Human rights in Kuwait
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|Human rights in Kuwait|
Freedom of religion
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Kuwait is a party to several international human rights treaties, including
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
- Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery
- Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others
- United Nations Convention Against Torture
- Convention on the Rights of the Child
- Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour
- Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour
- Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention
- Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
- Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
- Convention against Discrimination in Education
In Reporters Without Borders and Freedom House rankings of the world's freest countries, Kuwait ranks among the freest countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. In 2013, Kuwait was ranked the freest country in freedom of press in the Middle East region (#77 out of 179 countries). In 2014, Kuwait was ranked #91 of 180 by Reporters Without Borders in the Press Freedom Index, thus Kuwait was again the freest country in freedom of press in the Middle East and North Africa region. In 2011 and 2012, Reporters without Borders ranked Kuwait the freest Middle East country in freedom of press in the Press Freedom Index (#78 out of 179 countries).
In 2000-2014, Freedom House ranked the country as "Partly Free" in the annual Freedom in the World survey. Kuwait is the only GCC country that is ranked partly free, the rest of the GCC is ranked not free thus Kuwait has the best freedom ranking (civil liberties and political rights) in the GCC.
In June 2007, Kuwait was found to be one of the worst offenders in human trafficking according to a report issued by the United States Department of State. The finding was due to the Kuwait government's repeated failure to tackle the problem. Some migrant workers are subjected to conditions of involuntary servitude by employers in Kuwait. The workers were subject to physical and sexual abuse, non-payment of wages, threats, confinement to the home, and withholding of passports to restrict their freedom of movement.
Kuwaiti women are considered to be among the most emancipated women in the Middle East region. In 2011, Kuwait was ranked highest of all Middle East countries in gender equality in the Human Development Report's Gender Inequality Index. In 2013, 46.7% of Kuwaiti women participated in the labor force. The participation of Kuwaiti women in the labor force is much higher than the regional GCC average. Kuwait was ranked the second highest Middle East country in gender equality in the 2012 Global Gender Gap Report.
Kuwait is engaged in pervasive Internet filtering in the social and Internet tools areas and selective filtering in political and conflict/security areas according to a report from the OpenNet Initiative in June 2009. The primary target of Internet filtering is pornography and, to a lesser extent, gay and lesbian content. Some Web sites that are related to religions other than Islam are blocked. The Kuwait Ministry of Communication regulates ISPs, forcing them to block pornography, anti-religion and anti-security websites to "protect the public by maintaining both public order and morality". Both private ISPs and the government take actions to filter the Internet.
The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) operates the Domain Name System in Kuwait and does not register domain names which are "injurious to public order or to public sensibilities or otherwise do not comply with the laws of Kuwait". Voice over Internet Protocol is illegal in Kuwait.
Kuwaiti online activist Nasser Abul was detained from July to September 2011 following a series of tweets that provoked sectarian tensions and criticized the Bahraini government's crackdown on Arab Spring protesters. He was released following an outcry from international human rights organizations as well as the Chairman of the Human Rights Committee of Kuwait's own National Assembly. In 2012, Twitter user Nasser al-Ansary was sentenced to five years in jail for “defaming the emir of Kuwait”, and blogger Hamad al-Naqi was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for tweets considered to be provoking sectarian tensions and offensive to the rulers of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, leading Amnesty International to designate him a prisoner of conscience. In 2013, Twitter user Iyad al-Harbi was sentenced to two years in jail for “defaming the emir of Kuwait”.
Deportation of immigrants
The government of Kuwait has announced that it will be reducing the population of migrant workers from 2.6 million to 1 million, this means 100000 expats every year, have to leave the country in the next 10 years.This has resulted in facilitating quick, non-judicial deportations. Many expats have been deported for minor traffic charges without any judicial review. Kuwait has forced expats to leave indirectly eg. by restricting expats to driving tests by imposing hard driving tests and allowing non university degree holders to get a license.
- "Freedom in the World: Kuwait". Freedom House. 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Ratification of International Human Rights Treaties - Kuwait". University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "2013 Press Freedom Index". Reports without Borders. 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Press Freedom Index 2014". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- "Press Freedom Index 2011/2012". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Kuwait Ranked Best On Freedom In GCC".
- "Kuwait Rated ‘Partly’ In World Freedom Survey - ‘Best’ Among GCC States".
- "Trafficking in Persons Report 2007". U.S. Department of State. 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "2007: Annual Survey of violations of trade union rights". International Trade Union Confederation. 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Gender inequality". fanack.com. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- "Kuwait on path to fulfill all MDGs by 2015 deadline". United Nations. p. 3.
- "Kuwait: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix". International Monetary Fund. 2012. p. 43.
- Gender Gap Report 2012 Page 19
- Apollo Rwomire (2001). African Women and Children: Crisis and Response. p. 8.
- ?, ? (10 March 2014). Human rights watch. Kuwait City: ?. p. 2.
- ONI Country Profile: Kuwait", OpenNet Initiative, 6 August 2009
- "Kuwait: State of the media", Menassat
- "Middle East and North Africa: Kuwait", Media Sustainability Index, 2006
- "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Kuwait – 2007", Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 11 March 2008
- Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research web site
- "VOIP Policy and Regulation: Regional perspective", Professor Ibrahim Kadi, Communications and Information Technology Commission, presented at the regional seminar on Internet Protocol: VOIP, Algiers, Algeria, 12 March 2007
- "Urgent action (follow up) : Kuwait. Online activist Nasser Abul sentenced for tweeting.". Amnesty International. 29 September 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- "Kuwaiti Arrested for Tweeting About Protests". Amnesty International. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- "Kuwait: Release Jailed Internet Scribes". Human Rights Watch. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- Nihal Sharaf (19 September 2011). "Release Twitter activist Nasser Abul: Al-Duwaisan". The Arab Times. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- "With Kuwait Twitter Arrests, the Emir’s Gloves Come Off". Al Akhbar.
- "Kuwait Court Gives 10 Years for Twitter 'Insults'". ABC News. Associated Press. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.