Notes
1902 Thomson, Joseph JohnJoseph John Thomson "for his numerous contributions to electric science, especially in reference to the phenomena of electric discharge in gases" [3]
1903 Hittorf, Johann WilhelmJohann Wilhelm Hittorf "for his long continued experimental researches on the electric discharge in liquids and gases" [4]
1904 Swan, JosephJoseph Swan "for his invention of the incandescent lamp, and his other inventions and improvements in the practical applications of electricity" [5]
1905 Righi, AugustoAugusto Righi "for his experimental researches in electrical science, including electric vibrations" [6]
1906 Ayrton, HerthaHertha Ayrton "for her experimental investigations on the electric arc, and also on sand ripples" [7]
1907 Griffiths, Ernest HowardErnest Howard Griffiths "for his contributions to exact physical measurement" [8]
1908 Goldstein, EugenEugen Goldstein "for his discoveries on the nature of electric discharge in rarefied gasses" [9]
1909 Glazebrook, RichardRichard Glazebrook "for his researches on electrical standards" [10][11]
1910 Fleming, John AmbroseJohn Ambrose Fleming "for his researches in electricity and electrical measurements" [12]
1911 Wilson, CharlesCharles Wilson "for his work on nuclei in dust-free air, and his work on ions in gases and atmospheric electricity" [13]
1912 Duddell, WilliamWilliam Duddell "for his investigations in technical electricity" [14]
1913 Bell, Alexander GrahamAlexander Graham Bell "for his share in the invention of the telephone, and more especially the construction of the telephone receiver" [15]
1914 Townsend, John SealyJohn Sealy Townsend "for his researches on electric induction in gases" [16]
1915 Langevin, PaulPaul Langevin "for his important contributions to, and pre-eminent position in, electrical science" [17]
1916 Thomson, ElihuElihu Thomson "for his researches in experimental electricity" [18]
1917 Barkla, CharlesCharles Barkla "for his researches in connexion with X-ray radiation" [19]
1918 Langmuir, IrvingIrving Langmuir "for his researches in molecular physics" [20]
1919 Chree, CharlesCharles Chree "for his researches in terrestrial magnetism" [21]
1920 Richardson, OwenOwen Richardson "for his work in experimental physics, and especially thermionics" [22]
1921 Bohr, NielsNiels Bohr "for his research in theoretical physics" [23]
1922 , Francis William AstonFrancis William Aston "for his discovery of isotopes of a large number of the elements by the method of positive rays" [24]
1923 Millikan, RobertRobert Millikan "for his determination of the electronic charge and of other physical constants" [25]
1924 zzzzNot awarded  —
1925 Smith, Frank EdwardFrank Edward Smith "for his determination of fundamental electrical units and for researches in technical electricity" [26]
1926 Jackson, HenryHenry Jackson "for his pioneer work in the scientific investigations of radiotelegraphy and its application to navigation" [27]
1927 Coolidge, WilliamWilliam Coolidge "for his work on the X-rays and the development of highly efficient apparatus for their production" [28]
1928 Broglie, Maurice deMaurice de Broglie "for his work on X-ray spectra" [29]
1929 Geiger, HansHans Geiger "for his invention and development of methods of counting alpha and beta particles" [30]
1930 Raman, Chandrasekhara VenkataChandrasekhara Venkata Raman "for his studies on the abnormal scattering of light" [31]
1931 Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg "for his pioneer work on the elucidation of crystal structure by X-ray analysis" [32]
1932 Chadwick, JamesJames Chadwick "for his researches on radioactivity" [33]
1933 Appleton, Edward VictorEdward Victor Appleton "for his researches into the effect of the Heaviside layer upon the transmission of wireless signals" [34]
1934 Siegbahn, ManneManne Siegbahn "for his work as a physicist and technician on long-wave X-rays" [35]
1935 Davisson, ClintonClinton Davisson "for his research that resulted in the discovery of the physical existence of electron waves through long-continued investigations on the reflection of electrons from the crystal planes of nickel and other metals" [36]
1936 Schottky, Walter H.Walter H. Schottky "for his discovery of the Schrot Effect in thermionic emission and his invention of the screen-grid tetrode and a superheterodyne method of receiving wireless signals" [37]
1937 Lawrence, ErnestErnest Lawrence "for his work on the development of the cyclotron and its application to investigations of nuclear disintegration" [38]
1938 Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft and Walton, ErnestErnest Walton "for their discovery that nuclei could be disintegrated by artificially produced bombarding particles" [39]
1939 Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson "for his important discoveries in connexion with the diffraction of electrons by matter" [40]
1940 Compton, ArthurArthur Compton "for his discovery of the Compton Effect; and for his work on cosmic rays" [41]
1941 Mott, NevillNevill Mott "for his fertile application of the principles of quantum theory to many branches of physics, especially in the fields of nuclear and collision theory, in the theory of metals and in the theory of photographic emulsions" [42]
1942 Fermi, EnricoEnrico Fermi "for his outstanding contributions to the knowledge of the electrical structure of matter, his work in quantum theory, and his experimental studies of the neutron"
1943 Oliphant, MarcusMarcus Oliphant "for his distinguished work in nuclear physics and mastery of methods of generating and applying high potentials" [43]
1944 Finch, GeorgeGeorge Finch "for his fundamental contributions to the study of the structure and properties of surfaces, and for his important work on the electrical ignition of gases" [44]
1945 Schonland, BasilBasil Schonland "for his work on atmospheric electricity and of other physical researches" [45]
1946 Randall, JohnJohn Randall "for his distinguished researches into fluorescent materials and into the production of high frequency electro-magnetic radiation"
1947 Joliot-Curie, FrédéricFrédéric Joliot-Curie "for his distinguished contributions to nuclear physics, particularly the discovery of artificial radioactivity and of neutron emission in the fission process" [46]
1948 Watson-Watt, RobertRobert Watson-Watt "for his distinguished contributions to atmospheric physics and to the development of radar"
1949 Powell, CecilCecil Powell "for his distinguished work on the photography of particle tracks, and in connexion with the discovery of mesons and their transformation" [47]
1950 Born, MaxMax Born "for his contributions to theoretical physics in general and to the development of quantum mechanics in particular" [48]
1951 Kramers, HendrikHendrik Kramers "for his distinguished work on the quantum theory, particularly its application to the optical and magnetic properties of matter"
1952 Dee, PhilipPhilip Dee "particularly for his distinguished studies on the disintegration of atomic nuclei, particularly those using the Wilson cloud chamber technique"
1953 Bullard, EdwardEdward Bullard "for his important contributions to the development, both theoretical and experimental, of the physics of the Earth" [49]
1954 Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle "for his distinguished and original experimental researches in radio astronomy" [50]
1955 Massey, HarrieHarrie Massey "for his distinguished contributions to atomic and molecular physics, particularly in regard to collisions involving the production and recombination of ions"
1956 Lindemann, FrederickFrederick Lindemann "for his distinguished work in many fields: the melting point formula and theory of specific heats; ionisation of stars; meteors and temperature inversion in the stratosphere" [51]
1957 Proudman, JosephJoseph Proudman "for his distinguished work on dynamical oceanography" [52]
1958 da Costa Andrade, EdwardEdward da Costa Andrade "for his distinguished contributions to many branches of classical physics"
1959 Pippard, BrianBrian Pippard "for his distinguished contributions in the field of low temperature physics"
1960 Pawsey, JosephJoseph Pawsey "for his distinguished contributions to radio astronomy both in the study of solar and of cosmic ray emission"
1961 Cottrell, AlanAlan Cottrell "for his distinguished work on the physical properties of metals, particularly in relation to mechanical deformation and to the effects of irradiation" [53]
1962 Bleaney, BrebisBrebis Bleaney "for his distinguished studies of electrical and magnetic phenomena and their correlation with atomic and molecular properties" [54]
1963 Williams, FredericFrederic Williams "for distinguished work on early computers"
1964 Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam "for his distinguished contributions to quantum mechanics and the theory of fundamental particles" [55]
1965 Wilkinson, DenysDenys Wilkinson "for his distinguished experimental and theoretical investigation in nuclear structure and high energy physics"
1966 Kemmer, NicholasNicholas Kemmer "for his numerous discoveries of major importance in theoretical nuclear physics which he has made" [56]
1967 Mendelssohn, KurtKurt Mendelssohn "for his distinguished contributions to cryophysics, especially his discoveries in superconductivity and superfluidity" [57]
1968 Dyson, FreemanFreeman Dyson "for his distinguished fundamental work in theoretical physics, and especially on quantum electrodynamics" [58]
1969 Kurti, NicholasNicholas Kurti "for his distinguished work in low-temperature physics and in thermodynamics" [59]
1970 Bates, DavidDavid Bates "for his distinguished contributions to theoretical atomic and molecular physics and its applications to atmospheric physics, plasma physics and astrophysics" [60]
1971 Brown, Robert HanburyRobert Hanbury Brown "Robert Hanbury Brown, for his distinguished work in developing a new form of stellar interfrometer [sic], culminating in his observations of alpha virginis" [61]
1972 Josephson, Brian DavidBrian David Josephson "particularly for his discovery of the remarkable properties of junctions between superconducting materials" [62]
1973 Hirsch, PeterPeter Hirsch "for his distinguished contributions to the development of the electron microscope thin film technique for the study of crystal defects and its application to a very wide range of problems in materials science and metallurgy" [63]
1974 Fowler, PeterPeter Fowler "for his outstanding contributions to cosmic ray and elementary particle physics" [64]
1975 Dalitz, RichardRichard Dalitz "for his distinguished contributions to the theory of the basic particles of matter" [65]
1976 Hawking, StephenStephen Hawking "for his distinguished contributions to the application of general relativity to astrophysics, especially to the behaviour of highly condensed matter" [66]
1977 Hewish, AntonyAntony Hewish "for his outstanding contributions to radioastronomy, including the discovery and identification of pulsars" [67]
1978 Cochran, WilliamWilliam Cochran "for his pioneering contributions to the science of X-ray crystallography, in which his work has made a profound impact on its development and application, and for his original contributions to lattice dynamics and its relation to phase transitions, which stimulated a new and fruitful field of results" [68]
1979 Williams, Robert Joseph PatonRobert Joseph Paton Williams "for his distinguished studies of the conformations of computer molecules in solution by the use of nuclear magnetic resonance" [69]
1980 Farley, FrancisFrancis Farley "for his ultra-precise measurements of the muon magnetic moment, a severe test of quantum electrodynamics and of the nature of the muon"
1981 Higgs, PeterPeter Higgs and Kibble, TomTom Kibble "for their international contributions about the spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries in elementary-particle theory" [70]
1982 Matthews, DrummondDrummond Matthews and Vine, FrederickFrederick Vine "for their elucidation of the magnetic properties of the ocean floors which subsequently led to the plate tectonic hypothesis" [71]
1983 Ward, JohnJohn Ward "for his highly influential and original contributions to quantum field theory, particularly the Ward identity and the Salam-Ward theory of weak interactions" [72]
1984 Kerr, RoyRoy Kerr "for his distinguished work on relativity, especially for his discovery of the so-called Kerr Black Hole, which has been very influential" [73]
1985 Skyrme, TonyTony Skyrme "for his contributions to theoretical particle and nuclear physics, and his discovery that particle-like entities simulating the properties of baryons can occur in non-linear meson field theories"
1986 Woolfson, MichaelMichael Woolfson "for the creation of algorithms including MULTAN and SAYTAN which are used world-wide to solve the majority of reported crystal structures"
1987 Pepper, MichaelMichael Pepper "for his many important experimental investigations into the fundamental properties of semiconductors especially low-dimensional systems, where he has elucidated some of their unusual properties like electron localization and the Quantum Hall effects"
1988 Howie, ArchibaldArchibald Howie and Whelan, M.J.M.J. Whelan "for their contributions to the theory of electron diffraction and microscopy, and its application to the study of lattice defects in crystals"
1989 Bell, John StewartJohn Stewart Bell "for his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the structure and interpretation of quantum theory, in particular demonstrating the unique nature of its predictions" [74]
1990 Cowling, Thomas GeorgeThomas George Cowling "for his fundamental contributions to theoretical astrophysics including seminal theoretical studies of the role of electromagnetic induction in cosmic systems" [75]
1991 Moon, PhilipPhilip Moon "for his contributions in three main areas of science — nuclear physics, the discovery of gamma-ray resonances, and the use of colliding molecular beams to study chemical reactions" [76]
1992 Seaton, MichaelMichael Seaton "for his theoretical research in atomic physics and leadership of the Opacity Project" [72]
1993 Isaak, GeorgeGeorge Isaak "for his pioneering use of resonant scattering techniques to make extremely precise measures of Doppler velocity shifts in the solar photosphere" [77]
1994 Chambers, Robert G.Robert G. Chambers "for his many contributions to solid-state physics, in particular his ingenious and technically demanding experiment which verified the Ahoronov-Bohm effect concerning the behaviour of charged particles in magnetic fields"
1995 Shoenberg, DavidDavid Shoenberg "for his work on the electronic structure of solids, in particular by exploiting low temperature techniques, particularly the De Haas Van Alphen effect, defining the Fermi surface of many metals"
1996 Buckingham, AmyandAmyand Buckingham "for his contributions to chemical physics, in particular to long-range intermolecular forces, non-linear optics, problems related to the polarizability of the helium atom, the interpretation of NMR spectra, and the applications of ab initio computations" [78]
1997 Lang, AndrewAndrew Lang "for his fundamental work on X-ray diffraction physics and for his developments of the techniques of X-ray topography, in particular in studying defects in crystal structures" [79]
1998 Hide, RaymondRaymond Hide "for his distinguished experimental and theoretical investigations of the hydrodynamics of rotating fluids and the application of such basic studies to the understanding of motions in the atmosphere and interiors of the major planets" [80]
1999 Boksenberg, AlexanderAlexander Boksenberg "for his landmark discoveries concerning the nature of active galactic nuclei, the physics of the intergalactic medium and of the interstellar gas in primordial galaxies. He is noted also for his exceptional contributions to the development of astronomical instrumentation including the Image Photon Counting System, a revolutionary electronic area detector for the detection of faint sources, which gave a major impetus to optical astronomy in the United Kingdom" [81]
2000 Rao, ChintamaniChintamani Rao "for his contributions to the field of materials chemistry, in particular, in relation to studies of the electronic and magnetic properties of transition metal oxides and high temperature superconductors. His work has been an inspiration to a generation of Indian scientists" [82]
2001 Pethica, JohnJohn Pethica "for his contributions to the field of nanometre and atomic scale mechanics. He invented and developed the technique of nanoindentation thereby revolutionising the mechanical characterisation of ultra-small volumes of materials. This has had a major influence on those industries concerned with thin film and coating technologies" [83]
2002 Dalgarno, AlexanderAlexander Dalgarno "for his contributions to the theory of atomic and molecular process, and in particular its application to astrophysics. His studies of energy depositions provide the key to understanding emissions from terrestrial aurorae, planetary atmospheres and comets"
2003 Edwards, PeterPeter Edwards "for his distinguished work as a solid state chemist. He has made seminal contributions to fields including superconductivity and the behaviour of metal nanoparticles, and has greatly advanced our understanding of the phenomenology of the metal-insulator transition" [84]
2004 Clarke, JohnJohn Clarke "for his outstanding research, leading the world in the invention, building and development of innovative new Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUID), in their theory and in their application to a plethora of fundamental problems and their investigative tools"
2005 Moffatt, KeithKeith Moffatt "for his contributions to the understanding of magnetohydrodynamics, especially to the mechanisms determining how magnetic fields can develop from a low background level to substantial amplitude" [85]
2006 Kelly, MichaelMichael Kelly "for his work in the fundamental physics of electron transport and the creation of practical electronic devices which can be deployed in advanced systems"
2007 Ekert, ArturArtur Ekert "for his pioneering work on quantum cryptography and his many important contributions to the theory of quantum computation and other branches of quantum physics" [86]
2008 Dougherty, MicheleMichele Dougherty "for innovative use of magnetic field data that led to discovery of an atmosphere around one of Saturn's moons and the way it revolutionised our view of the role of planetary moons in the Solar System"
2010 Geim, AndreAndre Geim "for his revolutionary discovery of graphene, and elucidation of its remarkable properties" [87]
2011 Rosseinsky, MatthewMatthew Rosseinsky "for his influential discoveries in the synthetic chemistry of solid state electronic materials and novel microporous structures" [88]
2013 Sirringhaus, HenningHenning Sirringhaus "for his pioneering development of inkjet printing processes for organic semiconductor devices, and dramatic improvement of their functioning and efficiency" [89]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ a b "The Hughes Medal (1902)". Royal Society. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  2. ^ a b c "Hughes archive winners 1989 - 1902". Royal Society. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  3. ^ "2 in U.S. hono by Royal Society". The New York Times. 1939-11-03. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  4. ^ Nature. Nature Publishing Group. p. 109. 
  5. ^ "Sir Joseph W. Swan dead.; Inventor of Incandescent Lamp and Photographic Dry Plate.". The New York Times. 28 May 1914. p. 13. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  6. ^ "JSTOR:Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (subscription needed)". JSTOR 20023099. 
  7. ^ Riddle, Larry. "Biographies of Women Mathematicians: Hertha Marks Ayrton". Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  8. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Griffiths, Ernest Howard (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  9. ^ Mehra, Jagdish (1989). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Springer-Verlag. p. 233. ISBN 0-387-96284-0. 
  10. ^ "Sir Richard Tetley Glazebrook". National Physical Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  11. ^ Lockyer, Norman (1910). Nature. Macmillan Publishers. p. 135. ISBN 1-142-43147-9. 
  12. ^ Nature. Nature Publishing Group. p. 156. 
  13. ^ Nature. Nature Publishing Group. p. 184. 
  14. ^ Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 1917. p. 207. 
  15. ^ Bell Telephone Magazine. American Telephone and Telegraph Company Public Relations Dept. 1936. p. 59. 
  16. ^ Science. Journal Storage. 1914. p. 811. 
  17. ^ Williams, Trevor I. (1914). A Biographical Dictionary of Scientists. Journal Storage. p. 306. ISBN 0-7136-0924-9. 
  18. ^ Woodbury, David Oakes (1960). Elihu Thomson, Beloved Scientist, 1853-1937. Museum of Science. p. 351. 
  19. ^ Falconer, Isobel. "Barkla, Charles Glover". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30592.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  20. ^ Wasson, Tyler (1987). Nobel Prize Winners. Visual Education Corporation. p. 598. ISBN 0-8242-0756-4. 
  21. ^ Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 1987. p. 14. 
  22. ^ Who Was Who in Literature. Thomson Gale. 1979. p. 955. 
  23. ^ Moor, Ruth (1966). Niels Bohr: the Man, His Science, & the World They Changed. MIT Press. p. 427. 
  24. ^ Schlessinger, Bernard S. (1986). The Who's who of Nobel Prize Winners. Oryx Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-89774-193-5. 
  25. ^ Moritz, Charles (1952). Current Biography. The H. W. Wilson Company. p. 35. ISBN 0-8242-0551-0. 
  26. ^ Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Royal Society Publishing. 1926. p. 15. 
  27. ^ Science. HighWire Press. 1926. p. 552. 
  28. ^ The British Journal of Radiology. The British Journal of Radiology. 1949. p. 549. 
  29. ^ Science. HighWire Press. 1929. p. 506. 
  30. ^ Haven, Kendall F. (1999). 100 Most Popular Scientists for Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited. p. 211. ISBN 0-585-22555-9. 
  31. ^ Aiyasami, Jayaraman (1989). Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman: A Memoir. Affiliated East-West Press. p. 94. 
  32. ^ Ekspong, Gösta (2002). Physics: Nobel Lectures. Nobel Foundation. p. 383. ISBN 981-02-2677-2. 
  33. ^ Boorse, Henry Abraham (1989). The Atomic Scientists: A Biographical History. Wiley. p. 340. ISBN 0-471-50455-6. 
  34. ^ Wasson, Tyler (1987). Nobel Prize Winners: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary. Wiley. p. 30. ISBN 0-8242-0756-4. 
  35. ^ Ekspong, Gösta (2002). Physics: Nobel Lectures. Nobel Foundation. p. 92. ISBN 981-02-2677-2. 
  36. ^ Mehra, Jagdish (2001). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Springer. p. 623. ISBN 0-387-96284-0. 
  37. ^ Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1936. p. 480. 
  38. ^ Aird, Robert Burns (1994). Foundations of Modern Neurology: A Century of Progress. Raven Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-7817-0112-0. 
  39. ^ Mehra, Jagdish (2001). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Springer. p. 36. ISBN 0-387-96284-0. 
  40. ^ Bury, John P. T. (1952). The College of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary. University of California. p. 249. ISBN 0-85115-612-6. 
  41. ^ Review of Scientific Instruments. American Institute of Physics. 1941. p. 115. 
  42. ^ Davis, Edward Arthur (1998). Nevill Mott: Reminiscences and Appreciations. CRC Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-7484-0790-1. 
  43. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Oliphant, Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  44. ^ "Oxford DNB article: Finch, George Ingle (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  45. ^ "Janus: The Papers of Sir Basil Schonland". Janus. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  46. ^ "Wageningen UR — Wageningen University — Laboratory of Biophysics". Wageningen University. Retrieved 2009-02-06. [dead link]
  47. ^ "Cecil Powell — Biography". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  48. ^ "Max Born — Biography". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  49. ^ "Catalogue — National Library of Australia". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  50. ^ "Martin Ryle — Autobiography". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  51. ^ "Oxford DNB article: Lindermann, Frederick (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  52. ^ "Biography". Boston University. Retrieved 2009-02-06. [dead link]
  53. ^ "Springerlink — Journal Article". Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  54. ^ "Professor Brebis Bleaney — Obituaries — The Independent". London: The Independent. 2006-11-30. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  55. ^ "Abdus Salam — Curriculum". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  56. ^ "Obituary — Professor Nicholas Kemmer — The Independent". The Independent. Retrieved 2009-02-06. [dead link]
  57. ^ "The Rise and Fall of Civilizations: Modern Archaeological Approaches to Ancient Cultures". Questia Media America. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  58. ^ "Dyson biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  59. ^ "Progress Report 43". University of Bath. Retrieved 2009-02-06. [dead link]
  60. ^ "EGS — David Bates". European Geophysical Society. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  61. ^ "Brown, Robert Hanbury — Bright Sparcs Biography Entry". University of Melbourne. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  62. ^ "Brian D Josephson — Curriculum Vitae". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  63. ^ "Oxford Materials — Professor Sir Peter Hirsch". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  64. ^ "CosNews No. 28, Spring 1997". International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  65. ^ "Access: ObituaryRichardDalitz". Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  66. ^ White, Michael (2002). Stephen Hawking: A Life in Science. Joseph Henry Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-452-26988-1. 
  67. ^ Parker, Sybil P. (1980). McGraw-Hill Modern Scientists and Engineers: A-G. McGraw-Hill Book Company. p. 56. 
  68. ^ Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 1979. p. 677. 
  69. ^ Sleeman, Elizabeth (2003). The International Who's Who 2004. Europa. p. 677. 
  70. ^ The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2003. p. 728. 
  71. ^ Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 1982. p. 120. 
  72. ^ a b Year-book of the Royal Society of London. 1993. p. 1974. 
  73. ^ Mathematical Chronicle. University of Auckland Mathematical Chronicle Committee. 1985. p. 118. 
  74. ^ Matthew, H. C. G. (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 954. ISBN 0-19-280089-2. 
  75. ^ Matthew, H. C. G. (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 798. ISBN 0-19-280089-2. 
  76. ^ Metals and Materials: The Journal of the Institute of Metals. Institute of Metals. 1992. p. 119. 
  77. ^ "Professor George Isaak". London: The Daily Telegraph. 2005-07-14. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  78. ^ "Annual Report: Awards & Prizes". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 2009-02-07. [dead link]
  79. ^ "Professor Andrew Lang: Pioneer of X-ray diffraction physics". The Independent. 25 August 2008. 
  80. ^ "Hide, Prof. Raymond (subscription needed)". Who's Who 2008. Oxford University Press. December 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  81. ^ "Annual Report: Awards & Prizes". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 2009-02-07. [dead link]
  82. ^ "Yudhoyono meets with ASC 2008 participants". ANTARA. 8 June 2008. 
  83. ^ "Glittering prizes". Times Higher Education. 15 June 2001. 
  84. ^ "Annual Review 2003". University of Birmingham. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  85. ^ "Cambridge professor receives top scientific honour". University of Cambridge. 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  86. ^ "Royal Society Hughes Medal". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  87. ^ "The Hughes Medal (1902)". The Royal Society. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  88. ^ Template:Url = http://royalsociety.org/awards/hughes-medal/
  89. ^ Template:Url = http://royalsociety.org/awards/hughes-medal/

External links[edit]