Hull Paragon Interchange

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Hull Paragon Interchange National Rail
Hull Paragon Interchange
Paragon Station (2008)
Location
Place Hull
Local authority Kingston upon Hull
Coordinates 53°44′37″N 0°20′46″W / 53.7435°N 0.3460°W / 53.7435; -0.3460Coordinates: 53°44′37″N 0°20′46″W / 53.7435°N 0.3460°W / 53.7435; -0.3460
Grid reference TA090287
Operations
Station code HUL
Managed by First TransPennine Express
Number of platforms 6
DfT category B
Live arrivals/departures and station information
from National Rail Enquiries
Annual rail passenger usage*
2004/05  1.961 million
2005/06 Increase 1.970 million
2006/07 Increase 2.051 million
2007/08 Increase 2.113 million
2008/09 Increase 2.163 million
2009/10 Decrease 2.146 million
2010/11 Increase 2.183 million
2011/12 Increase 2.213 million
History
Key dates Opened 1840 (1840)
National RailUK railway stations
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
* Annual estimated passenger usage based on sales of tickets in stated financial year(s) which end or originate at Hull Paragon Interchange from Office of Rail Regulation statistics. Methodology may vary year on year.
Portal icon UK Railways portal

Hull Paragon Interchange is an integrated rail and bus station in the city centre of Kingston upon Hull, England.

The G.T. Andrews designed Paragon Station and the adjoining Station Hotel opened in 1848 as the new Hull terminus for the growing traffic of the York and North Midland (Y&NMR) leased Hull and Selby Railway (H&S). As well as trains to the west the station was the terminus of the Y&NMR and H&S railway's Hull to Scarborough Line. From 1860s the station also became the terminus of the Hull and Holderness and Hull and Hornsea railways.

At the beginning of the 20th century the North Eastern Railway (NER) expanded the trainshed and station to the designs William Bell, installing the present five arched span platform roof. In 1962 a modernist office block Paragon House was installed above the station main entrance, replacing a 1900s iron canopy; the offices were initially used as regional headquarters for British Rail.

A bus station was erected to the adjacent to north of the station in the mid 1930s. In the early 2000s plans for an integrated bus and rail station were made, as part of a larger development including a shopping centre; St. Stephen's shopping centre, a hotel, housing, and music and theatre facilities. The new station, named "Paragon Interchange" opened in September 2007, integrating the city's railway and bus stations under William Bell's 1900s trainshed.

As of 2014 the rail station is operated by First TransPennine Express, which provides train services along with Northern Rail, First Hull Trains and East Coast.

Paragon station[edit]

Background[edit]

In 1840 the Hull and Selby Railway opened the first railway line into Hull, terminating at a passenger and good terminal, Manor House Street station, adjacent to the Humber dock, near the old town. Subsequently the Hull and Selby entered into working arrangements with the Manchester and Leeds Railway and then the York and North Midland Railway. In 1845 an Act of Parliament enabled the York and North Midland and/or the Manchester and Leeds to take a lease of the company with an option to buy the line at a later date - only the York and North Midland was subsequently active. In 1846 the Hull and Selby completed its Bridlington branch which connected from a junction at Dairycoates near Hull to a line the York and North Midland was building from Bridlington to Seamer, connecting to its York to Scarborough Line, forming a railway route from Hull to Scarborough on the east coast.[1]

First station, hotel and branches (1848)[edit]

The original southern entrance range (2014)

In 1846 the York and North Midland and Manchester and Leeds railways began proceedings to create a new terminal station and connecting branch line in Hull.[2] The "York and North Midland (Hull Station), 1847" act was subsequently passed.[n 1]

The new station had the advantage of being better situated for travellers, and allowed the old station to be used exclusively for freight traffic. In addition the Hull and Selby company were keen to attract the investment in a new station from the leaseholders, as the capital investment was likely to increase the permanence of the relationship with the lessors.[4]

The branches to the station were constructed off the Bridlington branch: a branch turning northeast close to the line's crossing of the Hessle Road;[map 1][5] and a branch turning southeast at 'Cottingham Junction' near to Haverflatts farm.;[map 2][6] the two branches met at a junction 0.5 miles (0.80 km) roughly west of the new station.[5] In addition a new connecting chord was made from the Hull and Selby line,[map 3] to the Bridlington branch,[map 4] allowing direct through running from the west into the new station.[7] The station was located on the western edge of the growing Georgian town, and took its name from "Paragon Street".[8]

Construction contracts had been signed by early 1847, before the bill had been formally passed,[n 2] The station opened in 1847 without any notable ceremony.[9]

The station and hotel were both in the Italian Renaissance style, with both Doric and Ionic order elements; the fascades show inspiration from the interior courtyard of the Palazzo Farnese. The main station building was aligned east-west, south of the tracks, facing onto Anlaby Road - a two storey centrally located booking hall was entered via a small porte-cochère,[map 5] and flanked by 11 bay wide single storey wings, with two storey 3 bay buildings on either end, one a parcels office, the other the station master's house.[9][10][8] The train shed contained 5 tracks and 2 platforms, each 30 feet (9.1 m), covered with a three span iron roof.[map 6] The station site was nearly 2.5 acres (1.0 ha)[n 3][9]

The Station Hotel, with original porte-cochère entrance

The hotel was in a similar style to the station, located at the east end of the station with its main fascade and entrance facing east.[map 7] It was completed in 1849 as a three storey building, 9 bays wide, of area 120 by 130 feet (37 by 40 m). The centre of the building contained a 650 feet (200 m) square lightwell with ground glass roof.[11][10][8]

Architect for both buildings was G.T. Andrews, and represent his last major commission. The station and hotel were described by some contemporaries as "Hudson's Folly", who thought the scale of the development too great;[12] the station was the largest built in England to that time associated with a railway station.[8] By the time of completion of the station hotel George Hudson, chairman of the York and North Midland was in disgrace after his fraudulent dealings had been discovered.[8] The Hotel's official opening ceremony took place on 6 November 1851.[9]

Additional facilities at the station also included a locomotive house, on the west end of north side of the main shed;[map 8] a coal depot to the northwest;[map 9] and a turntable.[13] A new engine shed was constructed in the 1860s, and a 20 engine shed was constructed in the mid 1870s.[14][n 4]

In 1853 Queen Victoria visited the town, and the use of the station hotel given to the corporation for the accommodation of the royal party; a throne room was created on the first floor, and the royal household accommodated on the second. The royal party including the Queen, Albert, Prince Consort and five royal children arrived in the royal train on Friday 13 October 1853 at Paragon Station. The visit concluded with a dinner at the Hotel on the 14th.[16]

NER period (1854-)[edit]

The 1904 trainshed (2011)

In 1853 the Victoria Dock branch had opened in Hull, connecting the Victoria Dock and a number of stations in Hull on a circular route around the outskirts of the town; the line connected to the existing network at junctions 0.5 miles (0.80 km) west of the station.[17][18] This line was doubled in mid 1864 and brought more trains into Paragon: from the Hull and Hornsea Railway (opened 1864); and from the Hull and Holderness Railway (opened 1854.[19]) via a connecting chord to Victoria branch.[20] Further developments in the 1860s created additional or shorted routes into Paragon; the York to Beverley line was completed in 1865 with the opening of the Market Weighton to Beverley section;[21] the Hull and Doncaster branch to south Yorkshire in 1869;[22] and the line to Leeds extension was completed, extending the line from Hull to Leeds to the city centre, and allowing through running westward.[21]

In 1873 the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway obtained running powers into Hull, and passenger trains from that company running to Paragon from August.[23] In 1898/9 the Hull and Barnsley Railway and the NER began work towards constructing a joint dock in Hull (see Alexandra Dock.); as part of this cooperation between the two companies the H&BR gave the NER running powers over its line in Hull, and the NER allowed the H&BR to run into and use Paragon station.[24]

The growth of traffic was accommodated in the mid 1870s by adding a third middle platform to the trainshed; the outer platforms were also lengthened beyond the shed, and short bay platforms added on either side. The cross platform was widened at the expense of the length of the main platforms; the booking office and parcels offices swapped positions, and the middle portico walled up to create greater enclosed space.[25][26][27] In 1884/5 the hotel was also expanded, adding room at first floor level by extending westward across a concourse entrance.[25] In 1887 a station canopy was added over the ends of the departure (southside) platform that extended beyond the shed.[26][n 5]

In addition to the standard facilities the increased emigration to the United States in the 19th century led to the construction of an emigrant station,[map 11] southwest of the main station, in part due to concerns over public health dangers, such as cholera; the station also enabled more efficient handling of the large numbers of emigrants. The station rooms were built in 1871 to the designs of Thomas Prosser, and extended 1881. Because of its historical significance the building is now grade II listed.[28][29][30][31]

An extensive enlargement of the station was authorised by the NER board in 1897, as part of the extension program the station's engine shed facilities were transferred to a new site at Botanic Gardens;[32][14][n 6] the transfer was complete by 1901, and in 1902 work began on the rebuilding of the station; the expansion of the site was northwards towards Colliers Street, and required purchases and demolition of houses south of the street.[25][26][34]

Entrance hall and booking office, with inlaid "NER" mosaic floor monogram (2013)

The main station was enlarged to a design by NER architect William Bell. The extension included a new five span steel platform roof, with a two span roof over the concourse, built by the Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Co.,[map 6] with the offices resited to the east end of the station, facing the station concourse, together with the adjacent Hotel. Half of the new office spaces was taken up by a tiled booking office, with wooden booking windows, and architectural detailing in faience.[map 12] The booking office's main entrance faced Paragon Square (Ferensway) accessed under a large iron made porte-cochère.[10][35][36][map 13] The original station offices were retained and used as waiting rooms and parcel offices.[37] An additional range of buildings was built c.1908 to the southeast of the station, to provide stock rooms for the Hotel.[38][39][map 14][n 7]

As built the station had nine platforms under the four southernmost spans of the roof; the northernmost span had facilities for special goods, such as cars and horses, and was screened off from the other four;[40] it was served by platform 1, known as the fish dock or fish platform, which was also used for fish.[41] The southern bay platforms, and 1887 platform roof was retained for a total of fourteen passenger platforms; platforms 1-9 also received low level roofs outside the main [42] The enlarged station opened 12 December 1904.[43]

In 1904 the station signalling system was converted to an electro-pneumatic power signalling system - the station had two signal boxes: Paragon Station box was a 143 lever box and was located at the end of platforms 1&2;[map 15] Park Street box, with 179 levers was located 714 feet (218 m) west of the station.[44][map 16]

In the First World War on 5 March 1916 during a Zeppelin that killed 17 a bomb blast blew out the glass in the station roof.[45]

LNER period (1923-)[edit]

From 1924 passenger trains running from the Hull and Barnsley line became able to run into Paragon station with the construction of a connecting chord between the NER and H&BR networks in northwest Hull;[map 17] The H&BR's Cannon Street station closed in the same year.[46]

On 14 February 1927 it was the site of a head-on train collision (see Hull Paragon rail accident) in which 12 passengers were killed and 24 seriously injured, caused by a signalling error.[47][48]

In 1931-2 the hotel internally revamped, and was expanded by the addition of an extra storey of rooms on the roof, replacing staff bedrooms; and by cement rendered wing on either side of the main entrance; an art deco entrance onto the station concourse was also added.[8][49] A railway museum was established by Hull Museums director Thomas Sheppard in the station in 1933.[50][51]

1930s signal box (2006)

In 1935 the decision was made to resignal the station and approaches, replacing the 1904 electro=pneutmatic power signalling system with an electrically operated system. "Park Street" and "Paragon station" signal boxes were to be replaced with a single box; the running lines out of the station, including those controlled by the West Parade signal box,[map 18] were to be track circuited.[44][n 8] The system was an early British example of electrical interlocking. 48 points were controlled, using thumb switches in the signal box.[52] Power supply was from the Hull Corporation at 400V 50 Hz three phase, with a backup generator powered by a 28 horsepower (21 kW) Petter oil-engine. The main external system was electifed at 110V AC, with shunt signals at 100 or 55V AC; the point motors, previously electro-pneumatically operated were retained, with a 50 cubic feet (1.4 m3) per hour 80 pounds per square inch (550 kPa) max. pressure compressor system, duplicated for redundancy.[53] Signalling was electic lamp backlit.[54] The Westinghouse Brake and Signal Company Ltd was the main supplier of the equipment.[55] A new signal box was installed,[map 19] a LNER type 13, resembling in architectural design the Southern Railway's Streamline Moderne signal boxes, but with square corners.[56]

During the Hull Blitz of 1941 the station received direct hits on the night of 7 May, with many incendiary bombs hitting the roof. The signal box was badly damaged when a parachute mine exploded nearby[57] during the same night the station's small railway museum was destroyed by fire.[51]

BR period (1948-)[edit]

Station entrance with Paragon House above (2003)

The main entrance canopy was replaced by an office building Paragon House in 1962.[10][58][map 13] The building was originally used as a regional headquarters for British Rail, but was unused in later years.[59]

In 1965 the Newington branch which had been used by trains running from west of Hull to Bridlington and beyond was closed and replaced by a new chord near Victoria crossing.[map 20][map 21][60] The roofs sheltering platforms 1-9 outside the main shed were removed in the 1970s.[61]

In the 1980s a new "travel centre" (booking and information office) was added on the station concourse. The body of the building was faced with light sandstone, with lighting via semicircular arched windows, and an approximately barrel roofed skylight. In the same period a clerestory roofed waiting room was added at the head of the station platforms, an architectural homage to both Victorian trainshed roofs and clerestory carriages.[62]

After the privatisation of British Transport Hotels in the 1980s the "Royal Station Hotel" was renamed Royal Hotel.[59]

Post privatisation period (1995-)[edit]

In 1990 the hotel was gutted by a fire,.[63][64] the interior was rebuilt and the hotel re-opened in 1992.[10]

Station front during redevelopment, after demolition of 'Paragon House' (2006)

In 2000 outline planning permission was given for a transport interchange and shopping and leisure complex near Ferensway, Hull; in 2001 full planning documents were submitted for works on a 16.8 hectares (42 acres) site included a new shopping arcade development incorporating a hotel and car parking facilities; a transport interchange incorporating the station; as well as landscaping, setting out of streets, a petrol station and a housing development.[65] The development also included new facilities for the Hull Truck Theatre and the Albermarle Music Centre.[66] The shopping development is known as St. Stephen's shopping centre.[67] The interchange fully opened on 16 September 2007.[68][69]

Features of the railway 2007 station redevelopment include a new canopy to the Ferensway entrance;[67][map 13] the "Paragon House" office block was demolished as part of the redevelopment.[59] The former station booking office area was restored, and in 2009 opened as a community area.[70] From 2009 a mobility scooter hire service was provided at the station.[71] The interior of the booking office is used (2011) as a branch of WH Smith.[59]

A £65,000 bronze statue of Hull resident poet Philip Larkin by Martin Jennings was unveiled on the concourse of Hull Paragon Interchange on 2 December 2010, marking the 25th anniversary of the poet's death. The statue was located near to the entrance to the Station Hotel, a favoured watering place of the poet.[72][73] In 2011, an additional five slate roundels containing inscriptions of Larkin's poems were installed in the floor around the statue;[74] and in 2012 a memorial bench was installed around a pillar near the statue.[75]

Bus and coach station[edit]

History and description[edit]

Hull Paragon Interchange Bus interchange
Location
Locale Ferensway, Hull
Operation
Opened September 2007
No. of stands 38 bus stands + 4 coach stands
Operators Stagecoach, EYMS,
Travel centre Yes
1930s Collier Street bus station (2004)

A bus station was built adjacent to Paragon station in 1935, at a cost of £55,000 on land freed by slum clearance.[76]

A new bus station integrated with the main trains station was developed and constructed in the first decade of the 21st century. (see also §Paragon station post privatisation.)

Hull Paragon Interchange opened on Sunday 16 September 2007 combining rail and bus station services on a single site. The bus terminal has 38 bus and 4 coach stands, replacing a separate 'island' bus station;[68][77] the site of the former Hull Bus Station, adjacent to the north of the railway station now forms part of the St Stephen's shopping centre.[78] The bus ranks were located at the north of the station, in a "saw-tooth" arrangement. The entrance to the station is from Ferensway, and a reversing roundabout was provided at the west end of the station.[79][80] The station has approximately 1700 bus departures per day (September 2010).[80] The area under the northernmost span of the trainshed roof was converted into the concourse and queueing area for the bus station.[59][map 22]

Services[edit]

Bus services[edit]

Bus services run from the station to all areas of Hull, as well as to the East Riding and North Lincolnshire. Most city bus services are operated by Stagecoach in Hull, whilst East Yorkshire Motor Services is the main bus company for services to the East Riding. Services to North East Lincolnshire are operated by Stagecoach in Lincolnshire and Stagecoach Grimsby-Cleethorpes.

More distant service include Beverley, York, Scarborough, Withernsea, Humberside International Airport, Scunthorpe, Grimsby and Leeds City bus station. Other, smaller operators include Alpha Bus,[citation needed] and Coach and CT Plus.[81]

Rail services[edit]

The typical Monday-Friday off-peak service from Hull Paragon includes : 1 train per day (the Hull Executive) to London King's Cross provided by East Coast; and 7 trains a day to London King's Cross provided by First Hull Trains

First TransPennine Express operates: one train per hour to Manchester Piccadilly and one train per day to Manchester Airport.

Northern Rail operates several approximately hourly train services terminating at : Beverley; Bridlington (semi-fast & stopping); Scarborough (stopping); Doncaster (semi-fast & stopping); Sheffield (semi-fast & stopping); and York (occasional hour gaps).[82] as well as a bus-service to Barton-on-Humber connecting with Barton-Cleethorpes services.[n 9]

Preceding station National Rail National Rail Following station
Brough   First Hull Trains
London – Hull
  Terminus
Brough   First TransPennine Express
North TransPennine (Leeds/Manchester Piccadilly)
  Terminus
Brough   East Coast
East Coast Main Line (London)
  Terminus
Hessle/Brough   Northern Rail (route 30)
Doncaster-Hull-(Scarborough)
  Terminus or Cottingham
Hessle/Brough   Northern Rail (route 30)
Sheffield-Hull-(Scarborough)
  Terminus or Cottingham
Cottingham   Northern Rail (route 28)
Hull-Scarborough
  Terminus
Hessle/Brough   Northern Rail (route 34)
Hull-Selby-York
  Terminus
Barton-on-Humber   Northern Rail (bus service)
Hull-Barton upon Humber
  Terminus
Disused railways
Terminus   Hull and Selby Railway   Hessle
Terminus   Hull and Holderness Railway   Hull Botanic Gardens
Hull and Hornsea Railway
Victoria Dock Branch Line
Terminus   London and North Eastern Railway (Hull and Barnsley line)   Springhead Halt

Gallery[edit]

The 1870s emigrant waiting rooms (2013) 
Trainshed north side. Collier street entrance and shops, pre-2007 redevelopment (2003) 
Expanded Royal Station Hotel, with 1930s wings, and 3 floor dormer expansion (2006) 
Former Travel Centre (ticket office) at Hull Paragon, now a waiting room (2007) 
Buses parking west of the trainshed (2008) 
View east from Park Street bridge. St. Stephen's left, Station trainshed right distance (2007) 
Travel Centre (ticket office) (2007) 
Station Hotel services building c.1905 (2014) 
Philip Larkin statue (2010) 

Naming[edit]

Early architects impression of the proposed station and hotel design (south façade)

The rail station is commonly known as "Paragon station", "Hull Paragon", or just "Hull station". National Rail refers to the station as "Hull" (HUL).

The name comes from the neaby "Paragon Street" which was itself built c.1802;[83] the name dates back earlier - The Paragon Hotel public house, (now the "Hull Cheese") gave its name to the street, and dates back as far as 1700.[84]

The station was opened as "Hull Paragon Street" 8 May 1848 by the York and North Midland Railway;[85] the NER used the name "Hull Paragon".,[85] however the 'Paragon' suffix was inconsistently used over ninety years from opening to 1948.[86]

Since the British Railways period (1948) the officially used name has usually been "Hull", excluded the 'Paragon' suffix.[87][n 10]

The term "Hull (Paragon)" has also been used by Network Rail.[88] Since redevelopment in 2007 the official name has been "Paragon Interchange"; however as of 2012 timetables continued to use "Hull", except when referring to bus services.[87]

The hotel has been known as the "Station Hotel" or "Royal Station Hotel" from its early history;[89] after privatisation in the 1980s the owners renamed it "Royal Hotel".[59] As of 2014, as part of the Mercure Hotels group the hotel's official name is the Mercure Hull Royal Hotel.[90]

Trivia[edit]

The station has been used as a filming location in the film Clockwise,[91] in an episode of Agatha Christie's Poirot "The Plymouth Express".[92] and in the comedy Only Fools and Horses - To Hull and Back.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "An Act for enabling the York and North Midland Railway Company to make a Station at Hull, and certain Branch Railways connected with their Railways and the said Station; and for other Purposes.", (Cap 218, 22 July 1847) [3]
  2. ^ Fawcett (2001, p. 84) states 1 April 1847, whilst Hitches (2012) gives 1 March 1847
  3. ^ Sheahan (1864, p. 572) gives ground dimensions of 153 by 125 feet (47 by 38 m) long by wide for the station, which appears erroneous based on the 1856 Ordnance Survey 1:1056 town plans.
  4. ^ A square shed of approximately 150 feet (46 m) square had been constructed northwest of the original shed, south of St. Stephen's church and square by the late 1800s.[15][map 10]
  5. ^ Note. The 1891 Ordnance Survey 1:500 OS Town plan shows the locations of the supporting columns.
  6. ^ The station's coal depot was resited to the site of the shed near St. Stephens square.[33][map 10]
  7. ^ The diagram in Fawcett (2005, Fig.3.7, p.46) notes a bakery and stock rooms, whilst The Engineer (11 February 1908, p.160, col.3) notes a motor garage and stock rooms. To the west and south of the 1848 front another building was built at around the same time (OS. 1:2500 1893, 1910/1)
  8. ^ "West Parade" a street between the Park Street and Argyle Street bridges; West Parade Junction was just east of Argyle street bridge, a double diamond crossover (1928), and the point were the Beverley, Hornsea, Withernsea and Selby lines diverged. "West Parade signal box" was just west of the junction and bridge (OS. 1:2500. 1928)
  9. ^ Northern Rail Timetable 31 "Barton-on-Humber to Cleethorpes". note Replacing the former Hull to Barton ferry service.
  10. ^ Since the closure of Cannon Street to passengers in 1924 the station was the only consistently timetabled rail terminus in the city.[87]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See Hull and Selby Railway, Hull to Scarborough Railway
  2. ^ Sources:
  3. ^ A Collection of the Public General Statutes passed in the Tenth and Eleventh Year of the Reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 1847, p. xxvii 
  4. ^ MacTurk, G.G. (1970) [1879], A History of the Hull Railways (reprint), p. 130 
  5. ^ a b Ordnance Survey. Sheet 240. 1853
  6. ^ Ordnance Survey. Sheet 226. 1853
  7. ^ Addyman, John F.; Fawcett, Bil, eds. (2013), A History of the Hull and Scarborough Railway, North Eastern Railway Association, p. 15 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Fawcett 2001, p. 86.
  9. ^ a b c d Sheahan 1864, p. 572.
  10. ^ a b c d e Pevsner & Neave 1995, p. 524.
  11. ^ Sheahan 1864, pp. 572-3.
  12. ^ Gillet & MacMahon 1980, p. 275.
  13. ^ Ordnance Survey. 1:1056 Town Plan
  14. ^ a b Hoole, K. (172), North Eastern locomotive sheds, p. 222 
  15. ^ Ordnance Survey. 1:500 Town Plans 1891
  16. ^ Sheahan 1864, pp. 180-191.
  17. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 519-20.
  18. ^ Ordnance Survey. 1852-3. Sheets 226, 240
  19. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 522-3, 525.
  20. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 606, 612.
  21. ^ a b Tomlinson 1915, pp. 472, 499, 606, 620.
  22. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 608-9, 634.
  23. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 663-4.
  24. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 718-721.
  25. ^ a b c Fawcett 2001, p. 88.
  26. ^ a b c Fawcett 2005, p. 45.
  27. ^ Ordnance Survey. Town Plans. 1856, 1:1056; 1891: 1:500
  28. ^ English Heritage. "Former Immigrant Station and Railway Platform (1207714)". National Heritage List for England. 
  29. ^ Evans, Nicholas J. (1999), "Migration from Northern Europe to America via the Port of Hull, 1848-1914", www.norwayheritage.com 
  30. ^ Evans, Nicholas J., "A piece of Britain that shall forever remain foreign", www.bbc.co.uk 
  31. ^ Evans, N. J. (2001). "Work in progress: Indirect passage from Europe Transmigration via the UK, 1836–1914". Journal for Maritime Research 3: 70–84. doi:10.1080/21533369.2001.9668313.  edit
  32. ^ Goode 1992, p. 36.
  33. ^ Ordnance Survey. 1:2500. 1893, 1910-1
  34. ^ Ordnance Survey 1:2500 1893, 1910-11
  35. ^ Fawcett 2005, pp. 45-50.
  36. ^ Biddle, Gordon; Nock, Owsald Stephens (1983), The Railway Heritage of Britain, p. 31 
  37. ^ Fawcett 2005, p. 47.
  38. ^ Fawcett 2005, Fig.3.7, p.46.
  39. ^ The Engineer 11 February 1908, p.160, col.3.
  40. ^ Fawcett 2005, p. 48.
  41. ^ The Engineer 11 February 1908, p.161, cols.1, 3.
  42. ^ Fawcett 2005, Figs.3.6 & 3.7, p.46.
  43. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 761.
  44. ^ a b "Paragon Station, Hull, L.N.E.R, is to be resignalled", The Engineer 159, 3 May 1935: 463 
  45. ^ Gillett & MacMahon 1980, p. 376.
  46. ^ Hoole (1986, pp. 50–51). See also Hull and Barnsley Railway § "As part of the LNER (1923–1948)"
  47. ^ L.T.C. Rolt (1955). Red for Danger, pp. 216–8.
  48. ^ Sources:
    • "TEN DEAD IN RAIL SMASH: Fifty-Three People Injured: Twenty in Serious Condition TRAINS COLLIDE HEAD ON Breach Made in Hospital Wall for Injured", The Manchester Guardian, 15 February 1927: 11 
    • "HULL RAILWAY DISASTER INQUEST: Rule Often Broken SIGNALS RESTORED TOO SOON Verdict of Accident", The Manchester Guardian, 17 March 1927: 7 
    • "INQUEST ON VICTIMS OF RAIL DISASTER: Distressing Scenes GOVERNMENT INQUIRY OPENS TO-DAY", The Manchester Guardian, 17 February 1927: 4 
  49. ^ Fawcett 2005, p. 198-199.
  50. ^ "Railway Exhibition at Hull", The Manchester Guardian, 25 February 1933: 8 
  51. ^ a b {Sources:
  52. ^ The Engineer (8 July 1938) p.49, col.1
  53. ^ The Engineer (8 July 1938) p.49, col.2
  54. ^ The Engineer (8 July 1938) p.49, cols.2-3
  55. ^ The Engineer (8 July 1938) p.49, col.3
  56. ^ Minnis, John (2012), "Railway Signal Boxes - A review", Research Report Series (English Heritage) (28-2012), §F. Post-grouping designs, p.43 
  57. ^ Goode, C.T. (1992), The Railways of Hull, pp. 95–97, ISBN 1870313119 
  58. ^ Fawcett 2005, p. 212.
  59. ^ a b c d e f Yorkshire Coast Line - Heritage Rail Trail, Yorkshire Coast Community Rail Partnership, 2011, Hull Paragon Station, p.16 
  60. ^ Hoole 1986, p. 49.
  61. ^ Fawcett 2005, p. 50.
  62. ^ Fawcett 2005, p.236; Plate 15.10, p.237; Colour Plate 77, p.239.
  63. ^ Bowcott, Owen (8 October 1990), "Police study hotel blaze", The Guardian: 2 
  64. ^ The Times (63831), 8 October 1990: 3 
  65. ^ London & Amsterdam (Ferensway) Ltd 2001, Overview Statement, §1-1.5, pp.1-2.
  66. ^ London & Amsterdam (Ferensway) Ltd 2001, Overview Statement, §3.5, p.4.
  67. ^ a b Neave, David; Neave, Susan (2010), "Hull", Pevsner Architectural Guides: 134–136 
  68. ^ a b "Paragon Interchange", www.hullcc.gov.uk, retrieved June 2014 
  69. ^ "City's new interchange is open". BBC News Online. 16 September 2007. 
  70. ^ "Railway Heritage Trust Funded Project At Hull Wins Award", www.railwayheritagetrust.co.uk, 27 May 2010 
  71. ^ "Travel Extra at Hull Paragon Interchange", www.visithullandeastyorkshire.com, retrieved 3 July 2014 
  72. ^ "Bronze tribute depicts Philip Larkin rushing for train at Paragon". Hull Daily Mail. 3 December 2010. 
  73. ^ "Philip Larkin statue unveiled in Hull". BBC Humberside. 2 December 2010. 
  74. ^ "Larkins words set to greet visitors". Hull Daily Mail. 23 November 2011. 
  75. ^ "Philip Larkin honoured at Hull Paragon station". BBC News Humberside. 2 December 2012. 
  76. ^ "New Coach Station for Hull", Manchester Guardian, 23 October 1935: 9 
  77. ^ "Paragon Transport Interchange". Wilkinson Eyre Architects. Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  78. ^ Ordnance Survey. 1:2500. 1959-70; OS Open Data, c.2014
  79. ^ London & Amsterdam (Ferensway) Ltd 2001, 01_00913_PO-DRAWINGS-347163 , Sheet 3, "Proposed Site Plan" (Job 2836, Drawing SK-010, Revision A).
  80. ^ a b "8. Public transport", Local Transport Plan (2011-2026), Hull City Council, January 2011, §8.1.2, pp.64-5 
  81. ^ "London group wins Hull park and ride deal". This is Hull and East Riding. 15 September 2009. 
  82. ^ See 2014 Northern Rail Timetables: 28, "Hull to Bridlington and Scarborough"; 30. "Hull to Doncaster and Sheffield"; 34, "York to Selby and Hull and York to Sheffield via Pontefract Baghill"
  83. ^ Fawcett 2010, p. 85.
  84. ^ "The East Yorkshire Historian", The Journal of the East Yorkshire Local History Society 7: 108 
  85. ^ a b Butt 1995, p. 125.
  86. ^ Quick, M. (2009), Railway Passenger Stations in Great Britain: A Chronology 
  87. ^ a b c Tuffrey, Peter (2012), East Yorkshire Railway Stations, pp. 66–69 
  88. ^ "London North Eastern Route", Sectional Appendix (Network Rail) (suppl. 27 (7 June 2014)), December 2006, LN914, LN915 
  89. ^ Sheahan 1864, pp. 201, 563, 577, 605.
  90. ^ "Mercure Royal Hotel", www.mercure.com, retrieved June 2014 
  91. ^ Clockwise film locations
  92. ^ "The LNER in Books, Film, and TV". The LNER Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 

Maps[edit]

Hull Paragon c.1908
  1. ^ 53°44′00″N 0°22′55″W / 53.73323°N 0.38191°W / 53.73323; -0.38191 (Hessle Road junction (North)), Hessle Road junction (North)
  2. ^ 53°45′22″N 0°23′30″W / 53.75616°N 0.39174°W / 53.75616; -0.39174 (Cottingham junction), Cottingham junction (1848)
  3. ^ 53°43′29″N 0°23′43″W / 53.72460°N 0.3952°W / 53.72460; -0.3952 (Hessle West junction), Hessle West junction (1848)
  4. ^ 53°43′58″N 0°22′55″W / 53.73276°N 0.38184°W / 53.73276; -0.38184 (Hessle Road junction), Hessle Road junction (1848)
  5. ^ 53°44′37″N 0°20′48″W / 53.743651°N 0.346715°W / 53.743651; -0.346715 (Station entrance (1853)), Station entrance (1853)
  6. ^ a b 53°44′38″N 0°20′48″W / 53.743996°N 0.346797°W / 53.743996; -0.346797 (Paragon station (trainshed)), Paragon station (trainshed)
  7. ^ 53°44′38″N 0°20′44″W / 53.744003°N 0.345469°W / 53.744003; -0.345469 (Station Hotel), Station Hotel
  8. ^ 53°44′39″N 0°20′52″W / 53.744144°N 0.347765°W / 53.744144; -0.347765 (Engine shed (c.1850s)), Engine shed (c.1850s)
  9. ^ 53°44′39″N 0°20′58″W / 53.744233°N 0.349335°W / 53.744233; -0.349335 (Coal depot (original)), Coal depot (original)
  10. ^ a b 53°44′41″N 0°20′58″W / 53.744722°N 0.349337°W / 53.744722; -0.349337 (Engine shed (c.1880s), later site of coal depot), Engine shed (c.1880s), later site of coal depot
  11. ^ 53°44′35″N 0°20′52″W / 53.743176°N 0.347835°W / 53.743176; -0.347835 (Emmingrant waiting rooms), Emmingrant waiting rooms
  12. ^ 53°44′40″N 0°20′44″W / 53.744455°N 0.345581°W / 53.744455; -0.345581 (Ticket / entrance hall (1904)), Ticket hall and entrance (1904)
  13. ^ a b c 53°44′40″N 0°20′43″W / 53.744478°N 0.345290°W / 53.744478; -0.345290 (Iron entrance canopy (1904) ; Paragon House (1960) ; Paragon Interchange entrance hall (2007)), Iron entrance canopy (1904) ; Paragon House (1960) ; Paragon Interchange entrance hall (2007)
  14. ^ 53°44′37″N 0°20′43″W / 53.74367°N 0.34531°W / 53.74367; -0.34531 (Hotel services building)), Hotel service building
  15. ^ 53°44′40″N 0°21′01″W / 53.744372°N 0.350409°W / 53.744372; -0.350409 (Platform signal box (1904)), Platform signal box (1904)
  16. ^ 53°44′38″N 0°21′04″W / 53.743920°N 0.351163°W / 53.743920; -0.351163 (Park Street signal box (1904)), Park Street signal box (1904)
  17. ^ 53°45′03″N 0°22′35″W / 53.75097°N 0.376421°W / 53.75097; -0.376421 (Junction for chord to former Hull and Barnsley Railway), Junction for chord to former Hull and Barnsley Railway
  18. ^ 53°44′44″N 0°21′35″W / 53.745670°N 0.359604°W / 53.745670; -0.359604 (West Parade signal box), West Parade signal box
  19. ^ 53°44′39″N 0°21′06″W / 53.744180°N 0.351776°W / 53.744180; -0.351776 (Paragon Signal box (1938)), Paragon Signal box (1938)
  20. ^ 53°44′50″N 0°22′00″W / 53.74736°N 0.36660°W / 53.74736; -0.36660 (West Parade North junction), West Parade North junction
  21. ^ 53°44′38″N 0°22′01″W / 53.74396°N 0.36701°W / 53.74396; -0.36701 (Anlaby road junction), Anlaby road junction
  22. ^ 53°44′40″N 0°20′50″W / 53.744534°N 0.347133°W / 53.744534; -0.347133 (Paragon Interchange bus station (concourse)), Paragon Interchange bus station (concourse)

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Lawrence, H.S. (1910), "Twenty-four Hours at Hull (Paragon)", The Railway Magazine 27: 144- 
  • Steadman, Tony, Paragon Interchange - gallery, Hull City Council , pictorial record of the redevelopment of the Paragon Interchange

External links[edit]