Hulan Jack

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Hulan Edwin Jack (December 29, 1906 – December 19, 1986) was a prominent Saint Lucian-born New York politician who in 1954 became the highest ranking African American municipal official up until that time, when he was elected Borough President of Manhattan.[1]

Early life[edit]

Jack was born on December 29, 1906, in Saint Lucia, and spent his early years in British Guiana before emigrating to the United States.[2] His father was a minister in the African Orthodox Church. The young Hulan worked as a janitor at a paper box factory, eventually rising to become a vice president of the firm.[1]

He went on to become active in politics with Tammany Hall, winning several elections to the New York State Assembly, representing parts of Harlem in the 163rd, 164th, 165th, 166th, 167th, 168th and 169th New York State Legislatures from 1941 to 1953. As a legislator, he attempted unsuccessfully to pass legislation that would block the racial segregation in New York State public schools and in the sale of property.[3]

Borough President[edit]

In November 1953, he was elected Borough President of Manhattan, making him one of the nation's most important African-American elected officials.[1][4][5]

In 1956, Jack was the featured speaker at an event called "Interracial Sunday" at Loyola University in New Orleans. This caused a major controversy, and Emile Wagner, one of the founders of the New Orleans White Citizens Council, obtained material from the House Unamerican Activities Committee which suggested that Jack was a former member of subversive organizations. Jack denied the charges, accusing the White Citizens Council of a "rearguard action to disobey the decision handed-down by the Supreme Court on desegregation in schools." New York Mayor Robert F. Wagner defended Jack, calling him "the highest grade of American that I know of."[6]

Jack was indicted in 1959 for allowing a friend, Jack Ungar, to pay a $4,400 bill for the remodeling of his apartment. It was charged that Ungar, a real estate developer, hoped to obtain a contract from the city in return for the favor, although Jack voted against granting Ungar the contract. Jack was tried twice; the first trial ended with a hung jury, and in the second trial, an all-white jury found him guilty of accepting the gift and of then conspiring to hide it.[5][7] On January 16, 1961, Jack was sentenced to a suspended one-year term in prison, which had the effect of automatically removing him from the office of Borough President.[8]

Return to Assembly[edit]

Jack was again a member of the State Assembly from 1968 to 1972, representing the 70th District in the 177th, 178th and 179th New York State Legislatures. In 1972, Jack was convicted of extortion, along with five others. They were trying to force shop owners to carry a line of products manufactured by a company owned by Jack.[9] He received a three months prison term and a $5,000 fine. He appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which denied his appeal.[10] He was later pardoned by President Jimmy Carter according to his daughter.[11]

LaRouche movement[edit]

Jack became involved with the LaRouche movement, acting as a consultant to the 1980 presidential campaign of Lyndon LaRouche.[12] The LaRouche publishing house, New Benjamin Franklin House, published Jack's autobiography, Fifty Years a Democrat.[12] Jack and LaRouche founded the Committee for a New Africa Policy, which lobbied for short term aid and long-term infrastructure development for Africa.[2] In 1984, Jack became a founding member and board member of the LaRouche-affiliated Schiller Institute.[13] His daughter said the association was "unfortunate".[11]

Jack died on December 19, 1986, in St. Luke's Hospital in Manhattan, of cancer.[14] He belonged to the Roman Catholic church.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Johnson, John H., ed. (November 19, 1953). "Hulan Jack Wins N. Y. Election, Becomes Top Negro City Official". Jet (Chicago, Illinois: Johnson Publishing Company, Inc.) 5 (2): 8–9. 
  2. ^ a b Biography at BlackPast.org
  3. ^ Biondi, Martha, To Stand And Fight: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Postwar New York City, Harvard University Press, 2003, pp. 117, 242
  4. ^ Johnson, John H., ed. (December 10, 1953). Jet (Chicago, Illinois: Johnson Publishing Company, Inc.) 5 (5): 5. 
  5. ^ a b "NEW YORK: Borrowing Trouble". Time. January 25, 1960. 
  6. ^ Anderson, R. Bentley, Black, White, and Catholic: New Orleans Interracialism, 1947-1956, Vanderbilt University Press, 2005, pp. 154-159
  7. ^ "SEQUELS: Found Guilty". Time. December 19, 1960. 
  8. ^ HULAN JACK GETS SUSPENDED TERM in the New York Times on January 17, 1961 (subscription required)
  9. ^ SEVERO, RICHARD (December 9, 1970). "Hulan Jack and 5 Others Indicted for Labor Fraud; Hulan Jack and Five Others Are Indicted in Labor Fraud". New York Times. p. 1. 
  10. ^ "Supreme Court Spurns Appeal by Hulan Jack". March 27, 1973. 
  11. ^ a b "Hulan Jack". San Francisco Chronicle. Dec 22, 1986. p. 41. 
  12. ^ a b Biondi, Martha, To Stand And Fight: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Postwar New York City, Harvard University Press, 2003, p. 324
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ HULAN E. JACK DIES AT 79; EX-POLITICIAN IN HARLEM in the New York Times on December 22, 1968
  15. ^ PERKINS, BILL; MICHAEL HENRY ADAMS (September 26, 2004). "Chipping Away At Harlem". New York Times. p. 14.13. 
New York Assembly
Preceded by
Oscar Garcia Rivera
New York State Assembly
New York County, 17th District

1941–1944
Succeeded by
District abolished
Preceded by
Warren J. McCarron
New York State Assembly
New York County, 14th District

1945–1953
Succeeded by
Kenneth M. Phipps
Preceded by
Jose Ramos Lopez
New York State Assembly
70th District

1968–1972
Succeeded by
Jesse Gray
Political offices
Preceded by
Robert F. Wagner, Jr.
Borough President of Manhattan
1954–1961
Succeeded by
Edward R. Dudley