Human rights in Pakistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
State emblem of Pakistan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Pakistan
Constitution

The situation of human rights in Pakistan is complex as a result of the country's diversity, large population, its status as a developing country and a sovereign, Islamic republic as well as an Islamic democracy with a mixture of both Islamic and secular laws. The Constitution of Pakistan provides for fundamental rights, which include freedom of speech, freedom of thought, freedom of information, freedom of religion, freedom of association, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly and the (conditional) right to bear arms. The Clauses also provide for an independent Supreme Court, separation of executive and judiciary, an independent judiciary, independent Human Rights commission and freedom of movement within the country and abroad. However it is debatable how much these clauses are respected in practice.

The founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah wanted Pakistan to be a moderate secular state blended with some Islamic values and principles. However Pakistan has changed its constitution several times in its relatively short history, each time moving further away from moderate Islam to extremist Islam. Although the Constitution includes adequate accommodation for Pakistan’s religious minorities, in practice non-Sunni Muslims face religious discrimination in both the public and private spheres (for example - non Muslims cannot hold any of the top positions in the country's government and non-Muslims have restrictions placed on which candidates they may cast their vote for). In response to rising sectarian and religious violence, the Pakistani government has unveiled several high profile efforts to reduce tension and support religious pluralism, giving new authority to the National Commission for Minorities and creating a Minister for Minority Affairs post. Nonetheless, religious violence is still common throughout Pakistan. Ahmadis, Hindus, Sikhs, Christians, and Zoroastrians, face violence, intimidation, as well as periodic charges of blasphemy, which carries a death penalty.[1] [2] Other than the above religious minorities attacks against Shia Muslims, who make up 20% of Pakistani Muslims, have also become commonplace.[3][4]

Although Pakistan was created to uphold the principles of democracy, Military coups in Pakistan are commonplace, and for most of its history after independence has been ruled by military dictators who declare themselves president. The Pakistani general election, 2013 were the first elections in the country where there was a constitutional transfer of power from one civilian government to another.[4] Elections in Pakistan although being partially free, are rife with irregularities including but not limited to vote rigging, use of threats and coercion, discrimination between Muslim and non-Muslim and many other violations.[5][4][6]Additionally the Government of Pakistan has itself admitted on several occasions that it has absolutely no control over the Military of Pakistan and related security agencies.[7][8] In 2010, Foreign Policy ranked Pakistan as number ten on its Failed States Index,in which Pakistan consistently figures near the top, placing it in the "critical" category with such other failed or failing states as Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Somalia.[9][10]

Domestic violence in Pakistan is an endemic social problem. According to a study carried out in 2009 by Human Rights Watch, it is estimated that between 70 and 90 percent of women and girls in Pakistan have suffered some form of abuse.[11] An estimated 5000 women are killed per year from domestic violence, with thousands of others maimed or disabled.[12] The majority of victims of violence have no legal recourse. Law enforcement authorities do not view domestic violence as a crime and usually refuse to register any cases brought to them. Given the very few women's shelters in the country, victims have limited ability to escape from violent situations.[12]

In general Freedom of the press is allowed but any reports critical of the government policy or critical of the military is censored. Journalists face widespread threats and violence making Pakistan one of the worst countries to be a journalist in, with 61 being killed since September 2001 and at least 6 murdered in 2013 alone.[13][14] Tv stations and news papers are routinely shut down for publishing any reports critical of the government or the military.[15][16][17]

In May 2012, President Asif Ali Zardari signed the National Commission for Human Rights Bill 2012 for the promotion of the protection of human rights in the country.[18] However, it remains to be seen if any positive effects will be derived from this.

Political Freedom in Pakistan[edit]

Although Pakistan was created to uphold the principles of democracy, its history is rife with Military coups in Pakistan, and for most of its history after independence has been ruled by military dictators who declare themselves president. The Pakistani general election, 2013 were the first elections in the country where there was a constitutional transfer of power from one civilian government to another.[4] The elections were marred by terrorist attacks that killed hundreds and wounded more than 500 and widespread rigging of polls, the highest in the country's recorded history.[19]

Religious minorities were prevented from voting for Muslim candidates after Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization and non-Muslims are restricted in the posts they may contest for, with several of the higher posts being unavailable to them. Although some of these laws were later repealed, religious minorities still continue to face several restrictions in politics.[1]

Although slow but steady progress has been made towards return to democracy in the last decade, many Pakistanis and foreign observers see the military still firmly entrenched in politics with the government playing second fiddle to the military. The government is widely seen as having no control over the armed forces and the Inter-Services Intelligence[20][21]

Most of Pakistan's laws are secular in nature, some of which were inherited from the United Kingdom's colonial rule of modern-day Pakistan before 1947. However in practice, harsh Sharia Law takes precedence over Pakistani law. What are considered Basic human rights and even minor misdemeanors in most of the civilized world, carry a death penalty in Pakistan. The constitution of Pakistan has been changed several times in its short history, with Islamization being the driving factor. Although the government has enacted a few measures to counter any problems, abuses remain. Furthermore, courts suffer from lack of funds, outside intervention, and deep case backlogs that lead to long trial delays and lengthy pretrial detentions. Many observers inside and outside Pakistan contend that Pakistan’s legal code is largely concerned with crime, national security, and domestic tranquility and less with the protection of individual rights.

In 2010, Foreign Policy ranked Pakistan as number ten on its Failed States Index, placing it in the "critical" category with such other failed or failing states as Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Somalia.[22] Pakistan consistently figures near the top of the list of failed states year after year[23]

Freedom of Press in Pakistan[edit]

Freedom of the press is complicated, in general freedom of the press is allowed but any reports critical of the government policy or critical of the military is censored. Journalists face widespread threats and violence making Pakistan one of the worst countries to be a journalist in, with 61 being killed since September 2001 and at least 6 murdered in 2013 alone.[13]

Freedom House rated Pakistan as "Not Free" in its report of 2013 and gave it a score of 64 (on a scale of 0 - 100, with 0 being most free and 100 being least free). The report brought to light widespread intimidation of journalists by various government, military and security agencies with alleged killings being carried out by the Inter-Services Intelligence.[24] Reporters without borders has ranked Pakistan number 158 out of 180 countries listed in its Press Freedom Index of 2014.[14]

In 2013 veteran journalist Hamid Mir, a recipient of the Hilal-i-Imtiaz, Pakistan's second highest civil award, was shot at by unidentified assailants wounding him with bullets thrice. He alleged that the Inter-Services Intelligence was behind the attack. His TV channel Geo Tv was shutdown by the government for 15 days for airing reports that the ISI may have carried out the attacks.[25][26][27][28]

Websites such as YouTube and many others are blocked by the government for supposedly violating blasphemy laws. Websites which are deemed to criticize the government or the military, websites which expose human rights violations of minorities and websites which are perceived as blasphemous are all regularly blocked.[24]

Miscarriage of Justice[edit]

Security forces routinely violate the human rights in the course of counter terrorism operations in Balochistan and elsewhere. Suspects are frequently detained without charge and or convicted without a fair trial. Thousands of people rounded up as suspected terrorists continue to languish in illegal military detention without being produced in court or being prosecuted. The army continues to deny independent monitors, lawyers, relatives or humanitarian agencies access to the prisoners.[4]

Islamic law takes precedence over Pakistani law, this causes many crimes to take place with the approval of the Islamic courts, despite impinging on what is considered basic human rights in most of the world.

The 1997 Anti-Terrorism Act, which established Anti Terrorism Court, and subsequent anti-terrorist legislation, has arisen concerns about protection of fundamental rights.

Muslim groups have persecuted non-Muslims and used some laws as the legal basis for doing so. The Blasphemy law, for example, allows life imprisonment or the death penalty for contravening Islamic principles, but legislation was passed in October 2004 to attempt to counter misuse of the law.

Provisions of the Islamic Qisas and Diyat laws allow the "forgiveness" of murderers in exchange for monetary compensation. Murderers regularly use this loophole to escape justice.[4]

Enforced disappearances (missing persons)[edit]

Pakistan's military intelligence agency, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), and the law enforcement have been accused of arresting and kidnapping political leaders who have demanded more autonomy or freedom from Pakistan. They have also been accused of arresting student activists and teachers protesting the exploitation of Pakistani government. Many human-rights activists in Pakistan have protested against force disappearances and kidnappings.[29]

Violence against Women[edit]

Domestic violence in Pakistan is an endemic social problem. According to a study carried out in 2009 by Human Rights Watch, it is estimated that between 70 and 90 percent of women and girls in Pakistan have suffered some form of abuse.[11] An estimated 5000 women are killed per year from domestic violence, with thousands of others maimed or disabled.[12] The majority of victims of violence have no legal recourse. Law enforcement authorities do not view domestic violence as a crime and usually refuse to register any cases brought to them. Given the very few women's shelters in the country, victims have limited ability to escape from violent situations.[12]

Human Rights Watch said in its report released in 2014 that "Violence against women and girls - including rape, Honor killings, Acid attacks, Domestic violence and Forced marriage all remain serious problems in Pakistan. Despite high levels of domestic violence, the parliament has failed to enact laws to prevent it and protect women."[4]

Rape in Pakistan came to international attention after the politically sanctioned rape of Mukhtaran Bibi.[30][31] The group War Against Rape (WAR) has documented the severity of rape in Pakistan, and the police indifference to it.[32] According to Women's Studies professor Shahla Haeri, rape in Pakistan is "often institutionalized and has the tacit and at times the explicit approval of the state".[33] According to a study carried out by Human Rights Watch there is a rape once every two hours[11] and a gang rape every eight.[34] According to lawyer Asma Jahangir, who is a co-founder of the women's rights group Women's Action Forum, up to seventy-two percent of women in custody in Pakistan are physically or sexually abused.[35]

There have been several thousand "honor" killings in Pakistan in the past decade, with hundreds reported in 2013.[4] An Amnesty International report noted "the failure of the authorities to prevent these killings by investigating and punishing the perpetrators."[36] Honour killings are supposed to be prosecuted as ordinary murder, but in practice, police and prosecutors often ignore it.[37]

Women's eNews reported 4,000 women attacked by Bride burning in Islamabad's surroundings over an eight-year period and that the average age range of victims is between 18 and 35 with an estimated 30 percent being pregnant at the time death.[38] Shahnaz Bukhari has said of such attacks

Either Pakistan is home to possessed stoves which burn only young housewives, and are particularly fond of genitalia, or looking at the frequency with which these incidences occur there is a grim pattern that these women are victims of deliberate murder[38]

According to the Progressive Women's Association such attacks are a growing problem and in 1994 on International Women's Day announced that various NGO's would join to raise awareness of the issue.[39]

Notable attacks against women[edit]

  • On 9 October 2012, the Pakistani Taliban claimed responsibility for attempting to assassinate 15-year-old Malala Yousafzai. They vowed to continue to target her for promoting education for women and girls. In response, a new law was signed by the President on 20 December, guaranteeing free and compulsory education to boys and girls between the ages of five and 16.
  • On 4 July 2012, women’s human rights activist Fareeda Kokikhel Afridi was killed in a drive-by shooting as she left her home in Peshawar for work in the Khyber Tribal Agency. Local civil society groups said she had been targeted for promoting the human rights of women. The authorities failed to bring the perpetrators to justice.[40]
  • In 2007, Kainat Soomro a 13 year old was kidnapped at gunpoint and gang raped. Her family faced widespread condemnation for refusing to "honor" kill their daughter and faced several attacks which resulted in the death of her brother. Her rapists were all acquitted and she was put under trial for premarital sex which is a crime under Islamic law.[41][42]
  • On June 2002, Mukhtaran Bibi was gang raped on the orders of a tribal council and paraded naked in front of a cheering crowd of 300 people. She did not commit suicide, as is customary in gang rape incidents in Pakistan, but instead attempted to seek justice. After nearly a decade after the incident 5 of the 6 accused of gang raping her were acquitted while the sixth faces life in prison. She continues to face widespread discrimination in Pakistan and has been subject to house arrest, illegal detention and harassment from the government and law enforcement agencies.[43]

Political abuse of human rights[edit]

Nuvola Pakistani flag.svg
Life in Pakistan


Provincial and local governments have arrested journalists and closed newspapers that report on matters perceived as socially offensive or critical of the government or military. Journalists also have been victims of violence and intimidation by various groups and individuals. In spite of these difficulties, the press publishes freely on other matters, although journalists often exercise self-restraint in their writing to avoid inuring the wrath of the government or military.

In 2001, citizens participated in general elections, but those elections were criticized as deeply flawed by domestic and international observers. Societal actors also are responsible for human rights abuses. Violence by drug lords and sectarian militias claims numerous innocent lives, discrimination and violence against women are widespread, human trafficking is problematic, and debt slavery and bonded labor persist.

The government often ignores abuses against children and religious minorities, and some government institutions and Muslim groups have persecuted non-Muslims and used some laws as the legal basis for doing so. The Blasphemy law, for example, allows life imprisonment or the death penalty for contravening Islamic principles, but legislation was passed in October 2004 to attempt to counter misuse of the law.

Furthermore, the social acceptance of many these problems hinders their eradication. One prominent example is honor killings (“karo kari”), which are believed to have accounted for more than 4,000 deaths from 1998 to 2003[citation needed]. Many view this practice as indicative of a feudal mentality and falsely anathema to Islam, but others defend the practice as a means of punishing violators of cultural norms and view attempts to stop it to as an assault on cultural heritage.

Pakistan was recommended by the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) in May to be designated as a “Country of Particular Concern” (CPC) by the Department of State because of its government’s engagement or toleration of systematic, ongoing, and egregious violations of religious freedom.[44]

Humanitarian response to conflict[edit]

Violence in Pakistan and the Taliban conflict with the government have heightened humanitarian problems in Pakistan.[45] Political and military interests have been prioritized over humanitarian considerations in the offensives against the Taliban, and issues are likely to get worse as people are encouraged back home prematurely and often face once again being victims of the Taliban terrorists.[45] Displacement is a key problem and humanitarian organizations are failing to address the basic needs of people outside displacement camps, nor are they able to address issues such as the conduct of hostilities and the politicization of the emergency response.[45] Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute argue that aid agencies face dilemmas with engaging with the government, as this does not always produce the desired results and can conflict with their aim of promoting stability and maintaining a principled approach.[45] A principled approach limits their ability to operate when the government emphasizes political and security considerations.[45]

Internally displaced people[edit]

There were over 500,000 people displaced in 2008 mainly from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) on the border with Afghanistan, and a further 1.4 million from Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in May 2009.[45] By mid-July 2009, Pakistan’s National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) put the total of Internally Displaced People (IDPs) at just over 2m, while unofficial figures are as high as 3.5m.[45] Most of those displaced (up to 80%) were taken in by relatives, friends and even strangers - Pashtun communities in particular have displayed great efforts in assisting the displaced despite their own high levels of poverty.[45] Still others use schools, but only a small minority live in approximately 30 official camps, mainly in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.[45]

There is little support for those living outside of camps, official support consists only of some food and non-food items and government cash grants.[45] Many of those who have been taken in are looked after by political and religious groups providing assistance in return for membership or support.[45] The government has been struggling to provide support to an area traditionally marginalized and remote and is also keen to downplay the scale of the crisis.[45] Before military operations are undertaken, little preparation is made for the predictable increase in displaced peoples in order to avoid attracting the attention of opposing forces.[45] There are also suggestions that help given to IDPs is informed by cultural and political expediency, as in the case of a $300 family cash grant.[45]

The international community's assistance is marginal in comparison to local efforts due to the rate and scale of displacement; the scattering of displaced populations among host families and in spontaneous settlements; access difficulties due to insecurity and the role of the military in the relief effort.[45] International humanitarian organizations have focused on camp-based populations and this limited interaction has hampered their attempts to analyze the full complexity of the situation, the context, its different actors and their interests – all of which are key to ensuring that the humanitarian imperative is achieved in this complex operating environment.[45]

The cluster method often used for the coordination and funding of humanitarian responses to IDPs have been criticized many agencies have bypassed the UN cluster, such as OFDA and DfID.[45] However, operational agencies also indicated that donors have also been slow to challenge government policy due to their overall support to the Pakistani counter-insurgency effort, as well as lack of influence.[45]

The government has come under criticism also for downplaying the crisis, but also for weakening the position of the UN though the ‘One UN Approach’ in Pakistan, leaving a UN unable to function properly.[45] Furthermore, in an effort to force refugees back to the areas they have fled (in order to create a sense of normalcy), the government has cut off power and water supply to the IDP camps.[45]

"Friends of Pakistan"[edit]

Many donors see the conflict as an opportunity for more comprehensive engagement in an effort to promote stability in the region, to promote a legitimate government and curtail transnational threats.[45] The ‘Friends of Pakistan’ group, which includes the US, the UK and the UN, is key in the international community's drive to promote stability. The US has adopted a joint ‘Af-Pak’ (Afghanistan and Pakistan) strategy in order to suppress the insurgency and defend its national security interests.[45] This strategy seeks engagement with the government and the military intelligence communities, develop civilian and democratic governance, for instance through the provision of services and support in ‘cleared areas’ in FATA and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, and increasing assistance including direct budget support, development aid and support with counter-insurgency work.[45] The UK equally sees an opportunity to counter instability and militancy through a combined military and 'hearts and minds' approach, through judicial, governance and security sector reform. The UNDP/WFP takes a similar line.[45]

Yet the success of this approach is by no means clear, as both the government and society at large are not welcoming of foreign interference.[45] USAID takes into account political as well as humanitarian dimensions in its decision making process.[45] Many civilians see little distinction between aid agencies, the military operations and "western interests"; ‘you bomb our villages and then build hospitals’.[45] Many humanitarian organisations thus avoid being too visible and do not mark their aid with their logos.[45] Friends of Pakistan must come forward to assist in her commitment.[according to whom?]

Discrimination against religious minorities[edit]

Pakistan is known for widespread discrimination against religious minorities, with attacks against Christians, Hindus, Ahmadiyya, Shia, Sufi and Sikh communities being widespread. These attacks are usually blamed on religious extremists but certain laws in the Pakistan Criminal Code and government inaction has only caused these attacks to surge higher.[46]

Sunni militant group operate with impunity across Pakistan, as law enforcement officials either turn a blind eye or are appear helpless to prevent widespread attacks against religious minorities.[4]

Human rights violations of Ahmadi[edit]

Several minority Muslim communities, such as the Ahmadiyya have been attacked in pogroms in Pakistan over the years.[47]

The human rights violation of the Ahmadiyya have been systematic and state-sponsored.[48] General Zia, the military dictator of Pakistan, went many steps further in 1984, when to gain the support of Islamic fundamentalists in Pakistan, he promulgated the anti-Ahmadiyya Ordinance XX that added Sections 298-B and 298-C in Pakistan Criminal Code.[49]

298-B. Misuse of epithets, descriptions and titles, etc., reserved for certain holy personages or places:

(1) Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group who call themselves 'Ahmadis' or by any other name who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation- (a) refers to or addresses, any person, other than a Caliph or companion of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as "Ameer-ul-Mumineen", "Khalifatul- Mumineen", Khalifa-tul-Muslimeen", "Sahaabi" or "Razi Allah Anho"; (b) refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a wife of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as "Ummul-Mumineen"; (c) refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a member of the family "Ahle-bait" of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as "Ahle-bait"; or (d) refers to, or names, or calls, his place of worship a "Masjid"; shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine. (2) Any person of the Qadiani group or Lahori group (who call themselves "Ahmadis" or by any other name) who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation refers to the mode or form of call to prayers followed by his faith as "Azan", or recites Azan as used by the Muslims, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

298-C. Person of Qadiani group, etc., calling himself a Muslim or preaching or propagating his faith:

Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves 'Ahmadis' or by any other name), who directly or indirectly, poses himself as a Muslim, or calls, or refers to, his faith as Islam, or preaches or propagates his faith, or invites others to accept his faith, by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representations, or in any manner whatsoever outrages the religious feelings of Muslims shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.

Through this ordinance, Ahmadi Muslims were deprived of most of their basic human rights and their freedom of faith. Under the provisions of this ordinance, an Ahmadi Muslim could be given rigorous imprisonment of 3 years and fined any amount. An Ahmadi can be easily charged for profession of his faith or for ‘posing’ as a Muslim. The ordinance was a green signal for anti-Ahmadiyya elements to open the floodgates of tyranny with the help of the State. The ordinance provides a ready and convenient tool in the hands of fundamentalists and the government to incriminate Ahmadis on flimsy grounds and petty excuses.[50]

Controversial blasphemy laws[edit]

In Pakistan, 1.5% of the population are Christian. Pakistani law mandates that any "blasphemies" of the Quran are to be met with punishment. On July 28, 1994, Amnesty International urged Pakistan's Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto to change the law because it was being used to terrorize religious minorities. She tried, but was unsuccessful. However, she modified the laws to make them more moderate. Her changes were reversed by the Nawaz Sharif administration which was backed by Religious/Political parties.

Here is a list of some notable incidents involving blasphemy accusations:

  • Ayub Masih, a Christian, was convicted of blasphemy and sentenced to death in 1998. He was accused by a neighbor of stating that he supported British writer, Salman Rushdie, author of The Satanic Verses. Lower appeals courts upheld the conviction. However, before the Pakistan Supreme Court, his lawyer was able to prove that the accuser had used the conviction to force Mashi's family off their land and then acquired control of the property. Masih has been released.[51]
  • On October 28, 2001 in Lahore, Pakistan, Islamic militants killed 15 Christians at a church. On September 25, 2002 two terrorists entered the "Peace and Justice Institute", Karachi, where they separated Muslims from the Christians, and then executed eight Christians by shooting them in the head.[citation needed]
  • In 2001, Pervaiz Masih, Head Master of a Christian High School in Sialkot was arrested on false blasphemy charges by the owner of another school in the vicinity.
  • On September 25, 2002, unidentified gunmen shot dead seven people at a Christian charity in Karachi's central business district. They entered the third-floor offices of the Institute for Peace and Justice (IPJ) and shot their victims in the head. All of the victims were Pakistani Christians. Karachi police chief Tariq Jamil said the victims had their hands tied and their mouths had been covered with tape. Pakistani Christians have alleged that they have "become increasingly victimised since the launch of the US-led international war on terror."[52]
  • In November 2005, 3,000 militant Islamists attacked Christians in Sangla Hill in Pakistan and destroyed Roman Catholic, Salvation Army and United Presbyterian churches. The attack was over allegations of violation of blasphemy laws by a Pakistani Christian named Yousaf Masih. The attacks were widely condemned by some political parties in Pakistan.[53] However, Pakistani Christians have expressed disappointment that they have not received justice. Samson Dilawar, a parish priest in Sangla Hill, has said that the police have not committed to trial any of the people who were arrested for committing the assaults, and that the Pakistani government did not inform the Christian community that a judicial inquiry was underway by a local judge. He continued to say that Muslim clerics "make hateful speeches about Christians" and "continue insulting Christians and our faith".[54]
  • In February 2006, churches and Christian schools were targeted in protests over the publications of the Jyllands-Posten cartoons in Denmark, leaving two elderly women injured and many homes and properties destroyed. Some of the mobs were stopped by police.[55]
  • In August 2006, a church and Christian homes were attacked in a village outside of Lahore, Pakistan in a land dispute. Three Christians were seriously injured and one missing after some 35 Muslims burned buildings, desecrated Bibles and attacked Christians.[56]
  • On September 22, 2006, a Pakistani Christian named Shahid Masih was arrested and jailed for allegedly violating Islamic "blasphemy laws" in Pakistan. He is presently held in confinement and has expressed fear of reprisals by Islamic Fundamentalists.[57]
  • On August 1, 2009, nearly 40 houses and a church in Gojra were torched on the suspicion that Quran had been burnt there. While police watched, 8 victims were burned alive, 4 of them women, one aged 7. Eighteen more were injured.
  • In 2012 a young Christian woman, Rimsha Masih, was arrested on blasphemy charge, but released after a few weeks in high security lock-up as a result of international outrage.[58]
  • On March 9, 2013, two days after Sawan Masih, a Christian, was accused of blasphemy a mob of two thousand Muslims torched over 200 homes and two churches. Masih was sentenced to death the following year.[59]
  • In April 2014 a Christian couple from Gojra, Shafqat Emmanuel and Shagufta Kausar, received death sentences.[60]
  • On May 7, 2014 Rashid Rahman, a lawyer representing a university professor accused of blaspehmy was murdered in the Pakistani city of Multan. In response the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan and some other civil organizations protested in front of the Karachi Press Club in the city of Karachi.[61]

Based, in part, on such incidents, Pakistan was recommended by the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) in May 2006 to be designated as a "Country of Particular Concern" (CPC) by the Department of State.[56]

Intolerence against Hindus and other minorities[edit]

As of April 2012, Pakistan did not provide a legal system for registration of marriages for certain minorities including Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains and Bahá'í.[62][63] Denial of recognition of Hindu marriages is often used to intimidate and harass Hindus. Married Hindu women have been forcibly kidnapped and married to Muslims, and are left without legal recourse due to inability to prove their previous marriage.[64] It also makes it difficult for Hindus to obtain the Computerized National Identity Card.[64]

There have been severe persecution of Hindus by Muslims in Pakistan since its formation in 1947.[citation needed]The increasing Islamization has caused many Hindus to leave Hinduism and seek emancipation by converting to other faiths such as Buddhism and Christianity. Such Islamization include the blasphemy laws, which make it dangerous for religious minorities to express themselves freely and engage freely in religious and cultural activities[65]

Minority members of the Pakistan National Assembly have alleged that Hindus were being hounded and humiliated to force them to leave Pakistan.[66] Hindu women have been known to be victims of kidnapping and forced conversion to Islam.[67] Krishan Bheel, one of a handful of Hindu members of the National Assembly of Pakistan, came into news recently for manhandling Qari Gul Rehman, who had repeatedly provoked him by making declaratory statements against his religion.[68]

Hindus in what is now Pakistan have declined from 23% of the total population in 1947 to 1.5% today. The report condemns Pakistan for systematic state-sponsored religious discrimination against Hindus through bigoted "anti-blasphemy" laws. It documents numerous reports of millions of Hindus being held as "bonded laborers" in slavery-like conditions in rural Pakistan, something repeatedly ignored by the Pakistani government.

Since March 2005, 209 people have been killed and 560 injured in 29 different terrorist attacks targeting shrines devoted to Sufi saints in Pakistan, according to data compiled by the Center for Islamic Research Collaboration and Learning (CIRCLe).[69] At least as of 2010, the attacks have increased each year. The attacks are generally attributed to banned militant organizations of Deobandi or Ahl-e-Hadith (Salafi) backgrounds.[70] (Primarily Deobandi background according to another source—author John R. Schmidt).[71]

Pakistan's citizens have had serious Shia-Sunni discord. Almost 80% of Pakistan's Muslim population is Sunni, with 20% being Shia, but this Shia minority forms the second largest Shia population of any country,[72] larger than the Shia majority in Iraq. Although relations between Shia and Sunni were once cordial, some see a precursor of Pakistani Shia–Sunni strife in the April 1979 execution of deposed President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on questionable charges by Islamic fundamentalist General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, who subsequently took over as dictator of Pakistan. Ali Bhutto was Shia, Zia ul-Haq a Sunni.[73]

Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization that followed was resisted by Shia who saw it as "Sunnification" as the laws and regulations were based on Sunni fiqh. In July 1980, 25,000 Shia protested the Islamization laws in the capital Islamabad. Further exacerbating the situation was the dislike between Shia leader Imam Khomeini and General Zia ul-Haq.[74] From 1987–2007, "as many as 4,000 people are estimated to have died in sectarian fighting in Pakistan", 300 being killed in 2006.[75] With thousands more being killed since then as the violence has only gotten much worse.[76] In 2013 alone more than 400 Shia have been killed in targeted attacks that took place across Pakistan.[4] Amongst the culprits blamed for the killing are Al-Qaeda working "with local sectarian groups" to kill what they perceive as Shia apostates, and "foreign powers ... trying to sow discord."[75] Outside funding for these Sunni Militia comes mostly from Saudi Arabia and other gulf states which have a predominantly Sunni population and leadership. Most violence takes place in the largest province of Punjab and the country's commercial and financial capital, Karachi.[77] There have also been conflagrations in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and Pakistan Occupied Kashmir.[77]

Forced Conversions[edit]

Forced and coerced conversions of religious minorities to Islam occurred at the hands of societal actors. Religious minorities claimed that government actions to stem the problem were inadequate. Several human rights groups have highlighted the increased phenomenon of Hindu girls, particularly in Karachi, being kidnapped from their families and forced to convert to Islam.

Kidnapping charges were pending against a Muslim man who abducted a fifteen-year-old Christian, Samina Izhaq, and forced her to convert to Islam in August 2004.

On September 2, 2005, Ghulam Abbas and Mohammad Kashif reportedly drugged and kidnapped Riqba Masih, a Christian woman, from the village of Chak, Punjab, and took her to Lahore. The kidnappers repeatedly raped Masih and threatened to kill her and her family if she did not convert to Islam but Masih refused. On September 3, 2005, another unidentified accomplice took Masih into custody and detained her until September 6, 2005 raping her repeatedly. Later that day, the kidnappers took Masih to Faisalabad and abandoned her at a bus stop from where she made her way to her parents' home. Police arrested Ghulam Abbas and Mohammad Kashif and charged them with kidnapping and rape. Following an October 24, 2005, hearing in which a Faisalabad court denied bail, Kashif escaped from the courtroom and remained at large at the end of the reporting period. Abbas remained in police custody, and police are attempting to find Kashif.[78]

On October 18, 2005, Sanno Amra and Champa, a Hindu couple residing in the Punjab Colony, Karachi, Sindh returned home to find that their three teenage daughters had disappeared. After inquiries to the local police, the couple discovered that their daughters had been taken to a local madrassah, had been converted to Islam by force, and were denied unsupervised contact with their parents.[78]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Religious Freedom in Pakistan". Georgetown University. Berkley Center for religion, peace and world affaris. Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  2. ^ Amnesty Report 2013 - Pakistan. Amnesty International. 2014. 
  3. ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/761507/timeline-persecution-of-religious-minorities
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j World Report 2014. Human Rights Watch. 2011. pp. 366–372. 
  5. ^ http://www.hrw.org/news/2008/02/10/pakistan-election-commission-not-impartial
  6. ^ http://tribune.com.pk/story/706933/may-11-elections-a-year-after-polls-tribunals-wade-through-complaints/
  7. ^ Rolfe, Ella. "Pakistan's government plays second fiddle to the army". The Foreign Policy Center. Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  8. ^ http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67742/aqil-shah/getting-the-military-out-of-pakistani-politics
  9. ^ http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67742/aqil-shah/getting-the-military-out-of-pakistani-politics
  10. ^ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/failed_states_index_2012_interactive
  11. ^ a b c Cited in: Gosselin, Denise Kindschi (2009). Heavy Hands: An Introduction to the Crime of Intimate and Family Violence (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 13. ISBN 978-0136139034. 
  12. ^ a b c d Hansar, Robert D. (2007). "Cross-Cultural Examination of Domestic Violence in China and Pakistan". In Nicky Ali Jackson. Encyclopedia of Domestic Violence (1st ed.). Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 978-0415969680. 
  13. ^ a b http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-2-231030-Pakistan-and-Mexico-worst-places-for-journalists-Columbia-Dean
  14. ^ a b Press Freedom Index 2014. Reporters without Borders. 2014. 
  15. ^ http://www.economist.com/news/asia/21602763-army-mullahs-and-imran-khan-try-close-popular-television-station-assailed-all
  16. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/06/pakistani-news-channel-geo-suspended-isi
  17. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/media/greenslade/2014/jun/09/press-freedom-pakistan
  18. ^ President Zardari signs bill to establish human rights commission, The News International, May 31, 2012
  19. ^ http://dunyanews.tv/index.php/en/Pakistan/225249-NA-154-voters-verification-Termite-infestation-ru
  20. ^ http://fpc.org.uk/articles/460
  21. ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/682361/no-control-over-operations-of-army-isi-govt
  22. ^ http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67742/aqil-shah/getting-the-military-out-of-pakistani-politics
  23. ^ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/failed_states_index_2012_interactive
  24. ^ a b http://www.freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-press/2013/pakistan#.U6_wy7Ffx9w
  25. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/06/pakistani-news-channel-geo-suspended-isi
  26. ^ http://www.geo.tv/article-145131-Hamid-Mir-shot-injured-in-Karachi
  27. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/hamid-mir-hamid-mir-shooting-case-karachi-geo-tv-geo-news/1/356622.html
  28. ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/1102056
  29. ^ "Mystery of Balochistan disappearances". BBC News. February 4, 2010. 
  30. ^ Laird, Kathleen Fenner (2008). Whose Islam? Pakistani Women's Political Action Groups Speak Ou. Proquest. p. 101. ISBN 9780549465560. 
  31. ^ Khan, Aamer Ahmed (8 September 2005). "Pakistan's real problem with rape". BBC. 
  32. ^ Karim, Farhad (1996). Contemporary Forms of Slavery in Pakistan. Human Rights Watch. p. 72. ISBN 978-1564321541. 
  33. ^ Haeri, Shahla (2002). No Shame for the Sun: Lives of Professional Pakistani Women (1st ed.). Syracuse University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0815629603. 
  34. ^ Foerstel, Karen (2009). Issues in Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: Selections. Sage. p. 337. ISBN 978-1412979672. 
  35. ^ Goodwin, Jan (2002). Price of Honor: Muslim Women Lift the Veil of Silence on the Islamic World. Plume. p. 51. ISBN 978-0452283770. 
  36. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/pakistan/report-2013
  37. ^ "Pakistan's honor killings enjoy high-level support". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  38. ^ a b Terzieff, Juliette (27 October 2002). "Pakistan's Fiery Shame: Women Die in Stove Deaths". Women's eNews. 
  39. ^ Rappaport, Helen (2001). Encyclopedia of Women Social Reformers, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 115. ISBN 978-1576071014. 
  40. ^ Activist’s killing reverberates in Pakistan
  41. ^ http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2011/09/refusing-to-kill-daughter-pakistani-family-defies-tradition-draws-anger/245691/
  42. ^ http://www.frontpagemag.com/2011/frank-crimi/the-price-for-refusing-to-kill-your-gang-raped-child/
  43. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/14/opinion/14kristof.html?_r=0]]
  44. ^ http://www.christianpost.com/article/20060822/23922.htm
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Sara Pantuliano (2009) Uncharted Territory: Land, Conflict and Humanitarian Action Overseas Development Institute
  46. ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/761507/timeline-persecution-of-religious-minorities
  47. ^ U.S. Department of State - Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor - Pakistan - International Religious Freedom Report 2006
  48. ^ "Who Will Speak for the Ahmadi ?". Gatestone Institute. July 12, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2014. 
  49. ^ http://www.thepersecution.org/50years/paklaw.html
  50. ^ http://www.thepersecution.org
  51. ^ Religious Intolerance In Pakistan
  52. ^ Gunmen 'execute' Pakistan Christians
  53. ^ Asien, Pakistan: Sangla Hill attack continues to draw condemnation - missio
  54. ^ PAKISTAN Islamic extremists still unpunished 40 days after the Sangla Hill attack - Asia News
  55. ^ International Christian Response: Cartoon Protestors in Pakistan Target Christians
  56. ^ a b N.J. Civil Unions Hung Up on 'Marriage' | Christianpost.com
  57. ^ PAKISTAN Young Christian arrested for blasphemy - Asia News
  58. ^ Pakistani couple get death sentences for blasphemy
  59. ^ More than 200 Christians' houses set on fire over blasphemy accusation in Pakistan
  60. ^ Pakistani couple get death sentences for blasphemy
  61. ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/1104788
  62. ^ "Fighting for rights: Hindu Marriage Act might be ready in two months". The Express Tribune. 2011-11-13. 
  63. ^ "Divorce remains sticking point in Hindu Marriage Act". The Express Tribune. 2011-10-12. 
  64. ^ a b "Hindus in Pak protest for Hindu Marriage Registration Act". Jagran Post. 2012-03-30. 
  65. ^ "Pakistan asks Hindus to quit military area". Rediff.com. November 7, 2003. 
  66. ^ Reddy, B. Murlidhar (September 23, 2005). "Hindus in Pakistan allege humiliation". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
  67. ^ Swank, Grant. "Kidnap Hindu Girl, Force Marriage to Muslim: Pakistan". Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
  68. ^ "Opp MNAs fight in PM’s presence". Retrieved 2006-08-23. 
  69. ^ a think-tank based in Rawalpindi
  70. ^ Sunni Ittehad Council: Sunni Barelvi activism against Deobandi-Wahhabi terrorism in Pakistan – by Aarish U. Khan| criticalppp.com| Let Us Build Pakistan
  71. ^ John R. Schmidt states, "although most Deobandis are no more prone to violence than their Christian fundamentalist counterparts in the West, every jihadist group based in Pakistan save one is Deobandi, as are the Afghan Taliban". The Unraveling: Pakistan in the Age of Jihad | John R. Schmidt| 2011
  72. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival (Norton), 2006, p.160
  73. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.89
  74. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.161-2
  75. ^ a b "Shiite-Sunni conflict rises in Pakistan," by David Montero, February 02, 2007
  76. ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/761507/timeline-persecution-of-religious-minorities
  77. ^ a b "Pakistan's Shia-Sunni divide". BBC News. June 1, 2004. 
  78. ^ a b [1][dead link]

External links[edit]