Human height is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.
When populations share genetic background and environmental factors, average height is frequently characteristic within the group. Exceptional height variation (around 20% deviation from average) within such a population is sometimes due to gigantism or dwarfism, which are medical conditions caused by specific genes or endocrine abnormalities.
In regions of extreme poverty or prolonged warfare, environmental factors like chronic malnutrition during childhood or adolescence may account for delayed growth and/or (in severe cases) marked reductions in adult stature even without the presence of any of these medical conditions.
Determinants of growth and height
The study of height is known as auxology. Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the health of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations. Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to populations. Average height is relevant to the measurement of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations. Attributed as a significant reason for the trend of increasing height in parts of Europe are the egalitarian populations where proper medical care and adequate nutrition are relatively equally distributed. Changes in diet (nutrition) and a general rise in quality of health care and standard of living are the cited factors in the Asian populations. Average height in the United States has remained essentially stagnant since the 1950s even as the racial and ethnic background of residents has shifted. Malnutrition including chronic undernutrition and acute malnutrition is known to have caused stunted growth in various populations. This has been seen in North Korean, portions of African, certain historical European, and other populations. Developing countries such as Guatemala have rates of stunting in children under 5 living as high as 82.2% in Totonicapán, and 49.8% nation-wide.
Height measurements are by nature subject to statistical sampling errors even for a single individual. In a clinical situation, height measurements are seldom taken more often than once per office visit, which may mean sampling taking place a week to several months apart. The smooth 50th percentile male and female growth curves illustrated above are aggregate values from thousands of individuals sampled at ages from birth to age 20. In reality, a single individual's growth curve shows large upward and downward spikes. Partly due to actual differences in growth velocity, and partly due to small measurement errors. For example, a typical measurement error of plus or minus 0.5 cm may completely nullify 0.5 cm of actual growth resulting in either a "negative" 0.5 cm growth (due to overestimation in the previous visit combined with underestimation in the latter), up to a 1.5 cm growth (the first visit underestimating and the second visit overestimating) in the same elapsed time period between measurements. Note there is a discontinuity in the growth curves at age 2, which reflects the difference in recumbent length (with the child on his or her back), used in measuring infants and toddlers, and standing height typically measured from age 2 onwards.
Height, like other phenotypic traits, is determined by a combination of genetics and environmental factors. A child's height based on parental heights is subject to regression toward the mean, therefore extremely tall or short parents will likely have correspondingly taller or shorter offspring, but their offspring will also likely be closer to average height than the parents themselves. Genetic potential and a number of hormones, minus illness, is a basic determinant for height. Other factors include the genetic response to external factors such as diet, exercise, environment, and life circumstances. Humans grow fastest (other than in the womb) as infants and toddlers, rapidly declining from a maximum at birth to roughly age 2, tapering to a slowly declining rate, and then during the pubertal growth spurt, a rapid rise to a second maximum (at around 11–12 years for female, and 13–14 years for male), followed by a steady decline to zero. On average, female growth speed trails off to zero at about 15 or 16 years, whereas the male curve continues for approximately 3 more years, going to zero at about 18–20. These are also critical periods where stressors such as malnutrition (or even severe child neglect) have the greatest effect.
Moreover, the health of a mother throughout her life, especially during her critical periods, and of course during pregnancy, has a role. A healthier child and adult develops a body that is better able to provide optimal prenatal conditions. The pregnant mother's health is important as gestation is itself a critical period for an embryo/fetus, though some problems affecting height during this period are resolved by catch-up growth assuming childhood conditions are good. Thus, there is a cumulative generation effect such that nutrition and health over generations influences the height of descendants to varying degrees.
The age of the mother also has some influence on her child's height. Studies in modern times have observed a gradual increase in height with maternal age, though these early studies suggest that trend is due to various socio-economic situations that select certain demographics as being more likely to have a first birth early in the mother's life. These same studies show that children born to a young mother are more likely to have below-average educational and behavioural development, again suggesting an ultimate cause of resources and family status rather than a purely biological explanation.
The precise relationship between genetics and environment is complex and uncertain. Differences in human height is 60%–80% heritable, according to several twin studies and has been considered polygenic since the Mendelian-biometrician debate a hundred years ago. The only gene known to have an influence on human height is HMGA2. People who carry two copies of the "tall" allele of the HMGA2 gene are up to 1 cm taller than those who carry two copies of the "short" allele. A genome-wide association (GWA) study of more than 180,000 individuals has identified hundreds of genetic variants in at least 180 loci associated with adult human height.
The effect of environment on height is illustrated by studies performed by anthropologist Barry Bogin and coworkers of Guatemala Mayan children living in the United States. In the early 1970s, when Bogin first visited Guatemala, he observed that Mayan Indian men averaged only 1.575 m (5 ft 2 in) in height and the women averaged 1.422 m (4 ft 8 in). Bogin took another series of measurements after the Guatemalan Civil War had erupted, during which up to a million Guatemalans had fled to the United States. He discovered that Maya refugees, who ranged from six to twelve years old, were significantly taller than their Guatemalan counterparts. By 2000, the American Maya were 10.24 cm (4.03 in) taller than the Guatemalan Maya of the same age, largely due to better nutrition and access to health care. Bogin also noted that American Maya children had a significantly lower sitting height ratio, (i.e., relatively longer legs, averaging 7.02 cm (2.76 in) longer) than the Guatemalan Maya.
The Nilotic peoples of Sudan such as the Shilluk and Dinka have been described as some of the tallest in the world. Dinka Ruweng males investigated by Roberts in 1953–54 were on average 1.813 m tall, and Shilluk males reached even 1.826 m. The Nilotic people are characterized as having long legs, narrow bodies and short trunks, an adaptation to hot weather. However, male Dinka and Shilluk refugees measured in 1995 in Southwestern Ethiopia were on average only 1.764 m and 1.726 m tall, respectively.
In Tibet, the khampas are known for their great height. Khampa males are on average 180 cm tall (5' 10). Anthropologist Michael Peissel described the Khampa in 1964: "The Khampas stood a good six feet in height."
Process of growth
Growth in stature, determined by its various factors, results from the lengthening of bones via cellular divisions chiefly regulated by somatotropin (human growth hormone (hGH)) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Somatotropin also stimulates the release of another growth inducing hormone Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mainly by the liver. Both hormones operate on most tissues of the body, have many other functions, and continue to be secreted throughout life; with peak levels coinciding with peak growth velocity, and gradually subsiding with age after adolescence. The bulk of secretion occurs in bursts (especially for adolescents) with the largest during sleep.
The majority of linear growth occurs as growth of cartilage at the epiphysis (ends) of the long bones which gradually ossify to form hard bone. The legs compose approximately half of adult human height, and leg length is a somewhat sexually dimorphic trait. Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed. The majority of growth during growth spurts is of the long bones. Additionally, the variation in height between populations and across time is largely due to changes in leg length. The remainder of height consists of the cranium. Height is sexually dimorphic and statistically it is more or less normally distributed, but with heavy tails.
Most intra-population variance of height is genetic. Short stature and tall stature are usually not a health concern. If the degree of deviation from normal is significant, hereditary short stature is known as familial short stature and tall stature is known as familial tall stature. Confirmation that exceptional height is normal for a respective person can be ascertained from comparing stature of family members and analyzing growth trends for abrupt changes, among others. There are, however, various diseases and disorders that cause growth abnormalities. Most notably, extreme height may be pathological, such as gigantism resulting from childhood hyperpituitarism, and dwarfism which has various causes. Rarely, no cause can be found for extreme height; very short persons may be termed as having idiopathic short stature. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2003 approved hGH treatment for those 2.25 standard deviations below the population mean (approximately the lowest 1.2% of the population). An even rarer occurrence, or at least less used term and recognized "problem", is idiopathic tall stature.
If not enough growth hormone is produced and/or secreted by the pituitary gland, then a patient with growth hormone deficiency can undergo treatment. This treatment involves the injection of pure growth hormone into thick tissue to promote growth.
Role of an individual's height
Height and health
Certain studies have shown that height is a factor in overall health while some suggest tallness is associated with better cardiovascular health and shortness with longevity. Cancer risk has also been found to grow with height.
At the extreme end, being excessively tall can cause various medical problems, including cardiovascular problems, because of the increased load on the heart to supply the body with blood, and problems resulting from the increased time it takes the brain to communicate with the extremities. For example, Robert Wadlow, the tallest man known to verifiable history, developed trouble walking as his height increased throughout his life. In many of the pictures of the later portion of his life, Wadlow can be seen gripping something for support. Late in his life, although he died at age 22, he had to wear braces on his legs and walk with a cane; and he died after developing an infection in his legs because he was unable to feel the irritation and cutting caused by his leg braces. Excessive tallness and excessive shortness each can cause social exclusion and discrimination for both men and women (heightism).
Sources are in disagreement about the overall relationship between height and longevity. On the other hand, Samaras and Elrick, in the Western Journal of Medicine, demonstrate an inverse correlation between height and longevity in several mammals including humans.
A study done in Sweden has shown that there is a strong inverse correlation between height and suicide among Swedish men.
Height and occupational success
There is a large body of research in psychology, economics, and human biology that has assessed the relationship between several seemingly innocuous physical features (e.g., body height) and occupational success. The correlation between height and success was explored decades ago. Shorter people are considered to have an advantage in certain sports (e.g., gymnastics, race car driving, etc.). Meanwhile, in many sports taller people have a major advantage. They include certain professional sports (see section "Sports"), fashion modelling, etc. In most occupational fields, body height is not relevant to how well people are able to perform. A correlation has been found between body height and occupational success in several studies, although there may be other factors such as gender or socioeonomic status that may have been influencing the subjects' heights as well as their occupational success.
A demonstration of the height-success association can be found in the realm of politics. In the United States presidential elections, the taller candidate won 22 out of 25 times in the 20th century. Nevertheless, Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, was 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) and several prominent world leaders of the twentieth century, such as Vladimir Lenin, Benito Mussolini, Nicolae Ceaușescu and Joseph Stalin were of below average height. Further, growing evidence suggests that height may be a proxy for confidence, which is likewise strongly correlated with occupational success.
History of human height
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Europeans in North America were far taller than those in Europe and were the tallest in the world. The original indigenous population of Plains Native Americans was also among the tallest populations of the world at the time. Several nations, including many nations in Europe, have now surpassed the US, particularly the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian nations. Now, the average height of White Americans is about the same as for the Europeans they are descended from.
In the late nineteenth century, the Netherlands was a land renowned for its short population, but today its population is among the world's tallest with young men averaging 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in) tall. The tallest average in Europe is in the Dinaric Alps, with young men averaging 1.86 m (6 ft 1 in), and young women averaging 1.71 m (5 ft 7 in).
According to study by Economist John Komlos and Francesco Cinnirella, in the first half of 18th century, the average height of English male was 165 cm, the average height of Irish male was 168 cm. The estimated mean height of English, German, and Scottish soldiers are 163.6 cm - 165.9 cm for the period as a whole, while that of Irish was 167.9 cm. The average height of male slaves and convicts in North America was 171 cm.
Average height of Americans and Europeans decreased during period of rapid industrialization, possibly due to rapid population growth and increased economic inequality. In early 19th century England, the difference between average height of English upper class youth (students of Sandhurst military academy) and English lower class youth (marine society boys) reached 22 cm, the highest that has been observed.
Data derived from burials show that before 1850, the mean stature of male and female in Leiden, Netherlands was respectively 166.7 cm and 156.7 cm. The average height of 19 years old Dutch orphans in 1865 was 160 cm.
According to study by J.W. Drukker and Vincent Tassenaar, the average height of Dutch decreased from 1830 to 1857, even while Dutch real GNP per capita was growing at an average rate of more than 0.5 percent per year. The worst decline were in urban areas that in 1847, the urban height penalty was 2.5cms. Urban mortality was also much higher than rural regions. In 1829, the average urban and rural Dutchman was 164 cm. By 1856, the average rural Dutchman was 162 cm and urban Dutchman was 158.5 cm.
Average male height in Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam and North Korea remains comparatively small at 1.58 m (5 ft 2 in), 1.619 m (5 ft 3.7 in), 1.63 m (5 ft 4 in) and 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in), respectively. A 2004 report citing a 2003 UNICEF study on the effects of malnutrition in North Korea, due to "successive famines," found young adult males to be significantly shorter.[specify] In contrast South Koreans "feasting on an increasingly Western-influenced diet," without famine, were growing taller. The height difference is minimal for Koreans over 40, who grew up at a time when economic conditions in the North were roughly comparable to those in the South, while height disparities are most acute for Koreans who grew up in the mid-1990s - a demographic in which South Koreans are about 12 cm (4.7 in) taller than their North Korean counterparts - as this was a period during which the North was affected by a harsh famine.
Average height around the world
The average height for each sex within a population varies significantly, with men being (on average) taller than women. Women ordinarily reach their greatest height at a younger age than men, because puberty generally occurs earlier in women than in men. Vertical growth stops when the long bones stop lengthening, which occurs with the closure of epiphyseal plates. These plates are bone growth centers that disappear ("close") under the hormonal surges brought about by the completion of puberty. Adult height for one sex in a particular ethnic group follows more or less a normal distribution.
Adult height between populations often differs significantly. For example, the average height of women from the Czech Republic is greater than that of men from Malawi. This may be caused by genetic differences, childhood lifestyle differences (nutrition, sleep patterns, physical labor), or both.
The tallest living man is Sultan Kösen of Turkey, at 2.51 m (8 ft 3 in). The tallest man in modern history was Robert Pershing Wadlow (1918–1940), from Illinois, in the United States, who was 2.72 m (8 ft 11 in) at the time of his death. The tallest female in medical history was Zeng Jinlian of Hunan, China, who stood 2.48 m (8 ft 1 1⁄2 in) when she died at the age of 17. The shortest adult human on record is Chandra Bahadur Dangi of Nepal at 0.546 m (1 ft 9 1⁄2 in).
Depending on sex, genetic and environmental factors, shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals but tends to be universal in the extremely aged. This decrease in height is due to such factors as decreased height of inter-vertebral discs because of desiccation, atrophy of soft tissues and postural changes secondary to degenerative disease.
Below are average adult heights by country/geographical region. The original studies and sources should be consulted for details on methodology and the exact populations measured, surveyed, or considered.
As with any statistical data, the accuracy of this data may be questionable for various reasons:
- Some studies may allow subjects to self-report values.
- Test subjects may have been invited instead of chosen at random, resulting in sampling bias.
- A relatively small sample of the population may have been measured, which makes it uncertain whether this sample accurately represents the entire population.
- The height of a person can vary over the course of a day, due to factors such as the amount of exercise done directly before measurement (normally inversely correlated), or the time elapsed since lying down for a significant period of time (normally inversely correlated). For example, one study revealed a mean difference of 1.54 centimetres (0.61 in) in the height of 100 children from getting out of bed in the morning to between 4 and 5 p.m. that same day. Such factors may not have been controlled in some of the studies.
Note: Data in green are representative of the majority of the country or region's adult population.
|Country/Region||Average male height||Average female height||Stature ratio
(male to female)
|Sample population /
pop. over 15
|Argentina||8 1⁄2 in)1.7348 m (5 ft||3 1⁄2 in)1.6076 m (5 ft||1.08||17 (healthy)||N/A||Measured||1998–2001|||
|Argentina||N/A||1.596 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||19–49||N/A||Measured||2004–2005|||
|Armenia||N/A||1.581 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Australia||1.784 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.645 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||18–24||13.7%||Measured||1995|||
|Australia||1.748 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.634 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||18+||94.7%||Measured||1995|||
|Austria||1.792 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.676 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.07||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001|||
|Azerbaijan||1.718 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.654 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.04||16+||97.0%||Measured||2005|||
|Bahrain||1.651 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.542 m (5 ft 1⁄2 in)||1.07||19+||91.1%||Measured||2002|||
|Bangladesh||N/A||1.506 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2007|||
|Belgium||1.786 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.681 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.06||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001|||
|Benin||N/A||1.593 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006|||
|Bolivia||N/A||1.518 m (5 ft 0 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003|||
|Bolivia||1.600 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.422 m (4 ft 8 in)||1.13||Aymara, 20–29||N/A||Measured||1970|||
|Brazil||1.707 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.588 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||18+||93.2%||Measured||2008–2009|||
|Brazil||1.731 m (5 ft 8 in)||1.611 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.07||20–24||11.9%||Measured||2008–2009|||
|Bulgaria||1.752 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.632 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||N/A||N/A||Measured||2010|||
|Burkina Faso||N/A||1.616 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003|||
|Cambodia||N/A||1.524 m (5 ft 0 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Cameroon||1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.613 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.06||Urban, 15+||N/A||Measured||2003|||
|Canada||1.760 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.633 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.08||25–44||34.8%||Measured||2005|||
|Canada||1.751 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.623 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.08||18–79||90.0%||Measured||2007–2009|||
|Central African Republic||N/A||1.589 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1994|||
|Chad||N/A||1.626 m (5 ft 4 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2004|||
|Chile||1.710 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.591 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||15–24||21.9%||Measured||2009–2010|||
|Chile||1.696 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.561 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||1.09||15+||100.0%||Measured||2009–2010|||
|Chile||1.712 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.572 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.09||25–44||37.3%||Measured||2009–2010|||
|China, Mainland||1.721 m (5 ft 8 in)||1.601 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.07||19||N/A||Measured||2010|||
|China, People's Republic of||1.663 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.570 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.06||Rural, 17||N/A||Measured||2002|||
|China, People's Republic of||1.702 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.586 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||Urban, 17||N/A||Measured||2002|||
|Colombia||N/A||1.550 m (5 ft 1 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2004|||
|Colombia||1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.587 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||18–22||N/A||Measured||2002|||
|Comoros||N/A||1.548 m (5 ft 1 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1996|||
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||N/A||1.577 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Congo, Republic of the||N/A||1.590 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2007|||
|Croatia||1.805 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.663 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.09||18||N/A||Measured||2006–2008|||
|Cuba||1.68 m (5 ft 6 in)||1 1⁄2 in)1.56 m (5 ft||1.08||Urban, 15+||N/A||Measured||1999|||
|Czech Republic||1.8031 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.6722 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||17||N/A||Measured||2001|||
|Denmark||1.826 m (6 ft 0 in)||1.687 m (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)||1.08||23||N/A||Self-reported||2001|||
|Dinaric Alps||1.856 m (6 ft 1 in)||1.711 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.08||17||N/A||Measured||2005|||
|Dominican Republic||N/A||1.564 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1996|||
|Egypt||N/A||1.595 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2008|||
|Egypt||1.703 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.589 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||20–24||N/A||Measured||2008|||
|Estonia||1.791 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||N/A||N/A||17||N/A||Measured||2003|||
|Ethiopia||N/A||1.576 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1997|||
|Finland||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.630 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.09||25–74||75.8%||Measured||2007|||
|Finland||1.790 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.650 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||25–34||14.7%||Measured||2007|||
|France||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.646 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||20–29||N/A||Measured||2001|||
|France||1.756 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.625 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.08||18–70||81.7%||Measured||2003–2005|||
|Gabon||N/A||1.584 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2000|||
|Gambia||1.680 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.578 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.06||Rural, 21–49||N/A||Measured||1950–1974|||
|Germany||1.810 m (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.680 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||18–25||N/A||Self-reported||2009|||
|Germany||1.780 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.650 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||18+||96.5%||Self-reported||2009|||
|Ghana||N/A||1.593 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2008|||
|Ghana||1.695 m (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)||1.585 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||25–29||N/A||Measured||1987–1989|||
|Greece||1.783 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.666 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.07||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001|||
|Guatemala||N/A||1.473 m (4 ft 10 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1998|||
|Guinea||N/A||1.588 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Haiti||N/A||1.586 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Honduras||N/A||1.520 m (5 ft 0 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Hong Kong||1.717 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.587 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.08||18||N/A||Measured||2006|||
|Hungary||1.773 m (5 ft 10 in)||N/A||N/A||18||N/A||Measured||2008|||
|Hungary||1.760 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.640 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||Adults||N/A||Measured||2000s|||
|India||1.647 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.519 m (5 ft 0 in)||1.08||20–49||63.7%||Measured||2005–2006|||
|India||1.663 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.526 m (5 ft 0 in)||1.09||20||2.7%||Predicted||2005–2006|||
|India||1.612 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.521 m (5 ft 0 in)||1.06||Rural, 17+||N/A||Measured||2007|||
|Indonesia||1.580 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.470 m (4 ft 10 in)||1.07||50+||N/A||Self-reported||1997|||
|Iran||1.734 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.598 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.09||21–25||16.0%||Measured||2005|||
|Iran||1.703 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.572 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.08||21+||78.5%||Measured||2005|||
|Iraq – Baghdad||1.654 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.558 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||1.06||18–44||N/A||Measured||1999–2000|||
|Ireland||1.775 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.635 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.09||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001|||
|Israel||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.660 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.07||18–21||N/A||Measured||2010|||
|Italy||1.772 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.678 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.06||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001|||
|Italy||1.760 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.650 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.07||18–40||37.0%||Measured||2005|||
|Ivory Coast||N/A||1.598 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1998|||
|Ivory Coast||1.701 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.591 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||25–29||N/A||Measured||1985–1987|||
|Jamaica||1.718 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.608 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.07||25–74||64.5%||Measured||1994–1996|||
|Japan||1.707 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.580 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.08||17||N/A||Measured||2011|||
|Jordan||N/A||1.582 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2007|||
|Kazakhstan||N/A||1.598 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1999|||
|Kenya||N/A||1.594 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003|||
|North Korea||1.656 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.549 m (5 ft 1 in)||1.07||20–39 (defectors)||N/A||Measured||2005|||
|South Korea||8 1⁄2 in)1.7374 m (5 ft||3 1⁄2 in)1.6111 m (5 ft||1.08||12th grade (typically 17–18)||N/A||Measured||2011|||
|Kyrgyzstan||N/A||1.580 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1997|||
|Lesotho||N/A||1.576 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2004|||
|Liberia||N/A||1.573 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006|||
|Lithuania||1.772 m (5 ft 10 in)||N/A||N/A||Conscripts, 19–25||N/A||Measured||2005|||
|Lithuania||1.813 m (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.675 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||18||N/A||Measured||2005|||
|Madagascar||N/A||1.543 m (5 ft 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003|||
|Malawi||1.660 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.550 m (5 ft 1 in)||1.07||Urban, 16–60||N/A||Measured||2000|||
|Malaysia||1.647 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.533 m (5 ft 1⁄2 in)||1.07||20+||84.6%||Measured||1996|||
|Mali – southern Mali||1.713 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.604 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.07||Rural adults||N/A||Measured||1992|||
|Malta||1.752 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.638 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||25–34||16.5%||Self-reported||2003|||
|Malta||1.699 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.599 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.06||18+||94.8%||Self-reported||2003|||
|Mexico||1.720 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.600 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.08||18-39||N/A||Measured||2003–2011|||
|Mexico – Morelos||1.670 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.550 m (5 ft 1 in)||1.08||18–76||N/A||Self-reported||1998–1999|||
|Moldova||N/A||1.612 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Mongolia||1.684 m (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)||1.577 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.07||25–34||N/A||Measured||2006|||
|Morocco||N/A||1.585 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003|||
|Mozambique||N/A||1.560 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003|||
|Namibia||N/A||1.607 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006|||
|Nepal||N/A||1.508 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006|||
|Netherlands||1.838 m (6 ft 1⁄2 in)||1.707 m (5 ft 7 in)||N/A||-21||N/A||Measured||2009|||
|Netherlands||1.808 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.675 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||20+||92.6%||Self-reported||2010|||
|Netherlands||1.832 m (6 ft 0 in)||1.699 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.08||20–30||N/A||Self-reported||2010|||
|New Zealand||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.650 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.07||19–45||51.7%||Estimates||1993–2007|||
|New Zealand||1.745 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.630 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.07||45–65||28.6%||Estimates||1993–2007|||
|Nicaragua||N/A||1.537 m (5 ft 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2001|||
|Nigeria||1.638 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.578 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.04||18–74||86.7%||Measured||1994–1996|||
|Norway||1.824 m (6 ft 0 in)||1.680 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.09||20–25||9.0%||Measured||2008–2009|||
|Norway||1.816 m (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.682 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||26–35||15.2%||Measured||2008–2009|||
|Norway||1.803 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.670 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.08||20–85||88.8%||Measured||2008–2009|||
|Peru||1.640 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.510 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.09||20+||85.4%||Measured||2005|||
|Philippines||1.634 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.517 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.08||20–39||49.5%||Measured||2003|||
|Philippines||1.619 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.502 m (4 ft 11 in)||1.08||20+||83.1%||Measured||2003|||
|Poland||1.785 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.651 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||18||N/A||Measured||2010|||
|Portugal||1.737 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.637 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.06||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001|||
|Rwanda||N/A||1.577 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Senegal||N/A||1.630 m (5 ft 4 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Singapore||1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.600 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.07||17–25||N/A||N/A||2003|||
|Slovakia||1.794 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.656 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||18||N/A||Measured||2004|||
|Slovenia – Ljubljana||1.803 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.674 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||19||N/A||Measured||2011|||
|South Africa||1.690 m (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)||1.590 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.06||25–34||N/A||Measured||1998|||
|Spain||1.780 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.662 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.07||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001|||
|Sri Lanka||1.636 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.514 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.08||18+||93.6%||Measured||2005–2006|||
|Swaziland||N/A||1.591 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006|||
|Sweden||1.815 m (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.668 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.09||20–29||N/A||Measured||2008|||
|Sweden||1.779 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.646 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||20–74||82.4%||Self-reported||1987–1994|||
|Switzerland||1.754 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.640 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||20–74||84.8%||Self-reported||1987–1994|||
|Switzerland||1.781 m (5 ft 10 in)||N/A||N/A||Conscripts, 18–21||N/A||Measured||2005|||
|Switzerland||1.782 m (5 ft 10 in)||N/A||N/A||Conscripts, 19||N/A||Measured||2009|||
|Tanzania||N/A||1.566 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2004|||
|Thailand||1.703 m (5 ft 7 in)||2 1⁄2 in)1.59 m (5 ft||1.07||15–19, STOU students||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
|Togo||N/A||1.590 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1998|||
|Turkey||N/A||1.564 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003|||
|Turkey – Ankara||1.761 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.620 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.09||18–29||N/A||Measured||2004–2006|||
|Turkey – Ankara||1.740 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.589 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.10||18–59||N/A||Measured||2004–2006|||
|Uganda||N/A||1.592 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006|||
|United Arab Emirates||1.734 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.564 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||1.11||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|||
|U.K. – England||1.754 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.619 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.08||16+||N/A||Measured||2010|||
|U.K. – England||1.771 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.644 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.08||16–24||N/A||Measured||2010|||
|U.K. – England||1.776 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.637 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.08||25–34||N/A||Measured||2010|||
|U.K. – Scotland||1.750 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.613 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.08||16+||N/A||Measured||2008|||
|U.K. – Scotland||1.782 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.635 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.09||25–34||N/A||Measured||2008|||
|U.K. – Wales||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.620 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.09||16+||N/A||Measured||2009|||
|U.S.||1.776 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.632 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.09||All Americans, 20–29||17.4%||Measured||2003–2006|||
|U.S.||1.763 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.622 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.09||All Americans, 20+||91.0%||Measured||2003–2006|||
|U.S.||1.780 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.632 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.09||Black Americans, 20–39||N/A||Measured||2003–2006|||
|U.S.||1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.587 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||Mexican Americans, 20–39||N/A||Measured||2003–2006|||
|U.S.||1.789 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.648 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.09||White Americans, 20–39||N/A||Measured||2003–2006|||
|Uruguay||1.70 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.58 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.08||Adults||N/A||Measured||1990|||
|Uzbekistan||N/A||1.599 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1996|||
|Vietnam||1.621 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.522 m (5 ft 0 in)||1.07||25–29||N/A||Measured||1992–1993|||
|Vietnam||1.657 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.552 m (5 ft 1 in)||1.07||Students, 20–25||N/A||Measured||2006–2007|||
|Zambia||N/A||1.585 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2007|||
|Zimbabwe||N/A||1.603 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005|||
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- Aumenta la estatura de los jóvenes A study published by the University of Guadalajara
- Cuanto miden los mexicanos?
- "Indice de masa corporal y percepción de la imagen corporal en una población adulta mexicana: la precisión del autorreporte" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-01-22.
- "Reported height, 20 years or older, Central Bureau of Statistics, 15 February 2012". Statline.cbs.nl. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- Note: Calculated using a weighted average of the different age groups.
- (page 60) Size and Shape of New Zealanders: NZ Norms for Anthropometric Data 1993. Based on British norms and their relations to New Zealand values
- "Fysisk aktivitet blant voksne og eldre i Norge". Resultater fra en kartlegging i 2008 og 2009 (in Norwegian). Norwegian Directorate for Health and Social Affairs. 2009. p. 23. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- Figure is for population between the ages of 20 and 84.
- "Encuesta Nacional de Indicadores Nutricionales, Bioquímicos, Socioeconómicos y Culturales relacionados con las Enfermedades Crónico Degenerativas 2005" (PDF). Dirección Ejecutiva de Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional (DEVAN), Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS). 5 June 2006. Retrieved 2011-01-22.
- "6th National Nutrition Survey" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- Polish 2010 growth references for school-aged children and adolescents. Kułaga Z, Litwin M, Tkaczyk M, Palczewska I, Zajączkowska M, Zwolińska D, Krynicki T, Wasilewska A, Moczulska A, Morawiec-Knysak A, Barwicka K, Grajda A, Gurzkowska B, Napieralska E, Pan H. Eur J Pediatr. 2010 Oct 23. Note: The values represent averages, not medians listed in the study.
- Deurenberg et al. 2003
- Ľ. Ševčíková, J. Nováková, J. Hamade, M. Tatara: Rast a vývojové trendy slovenských detí a mládeže za posledných 10 rokov [Growth and development trends in Slovak children and adolescents during the last 10 years]. In: Životné podmienky a zdravie [Living conditions and health]. Editor: Ľubica Ághová. Bratislava 2004.
- "Is there a rationale for establishing Slovenian body mass index references of school-aged children and adolescents" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-20.
- "SOUTH AFRICA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY – 1998" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-01-22.
- Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardana, M.A. Naveen A.A.D.; Constantine, Godwin R.; Sheriff, M.H. Rezvi; Matthews, David R.; Katulanda, Prasad (2010). "Patterns and correlates of adult height in Sri Lanka". Economics and Human Biology. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- "Dagens Nyheter (2008-02-29)". Dn.se. Retrieved 2011-09-04.
- Cavelaars et al 2000.
- Rühli FJ, Henneberg M, Schaer DJ, Imhof A, Schleiffenbaum B, Woitek U (May 2008). "Determinants of inter-individual cholesterol level variation in an unbiased young male sample". Swiss Medical Weekly 138 (19–20): 286–91. PMID 18491242.
- Staub, Kaspar; Rühli, Frank; Woitek, Ulrich; Pfister, Christian (30). "The average height of 18- and 19-year-old conscripts (N=458,322) in Switzerland from 1992 to 2009, and the secular height trend since 1878". Swiss Medical Weekly. doi:10.4414/smw.2011.13238. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Secular changes and predictors of adult height for 86105 male and female members of the Thai Cohort Study born between 1940 and 1990" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- Özer, Basak Koca (2008). "Secular trend in body height and weight of Turkish adults". Anthropological Science 116 (3): 191. doi:10.1537/ase.061213.
- Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M; Moussa, Mohamed A; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas (2008). "National Growth Charts for the United Arab Emirates". J Epidemiol 18 (6): 295–303. doi:10.2188/jea.JE2008037. PMID 19075495.
- "Health Survey for England 2010". Ic.nhs.uk. 2011-12-15. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- "The Scottish Health Survey 2008". Scotland.gov.uk. 2009-09-28. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- "The Welsh Health Survey 2009, p. 58". Wales.gov.uk. 2010-09-15. Retrieved 2011-01-22.
- "National Health Statistics Reports, Number 10, (October 22, 2008)" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-01-22.
- "Cruzada por lo alto: los petisos denuncian dura discriminación" (in Spanish). El País. 2006-05-27.
- "The impact of environment on morphological and physical indexes of Vietnamese and South Korean students, Mai Van Hung*, Sunyoung Park*". Retrieved 2011-02-14.
- Fitting the Task to the Man, 1987 (for heights in U.S. and Japan)
- Eurostats Statistical Yearbook 2004 (for heights in Germany)
- Netherlands Central Bureau for Statistics, 1996 (for average heights)
- Mean Body Weight, Height, and body mass index, United States 1960–2002
- UK Department of Health – Health Survey for England
- Statistics Norway, Conscripts, by height, Per cent
- Statistics Sweden (in Swedish)
- Burkhard Bilger. "The Height Gap." The New Yorker
- A collection of data on human height, referred to here as "karube" but originally collected from other sources, was originally available here (www.kurabe.net/average_height/[dead link]) but is no longer. A copy is available here.www.psych.ualberta.ca/~phurd/karube/ (an English translation of this Japanese page would make it easier to evaluate the quality of the data...)
- Aminorroaya A, Amini M, Naghdi H, Zadeh AH (December 2003). "Growth charts of heights and weights of male children and adolescents of Isfahan, Iran". Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition 21 (4): 341–6. PMID 15038589.
- Blaha, P. et al.: 6. Celostátní antropologický výzkum detí a mládeže 2001, Ceská republika [6th Nationwide anthropological research of children and youth 2001, Czech republic], Charles University in Prague 2005
- Bogin, B.A. (1999) Patterns of human growth. 2nd ed Cambridge U Press
- Bogin, B.A. (2001) The growth of humanity Wiley-Liss
- Cavelaars, A.E.J.M., Kunst, A.E., Geurts, J.J.M., Crialesi, R., Grotvedt, L., Helmert U. Persistent variations in average height between countries and between socio-economic groups: an overview of 10 European countries. Annals of Human Biology. 27(4),407–421.
- Deurenberg P, Bhaskaran K, Lian PL (2003). "Singaporean Chinese adolescents have more subcutaneous adipose tissue than Dutch Caucasians of the same age and body mass index". Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12 (3): 261–5. PMID 14505987.
- Eveleth, P.B. & Tanner, J.M. (1990) Worldwide variation in human growth, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.
- Lintsi M, Kaarma H (January 2006). "Growth of Estonian seventeen-year-old boys during the last two centuries". Econ Hum Biol 4 (1): 89–103. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2005.05.007. PMID 15993666.
- Miura K, Nakagawa H, Greenland P (April 2002). "Invited commentary: Height-cardiovascular disease relation: where to go from here?". Am. J. Epidemiol. 155 (8): 688–9. doi:10.1093/aje/155.8.688. PMID 11943684.
- Ruff, C. (2002) Variation in human body size and shape. Ann. Rev. Anthropol. 31:211–232.
- Average height of young Spaniards (in Spanish)
- Krishan K, Sharma JC (2002). "Intra-individual difference between recumbent length and stature among growing children". Indian J Pediatr 69 (7): 565–9. doi:10.1007/BF02722678. PMID 12173694.
- Case A, Paxson C (2008). "Stature and status: Height, ability, and labor market outcomes". The Journal of Political Economy 116 (3): 499–532. doi:10.1086/589524. PMC 2709415. PMID 19603086.
- Sakamaki R, Amamoto R, Mochida Y, Shinfuku N, Toyama K (2005). "A comparative study of food habits and body shape perception of university students in Japan and Korea". Nutrition Journal 4: 31. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-4-31. PMC 1298329. PMID 16255785.
- Average height of the Dinkas
- CDC National Center for Health Statistics: Growth Charts of American Percentiles
- fao.org, Body Weights and Heights by Countries (given in percentiles)
- BMI Calculator Calculate a persons Body Mass Index
- The Height Gap, Article discussing differences in height around the world
- Tallest in the World: Native Americans of the Great Plains in the Nineteenth Century
- European Heights in the Early eighteenth Century
- Spatial Convergence in Height in East-Central Europe, 1890–1910
- Global Height Trends in Industrial and Developing Countries, 1810–1984: An Overview 2006 10 20
- The Biological Standard of Living in Europe During the Last Two Millennia
- HEALTH AND NUTRITION IN THE PREINDUSTRIAL ERA: INSIGHTS FROM A MILLENNIUM OF AVERAGE HEIGHTS IN NORTHERN EUROPE
- Industrialized Nations?
- STATURE IN TRANSITION: A MICRO-LEVEL STUDY FROM NINETEENTH-CENTURY BELGIUM