Human-centered computing (HCC) is an emerging, interdisciplinary academic field broadly concerned with computing and computational artifacts as they relate to the human condition. Researchers and practitioners who affiliate themselves with human-centered computing usually come from one or more of the following disciplines: computer science, sociology, psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, communication studies, graphic design, science and technology studies, and industrial design.
The term "human-centered computing" was first defined by Rob Kling and Susan Leigh Star in the paper "Human Centered Systems in the Perspective of Organizational and Social Informatics". According to Kling and Star, the key feature of human-centered computing systems is that "knowledge of human users and the social context in which systems are expected to operate become integrated into the computer science agenda, even at the earliest stages of research and development."
Research in human-centered computing has multiple goals. Some researchers focus on understanding humans, both as individuals and in social groups, by focusing on the ways that human beings adopt, adapt, and organize their lives around computational technologies. Others focus on developing new design strategies for computational artifacts. Human-centered design of computational tools attempts to address problems that traditional design approaches, such as heuristic evaluations and measurements of productivity and efficiency, do not generally address. Designing computational tools for spirituality, for fun, and for leisure are some examples of non-traditional design problems that are of interest to HCC researchers and engineers. HCC researchers also bring a diverse array of conceptual and research tools to traditional computing areas such as computer-supported cooperative work, computer-supported collaborative learning, and ubiquitous computing.
Human-centered computing is closely related to other interdisciplinary fields such as human-computer interaction and information science, and exactly where the boundaries between these fields lie is not clear. Broadly speaking, however, human-centered computing usually concerns itself with systems and practices of technology use. Human-computer interaction is more focused on ergonomics and the usability of computing artifacts, while information science is focused on practices surrounding the collection, manipulation, and use of information. The Human-Centered Computing program at the National Science Foundation is a combination of former programs in human-computer interaction, universal access (essentially human-computer interaction for the disabled and other special populations), and social informatics (social computing and social implications of computing).
User interface designer
A user interface designer is an individual who usually with a relevant degree or high level of knowledge, not only on technology, cognitive science, human–computer interaction, learning sciences, but also on psychology and sociology. A user interface designer develops and applies user-centered design methodologies and agile development processes that includes consideration for overall usability of interactive software applications, emphasizing interaction design and front-end development.
Information architect (IA)
Information architects mainly work to understand user and business needs in order to organize information to best satisfy these needs. Specifically, Information architects often act as a key bridge between technical and creative development in a project team. Currently almost all IAs work on web sites so most of them are hired by companies with a large enough web presence to support a full-time information architect as well as service firms and agencies that create web sites for clients.
Human-centered computing (HCC), in particular its potential effectiveness in modern health services and the optimization of processes and operational sequences bridging Psychology and Informatics,can assist well to design, develop and test IT applications and services to help healthcare professionals and patients with more concerns about human and healthcare machine. Actually, there already are several healthcare IT career existed in American healthcare system. For most of healthcare agencies in the US, technology development centers are established for people who devoted themselves to apply IT applications in healthcare system. However, many of them hire people whose career only concerning about normal system design and coding. They may have less experience on human-centered computing.So it is necessary to develop such a career concentrating both on HCC and healthcare. Together, HCC&UE provide an emerging potential to assist the daily workflows in the realm of medicine and health care. Here is a good example, in technology development center of UPMC, that the engineer for human-centered design has become a job position only. The UPMC Technology Development Center (TDC) is developing a world-class human-centered design team, which is an integral part of their innovative solutions and a critical factor in success. This group covers a number of traditional and emerging creative disciplines including interaction design, visual design, industrial design, architecture, film making, and information design. Working across a dynamic range of products and platforms, people will be required to participate in all phases of the project lifecycle, including research and analysis. As a member of the design group people will work with an interdisciplinary team to help design and build some of the most innovative health IT systems being developed today.
- Kling, Rob and Star, Susan Leigh (May 19, 1997). "Human centered systems in the perspective of organizational and social informatics". Human Center Systems. National Science Foundation. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
- Jaimes, Alejandro; Nicu Sebe; Daniel Gatica-Perez (2006). "Human-Centered Computing: A Multimedia Perspective" (PDF). Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM international conference on Multimedia. Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ACM Press. pp. 855–864. doi:10.1145/1180639.1180829. ISBN 1-59593-447-2. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
- "Program Description". Information and Intelligent Systems: Advancing Human-Centered Computing, Information Integration and Informatics, and Robust Intelligence. National Science Foundation. 2006-05-31. Retrieved 2007-01-07.
- Foley, James; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Jonathan Grudin; James Hollan; Scott Hudson; Judy Olson; Bill Verplank (2005). "Graduate Education in Human-Computer Interaction". CHI '05 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Portland, OR, USA: ACM Press. pp. 2113–2114. doi:10.1145/1056808.1057112. ISBN 1-59593-002-7.
- "Careers at UPMC Technology Development Center". Combining Health Care Intelligence and Computer Science Expertise. UPMC. 2013.
- Cognitive science
- Context awareness
- Human-computer interaction
- Information science
- Social computing
- Ubiquitous computing
- User-centered design
- Human-Centred Systems
- Health information technology
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