The Hullyeondae (literally "Military Training Division") was a Korean army established under Japanese direction when the second Gabo Reform was being held in 1895, the 32nd year of King Gojong's reign. On January 17 in the same year, Japanese legation minister, Kaoru Inoue suggested to the king to found a new court guard. The army was trained by Japanese instructors and exploited by ronin when Queen Min was assassinated by the Japanese on October 8, 1895.
- "훈련대(訓練隊), Hullyeondae" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-22.
- Sterling Seagrave; Peggy Seagrave (2003). Gold Warriors: America's Secret Recovery of Yamashita's Gold. Verso. pp. 14, 264. ISBN 1-85984-542-8. Retrieved 2009-01-22.
- "훈련대 訓鍊隊" (in Korean). Empas / Britannica. Retrieved 2009-01-22.
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