Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir
|Human rights abuses
in Jammu and Kashmir
Human rights abuses in the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir state are an ongoing issue. The abuses range from mass killings, forced disappearances, torture, rape and sexual abuse to political repression and suppression of freedom of speech. The Indian Army, central reserve police force, border security personnel and various separatist militant groups have been accused and held accountable for committing severe human rights abuses against Kashmiri civilians. Pakistan Army has been also blamed for abusing human rights in Jammu and Kashmir by violating ceasefire and keep on killing Kashmiri civilians. Diplomatic cables obtained by WikiLeaks revealed that the ICRC had briefed US officials in Delhi in 2005 about the use of torture from 2002-2004 by security forces against hundreds of detainees suspected of being connected to or having information about militants.
Militant violence led by Jammu Kashmir Liberation front has caused ethnic cleansing of several hundred thousand Kashmiri Hindu Pandits, who comprises an estimated 3% of the Kashmir valley's population. According to Asia Watch, the militant organisations forced the Hindus residing in the Kashmir valley to flee and become refugees in Delhi and Jammu. There is controversy regarding whether pandits left due to fear of violence or were encouraged by the government to leave in order to undermine the support for militant movements. It is claimed that Kashmiri militants have been assisted and supported by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). The chief perpetrators were the Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front and the Hizbul Mujahideen. Ethnic cleansing continued till a vast majority of the Kashmiri Pandits were evicted out of the valley after having suffered many acts of violence, including sexual assault on women, arson, torture and extortion of property. Some of the separatist leaders in Kashmir reject these allegations. The Indian government is attempting to reinstate the displaced Pandits in Kashmir. The remnants of Kashmiri Pandits have been living in squalor in Jammu, but most of them believe that, until the violence ceases, returning to Kashmir is not an option.
In a 1993 report, Human Rights Watch stated that Indian security forces "assaulted civilians during search operations, tortured and summarily executed detainees in custody and murdered civilians in reprisal attacks"; according to the report, militants had also targeted civilians, but to a lesser extent than security forces. Rape was regularly used as a means to "punish and humiliate" communities. A 2010 US state department report stated that the Indian army in Jammu and Kashmir had carried out extrajudicial killings of civilians and suspected insurgents. The report also described killings and abuse being carried out by insurgents and separatists. In 2010, statistics presented to the Indian government's Cabinet Committee on Security showed that for the first time since the 1980s, the number of civilian deaths attributed to the Indian forces was higher than those attributed to terrorist actions. The Indian Army claims that 97% of the reports about the human rights abuse have been found to be "fake or motivated" based on the investigation performed by the Army.
- 1 Indian Armed Forces
- 2 Fake encounters
- 3 Suicide
- 4 Kashmiri insurgents
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
Indian Armed Forces
Thousands of Kashmiris have reported to be killed by Indian security forces in custody, extradjudicial executions and enforced disappearances and these human right violations are said to be carried out by Indian security forces under total impunity. Civilians including women and children have been killed in "reprisal" attacks by Indian security forces. International NGO's as well as the US State Department have documented human rights abuses including disappearances, torture and arbitrary executions carried out during India's counter terrorism operations  United Nations has expressed serious concerns over large number of killings by Indian security forces. Human Rights groups have also accused the Indian security forces of using child soldiers,[note 1] although the Indian government denies this allegation. Torture, widely used by Indian security, the severity described as beyond comprehension by amnesty international has been responsible for the huge number of deaths in custody The Telegraph, citing a WikiLeaks report quotes the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) that Indian security forces were physically abusing detainees by beatings, electrocutions and sexual interference. These detainees weren't Islamic insurgents or Pakistani-backed insurgents but civilians, in contrast to India's continual allegations of Pakistani involvement. The detainees were "connected to or believed to have information about the insurgents". According to ICRC, 681 of the 1296 detainees whom it interviewed claimed torture. US officials have been quoted reporting "terrorism investigations and court cases tend to rely upon confessions, many of which are obtained under duress if not beatings, threats, or in some cases torture." Amnesty International accused security forces of exploiting the Armed Forces Special Powers Act that enables them to "hold prisoners without trial". The group argues that the law, which allows security to detain individuals for as many as two years "without presenting charges, violating prisoners’ human rights".
The soldiers of the 4th Rajputana Rifles of the Indian Army on 23 February 1991 launched a search operation in a village Kunan Poshpora, in the Kupwara district of Jammu and Kashmir and allegedly gang raped 53 women of all ages. Later on an interview of victims and eyewitnesses was documented into a short film Ocean of Tears which was prevented from its broadcast. Nevertheless, the Indian committee that led a thorough investigation concluded that the allegations were "grossly exaggerated" and the incident was "a massive hoax orchestrated by militant groups and their sympathizers and mentors in Kashmir and abroad as a part of sustained and cleverly contrived strategy of psychological warfare and as an entry point for reinscribing Kashmir on the International Agenda as a Human rights issue." However, Human Rights organizations including Human Rights Watch have reported that the number of raped women could be as high as 80 . The Indian Army is also accused of many massacres such as Bomai Killing, 2009, Gawakadal massacre, 2006 Kulgam massacre, Zakoora And Tengpora Massacre, 1990, Sopore massacre. They also didn‘t spared the health care system of the valley. The major hospitals witnessed the crackdowns and army men even entered the operation theatres in search of terrorist patients.
Border Security Force
On 22 October 1993, the 13th Battalion of the Border Security Forces was accused of arbitrarily firing on a crowd and killing 37 civilians in Bijbehara The number of reported dead and wounded vary by source. Amnesty International reported that at least 51 people died and 200 were wounded on that day.
The Indian government conducted two official enquiries and the National Human Rights Commission of India (NHRC) conducted a third. In March 1994 the government indicted the Border Security Force (BSF) for firing into the crowd "without provocation" and charged 13 BSF officers with murder. In another incident which took place at Handwara on 25 January 1990, 9 protesters were killed by the same unit.
Central Reserve Police Force
During the Amarnath land transfer controversy more than 40 unarmed protesters were killed by the personnels of Central Reserve Police Force. At least 300 were detained under Public Safety Act, including teenagers. The same practice was again repeated by the personnels of the Central Reserve Police Force, during the 2010 Kashmir Unrest, which resulted in 112 deaths, including many teenager protesters at various incidents.
Special Operations Group
The Special Operations Group was raised in 1994 for counter terrorism. A volunteer force, mainly came for promotions and cash rewards, comprising police officers and policemen from the Jammu and Kashmir Police. The group is accused of torture and costodial killings. A Senior Superintendent of this group and his deputy are among the 11 personnels, who were convicted for a fake encounter, which killed a local carpenter, and was labelled as a millitant to get the promotions and rewards.
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958
In July 1990 Indian Armed Forces were given special powers under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) that gives protection to Indian Armed Forces personnel from being prosecuted. The law provides them a shield, when committing human rights violations and has been criticised by Human Rights Watch as being wrongly used by the forces. This law is widely condemned by human rights groups. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Navanethem Pillay has urged India to repeal AFSPA and to investigate the disappearances in Kashmir.
“All three special laws in force in the state assist the government in shielding the perpetrators of human rights violations from prosecution, and encourage them to act with impunity. Provisions of the Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act clearly contravene international human rights standards laid down in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as members of the UN Human Rights Committee have pointed out. One Committee member felt that provisions of the act – including imunity from prosecution – were highly dangerous and encouraged violations of the right to life“.—A clipping from a report published by the Amnesty International, 1995.
In the recent revelations on 24, September 2013 made by the former Indian army chief General V. K. Singh said that, the state politicians of Jammu and Kashmir are being funded by the army secret service to keep the general public at calm and this activity is there since the partition. He also stated that the secret service paid a bribe to a politician to topple the state government which was pushing for AFSPA repeal.
According to the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), in an area that is proclaimed as "disturbed", an officer of the armed forces has powers to:
- Fire upon or use other kinds of force even if it causes death, against the person who is acting against law or order in the disturbed area for the maintenance of public order, after giving such due warning.
- Destroy any arms dump, prepared or fortified position or shelter or training camp from which armed attacks are made by the armed volunteers or armed gangs or absconders wanted for any offence
- To arrest without a warrant anyone who has committed cognizable offences or is reasonably suspected of having done so and may use force if needed for the arrest.
- To enter and search any premise in order to make such arrests, or to recover any person wrongfully restrained or any arms, ammunition or explosive substances and seize it.
- Stop and search any vehicle or vessel reasonably suspected to be carrying such person or weapons.
- Any person arrested and taken into custody under this Act shall be made over to the officer in charge of the nearest police station with the least possible delay, together with a report of the circumstances occasioning the arrest.
- Army officers have legal immunity for their actions. There can be no prosecution, suit or any other legal proceeding against anyone acting under that law. Nor is the government's judgment on why an area is found to be disturbed subject to judicial review.
- Protection of persons acting in good faith under this Act from prosecution, suit or other legal proceedings, except with the sanction of the Central Government, in exercise of the powers conferred by this Act.
Hundreds of civilian's including women and children have been reported to be extrajudicially executed by Indian security forces and killings concealed as fake encounters. Despite government denial, Indian security officials have reportedly confessed to human right watch of widespread occurrence of fake encounters and its encouragement for awards and promotions According to a BBC interview with an anonymous security person, 'fake encounter' killings are those in which security personnel kill someone in cold blood while claiming that the casualty occurred in a gun battle. It also asserts that the security personnel are Kashmiris and "even surrendered militants". In 2010 three men were reported missing proceeding these missing reports 3 men claimed to be militants were killed in a staged gun battle the army also claimed they had found Pakistani currency among the dead. The major was subsequently suspended and a senior soldier transferred from his post. In 2011, a Special Police Officer and an Indian Army Jawan were charged by the Kashmir police for murder of a civilian whom the duo had killed in an encounter claiming that he was a top Lashkar-e-Taiba militant.
Indian security forces have been implicated in many reports for enforced disappearances of thousands of Kashmiris where the security forces deny having their information and/or custody. This is often in association with torture or extrajudicial killing. The number of men disappeared have been so many to have a new term "half-widows" for their wives who end up impoverished. Human right activists estimate the number of disappeared over eight thousand, last seen in government detention. These are believed to be dumped in thousands of mass graves across Kashmir
Mass graves have been identified all over Kashmir by human right activists believed to contain bodies of thousands of Kashmiris of enforced disappearances. A state human rights commission inquiry confirmed there are thousands of bullet-ridden bodies buried in unmarked graves in Jammu and Kashmir. Of the 2730 bodies uncovered in 4 of the 14 districts, 574 bodies were identified as missing locals in contrast to the Indian governments insistence that all the graves belong to foreign militants According to a new deposition submitted by Parvez Imroz and his field workers asserted that the total number of unmarked graves were about 6,000. The British parliament commented on the recent discovery and expressed its sadness and regret of over 6,000 unmarked graves. Christof Heyns, a special rapporteur on extrajudicial executions, has warned India that “all of these draconian laws had no place in a functioning democracy and should be scrapped.”
Extrajudicial killings by security personnel
In a 1994 report, Human Rights Watch described summary executions of detainees as a "hallmark" of counter-insurgency operations by Indian security forces in Kashmir. The report further stated that such extrajudicial killings were often administered within hours of arrest, and were carried out not as aberrations but as a "matter of policy". In a 1995 report, Amnesty International stated that hundred of civilians had been victims of such killings, which were often claimed by officers as occurring during "encounters" or "cross-fire". A 2010 US state department report cited extrajudicial killings by security forces in areas of conflict such as Kashmir as a major human rights problem in India.
“Women in Kashmir have suffered enormously since the separatist struggle became violent in 1989–90. Like the women in other conflict zones, they have been raped, tortured, maimed and killed. A few of them were even jailed for years together. Kashmiri women are among the worst sufferers of sexual violence in the world. ‘Sexual violence has been routinely perpetrated on Kashmiri women, with 11.6% of respondents saying they were victims of sexual abuse’,”
At the beginning of the insurgency there were 1200 patients in the valley‘s sole mental hospital. The hospital is now overcrowded with more than 100,000 patients.
According to a Time Magazine's article, in August 2008 half a million Kashmiri protesters at Srinagar crying "Azadi" (freedom) and waving Pakistani flags. Reports from Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and the International Commission of Jurists have confirmed Indian reports of systematic human rights violations by militants which claim Jammu and Kashmir to be part of Pakistan. The Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) has also been blamed of carrying out human rights violations, ranging from kidnapping to ethnic cleansing of several hundred thousand Hindu Kashmiri Pandits. A 2010 US state department report blamed separatist insurgents in Kashmir and other parts of the country of committing several serious abuses, including the killing of security personnel as well as civilians, and of engaging in widespread torture, rape, beheadings, kidnapping, and extortion.
In August 2000, militant groups killed 30 Hindu pilgrims in what became known as the 2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre. The Indian government blamed the Lashkar-e-Taiba for the killings. The BBC writes that "hundreds of Hindu labourers ha[d] been leaving the Kashmir Valley" in August 2000 due to targeted killings against Hindu workers.
The rapes by Islamic militants have been reported since the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. On 22 October 1947, Pashtun militants invaded Baramulla in a Pakistan army truck, and raped women including European nuns. In March 1990, Mrs. M. N. Paul, the wife of a BSF inspector was kidnapped, tortured and gang-raped for many days. Then her body with broken limbs was abandoned on a road.
On April 14, 1990, Sarla Bhat (27), a Kashmiri Pandit nurse from the Soura Medical College Hospital in Srinagar was gang-raped and then beaten to death by Islamic terrorists. Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) took responsibility for the crime, accusing Bhat of informing the police about the presence of militants in the hospital.
Prana Ganjoo was abducted with her husband in Sopore. She was gang-raped for a number of days before the both were killed in November 1990.
Since 1991, reports of rape by Islamic miltants have increased, and there have been many cases of the militants threatening to kill the family unless a woman is handed over to the militants. According to the HRW, the rape victims of militants suffer ostracism and there is a "code of silence and fear" that prevents people from reporting such abuse. According to the HRW, the investigation of case of rape by militants is difficult because many Kashmiris are reluctant to discuss it for the fear of violent reprisals.
The increase in number of rape cases has resulted in an increased number of abortions, leading to one case of murder of doctor. The doctor was accused of being an informer by the Islamic groups Hezb-ul Mujahidin and Al Jehad.
In January 1991, Zarifa, daughter of Mohammed Sultan was forcibly asked to "marry" a militant. Her brother Bashir Ahmed was killed when the family refused, and the girl was taken away.
On 30 March 1992, armed militants demanded food and shelter from the family of the retired truck driver Sohanlal (60) in Nai Sadak, Kralkhud. The family complied, but the militants raped Sohanlal's daughter Archana. When he and his wife tried to stop them, Sohanlal was shot dead. His elderly wife was also raped. Then both the women were also shot dead.
There have been many cases of militants raping the young girls by forcing them into temporary marriages (mutah in Islamic law) - these ceremonies are called "command marriages". Shamima Ansari was forced to marry a the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen commander Farooq Ansari in Kishtwar in 2000. In 2005, a 14-year old Gujjar girl Roubia Kousar was abducted from Lurkoti village by the Lashkar-e-Taiba militants, and forced to marry one of them. She was gang-raped by her "husband" and his militant friends. In December 2005, 15-year old Zaitoon Bano of Bajoni (Doda district) was forced to marry a Hizb-ul-Mujahideen militant Nazir Ahmed, after her family was threatened with death. In 2009, a cleric Mohmmad Farooq was arrested for raping a 12-year-old girl in Poonch district.
Exodus of Kashmiri Pandits
The Hindu Kashmiri Pandits, a small but prominent group, who had stably constituted approximately 4 to 5 per cent of the population of the Kashmir valley during Dogra rule (1846–1947), and 20 per cent of whom had left the Kashmir valley by 1950, began to leave in much greater numbers in the 1990s. According to a number of authors, approximately 100,000 of the total Kashmiri Pandit population of 140,000 left the valley during that decade. Other authors have suggested a higher figure for the exodus, ranging from the entire population of over 150,000, to 190,000 of a total Pandit population of 200,000, to a number as high as 253,000. The US government has reported on the terrorist threat to Pandits still living in the Kashmir region. In addition, around 100,0000 Hindu refugees in Jammu who arrived from Pakistan during the partition of India have been denied citizenship, residential rights, the right to own property or vote in elections by the Indian government. These migrants, classified as West Pakistan Refugees (WPRs), have complained of second-class treatment by the state, while separatist Hurriyat leaders of Kashmir are also opposing settlement of West Pakistan refugees and they are against government's efforts to giving those refugees citizenship rights.
During the eruption of armed rebellion the Kashmiri insurgency has claimed to have specifically targeted the Pandits and violated their human rights. Reports by Indian government state 219 Kashmiri pandits were killed and around 140,000 migrated due to millitancy while over 3000 stayed in the valley The local organisation of pandits in Kashmir, Kashmir Pandit Sangharsh Samiti claimed that 399 Kashmiri Pandit were killed by insurgents.
|“||"Our people were killed. I saw a girl tortured with cigarette butts. Another man had his eyes pulled out and his body hung on a tree. The armed separatists used a chainsaw to cut our bodies into pieces. It wasn't just the killing but the way they tortured and killed."||”|
—A crying old Kashmiri Hindu in refugee camps of Jammu told BBC news reporter
The violence was condemned and labelled as ethnic cleansing in a 2006 resolution passed by the United States Congress.[dead link] It stated that the Islamic terrorists infiltrated the region in 1989 and began an ethnic cleansing campaign to convert Kashmir to a Muslim state. According to the same, since then nearly 400,000 Pandits were either murdered or forced to leave their ancestral homes.
The CIA has reported nearly 506,000 people, about half of which are Pandit Hindus are displaced due to the insurgency. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights reports that there are roughly 1.5 million refugees from Indian-administered Kashmir, bulk of whom arrived in Pakistan-administered Kashmir and in Pakistan after the situation on the Indian side worsened in 1989 insurgency.
Post-1989, Kashmiri Pandits and other minority groups in Jammu and Kashmir have been targets of Jihadi elements which India alleges and blames on the Inter-Services Intelligence. The Kashmiri Pandits, a community of Hindu Brahmins, then comprising 5% of the population of the state were the primary targets of Islamic militants, who also sought to also eliminate Kashmir's record of 5000 years of Hindu Sanskrit culture and scholarship as well as the tolerant indigenous multiculturalism referred to as Kashmiriat. As many as 400,000 Kashmiri Pandits fled the state and ethnic violence is considered to have killed 30,000 people. Muslim paramilitaries raped, tortured and killed thousands of Kashmiri Pandits, burnt their temples, idols and holy books.
Other minorities such as Kashmiri Sikhs were also targeted. According to Chitkara, the killing of Sikhs near Anantnag in 2001, by the Jehadis was aimed at ethnic cleansing. Hindus have migrated from most of the Kashmir valley, Sikhs who form a very small percentage could be forced to migrate in the wake of such killings. The Lashkar-e-Taiba has been blamed by Indian government for the Chittisinghpura massacre, which killed 36 Sikhs at the time of Clinton‘s visit to India.
- Indian Armed Forces and the Jammu and Kashmir Floods, 2014
- Hurriyat and Problems before Plebiscite
- Syed Ali Shah Geelani
- Kashmir conflict
- Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, 2014
- Human rights abuses in Kashmir
- Human rights in India
- Human rights abuses in Azad Kashmir
- Papa II
- The Indian Government claims that even though children can join the armed forces, they are not formally enrolled into regular service before the age of 18. [..]In Jammu and Kashmir, the Indian army has armed local Village Defence Committees (VDC) – primarily Hindus – in Doda, Udhampur and the border districts to assist security forces in anti-insurgency operations.(HRW, Behind the Kashmir Conflict: Abuses by Indian Security Forces and Militant Groups Continue, op. cit.; Bukhari, S., "Militants kill 19 in Jammu", The Hindu, 21 July 1999.) So far more than 15,000 inhabitants, reportedly including teenagers, have joined these self-defence groups.("Jammu & Kashmir: the new vigilantes: despite lack of proper training and sophisticated arms, Village Defence Committees are proving invaluable in the fight against militancy in the state", India Today, 11 October 1999.)
At the Asia-Pacific Conference on the Use of Children as Soldiers in May 2000 the representative of the state government of Jammu and Kashmir denied the involvement of children in VDCs. He acknowledged that there may have been some instances of young boys taking up arms to defend themselves under attack, but that there was "no policy to encourage young boys to become members of the Village Defence Committees."
- "Ten Killed In Kashmir Bomb Blast". abc NEWS. 10 August 2000. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Four killed in Kashmir bomb blast". BBC. 20 July 2005. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "23 years on, Kashmiri Pandits remain refugees in their own nation". Rediff News. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- Hindwan, Sudhir (1998). Verma, Bharat, ed. "Policing the police". Indian Defence Review (Lancer) 13 (2): 95. ISSN 0970-2512.
- Hartjen, Clayton; S. Priyadarsini (2011). The Global Victimization of Children: Problems and Solutions (2012 ed.). Springer. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-4614-2178-8.
- "Pakistan Violated Ceasefire In Jammu And Kashmir 685 Times In 8 Months". Huffington Post. 24 February 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Kashmir: India says eight civilians injured in Pakistan firing". BBC. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "1 killed, 9 injured as Pakistan trains guns on civilians". The Hindu. 3 January 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Pakistan continues to violate ceasefire, kills 5 civilians". Hindustan Times. 7 October 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Pakistan violates ceasefire yet again; 2 civilians killed in J&K". The Times of India. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- Burke, Jason (16 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: India accused of systematic use of torture in Kashmir". The Guardian (London).
- "US embassy cables: Red Cross clashes with India over treatment of detainees". The Guardian. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- Tolley, Howard B., Jr. (2009), "Kashmir", in David P Forsythe, Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 3, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 306, ISBN 978-0-19-533402-9, retrieved 23 September 2012
- Asia Watch, Kashmir Under Siege Kashmir Under Siege (May 1991), pp.147–151
- Paradise lost. BBC news.
- "Rape in Kashmir: A Crime of War" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 1993. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- "2010 Human Rights Reports: India". State.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-10.
- "For the first time, security men kill more civilians than terrorists in J&K". Times of India. 7 September 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Why Kashmiris want the hated AFSPA to go". Daily News Analysis. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "Document – India: Jammu/Kashmir government should implement human rights program | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. 27 October 2002. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary and arbitrary executions, E/CN.4/1994/7, paragraph 327
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (19 February 1997). "Refworld | Child Soldiers Global Report 2001 – India". UNHCR. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- Allen, Nick (17 December 2010). "WikiLeaks: India 'systematically torturing civilians in Kashmir'". http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ (London: Telegraph Media Group Limited). Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Huey, Caitlin (28 March 2011). "Amnesty International Cites Human Rights Abuse in Kashmir". Usnews.com. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- Manoj Joshi (January 1999). The lost rebellion. Penguin Books. p. 490. ISBN 978-0-14-027846-0.
- Billal A. Jan (Director) (2012). Ocean of Tears (Excerpt) (Youtube). Jammu and Kashmir: PSBTIndia.
- "A documentary movie on Kashmir lands in controversy". english.samaylive.com. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- Crisis and credibility:Press Council of India. Lancer International. December 1991. pp. 12. ISBN 8170621526.
- Abdul Majid Mattu (2002). Kashmir issue: a historical perspective. Ali Mohammad & Sons.
- Abdication of Responsibility: The Commonwealth and Human Rights. Human Rights Watch. 1991. pp. 13–20. ISBN 978-1-56432-047-6.
- James Goldston; Patricia Gossman (1991). Kashmir Under Siege: Human Rights in India. Human Rights Watch. pp. 88–91. ISBN 978-0-300-05614-3.
- Asia Watch Committee (U.S.), Human Rights Watch (Organization), Physicians for Human Rights (U.S.) (1993). The Human Rights Crisis in Kashmir: A Pattern of Impunity. Human Rights Watch, 1993. p. -115, 116. ISBN 9781564321046. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Siddharth Varadarajan and Manoj Joshi, BSF record: Guilty are seldom punished The Times of India, India, 21 April 2002
- Shibli, Murtaza. "Bijbehara Massacre: 22 October 1993". Kashmir Affairs. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Amnesty International Report 1994 – India". Amnesty International. 1 January 1994. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Goldston, James; Gossman, Patricia. Kashmir under siege: Human rights in India. Human Rights Watch. p. 59. ISBN 0300056141. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "BBC World Service – News – Non-violent protest in Kashmir". Bbc.co.uk. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "South Asia | Top Kashmir separatists detained". BBC News. 5 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "After Uprising, 300 Protestors Arrested in Indian Kashmir". Newsblaze.com. 6 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- "India to free protesters in Kashmir peace move". Reuters. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Special Operations Group". uttaranchalpolice.com. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- "J&K: Sopore protests death of youth in police custody". indiatoday. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- "Azad orders probe into Padroo’s killing". indianexpress. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- "Ganderbal Fake encounter case". kashmirwatch. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- “Crisis in Kashmir” Council on Foreign Relations retrieved 11 September 2012
- "INDIA: SECURITY FORCES CANNOT CLAIM IMMUNITY UNDER AFSPA, MUST FACE TRIAL FOR VIOLATIONS". Amnesty International. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "Mass Rape Survivors Still Wait for Justice in Kashmir". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "Paying ministers nothing new in J&K, former Army chief Gen VK Singh". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
- "JK ministers on Army payroll: Gen Singh". greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- “(PDF) The Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act, 1990” Indian Ministry of Law and Justice Published by the Authority of New Delhi
- Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch (16 February 2007). "India: Investigate All ‘Disappearances’ in Kashmir | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- "South Asia | Kashmir's extra-judicial killings". BBC News. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2012-03-10.
- Hussain, Altaf (28 June 2010). "BBC News – 'Fake killings' return to Kashmir". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-10.
- "SPO, jawan arrested for fake encounter in Kashmir, victim 'civilian'". Deccan Chronicle. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- Human Rights Watch (11 September 2006). "Everyone Lives in Fear". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- "India | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- "India: Investigate Unmarked Graves in Jammu and Kashmir | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- LYDIA POLGREEN (22 August 2011). "Mass Graves Hold Thousands, Kashmir Inquiry Finds". NYTimes.
- Scott-Clark, Cathy (9 July 2012). "The mass graves of Kashmir". The Guardian (London).
- "Early day motion 2607 – KASHMIR GRAVES – UK Parliament". Parliament.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-10.
- "Continuing Repression in Kashmir" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 1994. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- "Summary of Human Rights Concerns in Jammu and Kashmir" (PDF). Amnesty International. 1995. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- "Increasing cases of suicide in Kashmir". milligazzette. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
- "Kashmir women lead suicidal tendencies". kashmirdispatch. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- "Two Kashmiri women die by suicide, third battling for life". freepresskashmir. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
- "Woman poisons two daughters, kills self". greaterkashmir. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- "Oppression driving women in Kashmir to suicide". tehelka. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- Thottam, Jyoti (4 September 2008). "Valley of Tears". TIME. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
- Amarnath pilgrimage resumes, BBC, 2000-08-04
- "Steve Coll: "Zawahiri's record suggests he will struggle" | FRONTLINE". PBS. 2 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
- Prime Minister Vajpayee's statement in Parliament regarding the recent massacre in Jammu & Kashmir
- Wilhelm von Pochhammer (1981). India's road to nationhood: a political history of the subcontinent. Allied Publishers. pp. 512–. ISBN 978-81-7764-715-0. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Manoj Joshi (January 1999). The lost rebellion. Penguin Books. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-14-027846-0.
- The Human Rights Crisis in Kashmir. Asia Watch, a division of Human Rights Watch. Lat accessed on 10 March 2012. Also published as a book: Asia Watch Committee (U.S.); Human Rights Watch (Organization); Physicians for Human Rights (U.S.) (1993). The Human rights crisis in Kashmir: a pattern of impunity. Human Rights Watch. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-56432-104-6. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- "19/01/90: When Kashmiri Pandits fled Islamic terror". rediff. 19 January 2005. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Urvashi Butalia (2002). Speaking peace: women's voices from Kashmir. Zed Books. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-84277-209-6.
- Ved Marwah; Centre for Policy Research (New Delhi, India). Uncivil wars: pathology of terrorism in India. HarperCollins. p. 381. ISBN 978-81-7223-251-1.
- "Married to brutality". Deccan Herald. 25 February 2006. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- "Cleric arrested for raping minor". Indian Express. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Zutshi 2003, p. 318 Quote: "Since a majority of the landlords were Hindu, the (land) reforms (of 1950) led to a mass exodus of Hindus from the state. ... The unsettled nature of Kashmir's accession to India, coupled with the threat of economic and social decline in the face of the land reforms, led to increasing insecurity among the Hindus in Jammu, and among Kashmiri Pandits, 20 per cent of whom had emigrated from the Valley by 1950."
- Bose 1997, p. 71, Rai 2004, p. 286, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 274 Quote: "The Hindu Pandits, a small but influential elite community who had secured a favourable position, first under the maharajas, and then under the successive Congress regimes, and proponents of a distinctive Kashmiri culture that linked them to India, felt under siege as the uprising gathered force. Of a population of some 140,000, perhaps 100,000 Pandits fled the state after 1990; their cause was quickly taken up by the Hindu right."
- Malik 2005, p. 318
- Madan 2008, p. 25
- "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- "India". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2011. Check date values in:
|year= / |date= mismatch(help)
- "Kashmir's Hindu refugees look to Modi for salvation". The Express Tribune. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Jammu and Kashmir: Syed Ali Shah Geelani takes on Govt over settlement of West Pakistan refugees". Economic Times. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Geelani resents settlement of WP refugees in JK". Greater Kashmir. 3 March 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Settlement of West Pakistan refugees will uproot State Constitution: Geelani". Pakistan Ka Khuda Hafiz(Policy Institute of Pakistan). 10 January 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Front Page : "219 Kashmiri Pandits killed by militants since 1989"". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- "219 Pandits Killed in J&K Since 1989". news.outlookindia.com. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- Azad Essa. "Kashmiri Pandits: Why we never fled Kashmir – Kashmir: The forgotten conflict". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- GreaterKashmir.com (Greater Service) (20 June 2011). "399 Pandits killed since 1990 KPSS Lastupdate:- Mon, 20 Jun 2011 18:30:00 GMT". Greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
- [dead link] Expressing the sense of Congress that the Government of the Republic of India and the State Government of Jammu and Kashmir should take immediate steps to remedy the situation of the Kashmiri Pandits and should act to ensure the physical, political, and economic security of this embattled community. HR Resolution 344, United States House of Representatives, 2006-02-15
- "Pallone introduces resolution condemning human rights violations against kashmiri pandits". U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Ka Leo The Voice – Kashmir: The Predicament[dead link]
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2 July 2008). "Refworld | Freedom in the World 2008 – Kashmir [Pakistan]". UNHCR. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- B. Raman (19 January 2012). "Future of Kashmiri Pandits". Outlook. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Knuth, Rebecca (2006). Burning books and leveling libraries: extremist violence and cultural destruction. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 77–79. ISBN 978-0-275-99007-7. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Leather, Kaia (2004). "Kashmiri Separatists : Origins, Competing Ideologies and Prospects for Resolution of the Conflict". In Columbus, Frank. Asian economic and political issues, Volume 10. Nova Publishers. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-59454-089-9. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- M. G. Chitkara (2002). Kashmir Shaivism: under siege. APH Publishing. p. 172. ISBN 978-81-7648-360-5. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Terrorism in India and the Global Jihad], Brookings Institution,
LeT has been linked to numerous terrorist attacks in India including the massacre of dozens of Sikhs in Kashmir in March 2000 during President Clinton’s visit to India, bombings in New Delhi in 2005 and bombings in Varanasi and Mumbai in 2006,
- Bose, Sumantra (1997), The challenge in Kashmir: democracy, self-determination, and a just peace, New Delhi: Sage Publications, in association with The Book Review Literary Trust, ISBN 978-0-8039-9350-1
- Bose, Sumantra (2005), Kashmir: roots of conflict, paths to peace, Harvard University Press. Pp. 307, ISBN 978-0-674-01817-4
- Madan, T. N. (2008), "Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashmiriyat: An Introductory Essay", in Rao, Aparna, The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, Delhi: Manohar. Pp. xviii, 758, pp. 1–36, ISBN 978-81-7304-751-0
- Malik, Iffat (2005), Kashmir: Ethnic Conflict, International Dispute, Karachi and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. xxvi, 392, ISBN 0-19-579622-5
- Metcalf, Barbara; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2006), A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge Concise Histories), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xxxiii, 372, ISBN 0-521-68225-8.
- Rai, Mridu (2004), Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir, Princeton University Press/Permanent Black. Pp. xii, 335., ISBN 81-7824-202-8
- Zutshi, Chitralekha (2003), Language of belonging: Islam, regional identity, and the making of Kashmir, Oxford University Press/Permanent Black. Pp. 359, ISBN 978-0-19-521939-5
- Zutshi, Chitraleka (2008), "Shrines, Political Authority, and Religious Identities in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-century Kashmir", in Rao, Aparna, The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, Delhi: Manohar. Pp. xviii, 758, pp. 235–258, ISBN 978-81-7304-751-0