Human radiation experiments
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||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (February 2010)|
Since the discovery of ionizing radiation, a number of human radiation experiments have been performed to understand the effects of ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body, specifically with the element plutonium.
Experiments performed in the United States
Numerous human radiation experiments have been performed in the United States, many of which were funded by various U.S. government agencies  such as the United States Department of Defense and the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Experiments included, but were not limited to:
- irradiating the heads of children
- feeding radioactive material to mentally disabled children
- exposing U.S. soldiers and prisoners to high levels of radiation
- irradiating the testicles of prisoners, which caused severe birth defects
- exhuming bodies from graveyards to test them for radiation (without the consent of the families of the deceased)
On January 15, 1994, President Bill Clinton formed the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), chaired by Ruth Faden, Ph.D., MPH  of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics. One of the primary motivating factors behind his decision to create ACHRE was action taken by his newly appointed Secretary of Energy, Hazel O’Leary, J.D. One of her first actions on taking the reins of the Department of Energy was to announce a new openness policy for the Department. The policy led almost immediately to the release of over 1.6 million pages of classified records. The records made clear that since the 1940s the Atomic Energy Commission had been sponsoring tests on the effects of radiation on the human body. American citizens who had checked into hospitals for a variety of ailments were secretly injected with varying amounts of plutonium and other radioactive materials without their knowledge. Most patients thought it was "just another injection," but the secret studies left enough radioactive material in many of the patients' bodies to induce life threatening conditions. Such experiments were not limited to hospital patients, but included other populations such as those set out above, e.g., orphans fed irradiated milk, children injected with radioactive materials, prisoners in Washington and Oregon state prisons. Much of the experimentation was carried out in order to assess how the human body metabolizes radioactive materials, information that could be used by the Departments of Energy and Defense in Cold War defense/attack planning.
ACHRE's final report was also a factor in the Department of Energy establishing an Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) that assured publication of DOE’s involvement (by way of its predecessor, the AEC) in Cold War radiation research and experimentation on human subjects. The final report issued by the ACHRE can be found at the Department of Energy's website:.
Experiments performed abroad
In the Marshall Islands, indigenous residents and crewmembers of the fishing boat Lucky Dragon No. 5 were exposed to the high yields of radioactive testing during the Castle Bravo explosions conducted at Bikini Atoll. Researchers subsequently exploited this ostensibly unexpected turn of events by conducting research on the onset of effects from radiation poisoning as part of Project 4.1, raising ethical questions as to both the specific incident and the broader phenomenon of testing in populated areas.
Likewise, the Venezuelan geneticist Marcel Roche was implicated in Patrick Tierney's 2000 publication, Darkness in El Dorado, for allegedly administering radioactive iodine to indigenous peoples in the Orinoco basin of Venezuela, such as the Yanomami and Ye'Kwana peoples, in cooperation with the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), possibly with no apparent benefit for the test group and without obtaining proper informed consent. This corresponded to similar administrations of iodine-124 by the French anthropologist Jacques Lizot in cooperation with the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA).
- Project SUNSHINE
- Nuclear and radiation accidents
- Radiation poisoning
- Radioactive contamination
- Human experimentation
- Totskoye range nuclear tests
- Walter E. Fernald State School
- Moss, William; Eckhardt, Roger (1995). "The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments". Los Alamos Science. Radiation Protection and the Human Radiation Experiments (23): 177–223. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- "The Media & Me: [The Radiation Story No One Would Touch]", Geoffrey Sea, Columbia Journalism Review, March/April 1994.
- U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power. American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on US. Citizens. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Kaye, Jeff. "Documentary on Early U.S. Radiation Experiments on Black Children". firedoglake. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- The Plutonium Files: America's secret medical experiments in the Cold War, by Eileen Welsome, Dial Press, c1999, New York, N.Y., ISBN 0-385-31402-7
- For a full history of federal government activity in the areas of understanding the behavior of radioactive isotopes in living organisms and the environment see Stannard, J. Newell. Radioactivity and Health A History. 3 vols. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research, (Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830), Richland: Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, 1988.
- Skoog, Kim. "U.S. NUCLEAR TESTING ON THE MARSHALL ISLANDS: 1946 TO 1958". University of Guam. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Killing Our Own: The disaster of America's experience with atomic radiation, by Harvey Wasserman, Delacorte Press, c1992, ISBN 978-0-440-04567-0
- The Treatment: The Story of Those Who Died in the Cincinnati Radiation Tests, by Martha Stephens, Duke University Press, c2002, Durham, N.C., ISBN 0-8223-2811-9
- Bravo for the Marshallese: Regaining Control in a Post-Nuclear, Post-Colonial World, by Holly M. Barker, Wadsworth, 2004. ISBN 0-534-61326-8
- Chair's Perspective on the Work of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments by Ruth Faden
- PROJECT SUNSHINE AND THE SLIPPERY SLOPE
- The nuclear bodysnatchers
- Grave injustices
- "A Little of the Buchenwald Touch": America's Secret Radiation Experiments
- Cheryl Welsh, Outlaw nonconsensual human experiments now The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 16, 2009.
- Embassy of the Republic of the Marshall Islands
- The Final Report of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
the plutonium files