||It has been suggested that Manubrium be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2014.|
Position of sternum in human (shown in red).
Posterior surface of sternum.
|Anatomical terms of bone|
The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, "chest"; plural "sternums" or "sterna") or breastbone is a long flat bony plate shaped like a capital "T" located anteriorly to the heart in the center of the thorax (chest). It connects to the rib bones via cartilage, forming the anterior section of the rib cage with them, and thus helps to protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels from physical trauma. Although it is fused, the sternum can be sub-divided into three regions: the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process.
The sternum is an elongated, flattened bone, forming the middle portion of the anterior wall of the thorax. The superior end supports the clavicles (collarbones), and its margins articulate with the cartilages of the first seven pairs of ribs. Its top is also connected to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. It consists of three main parts, listed superior to inferior:
In its natural position, the inclination of the bone is oblique from above, downward and forward. It is slightly convex in front and concave behind; broad above, shaped like a "T", becoming narrowed at the point where the manubrium joins the body, after which it again widens a little to below the middle of the body, and then narrows to its lower extremity. Its average length in the adult is about 17 cm, and is rather longer in the male than in the female.
In early life its body is divided in four segments, called sternebrœ (singular: sternebra).
The manubrium (ma-NOO-bree-um) is the broad superior portion of the sternum. The suprasternal (jugular) notch is medially located at the superior end of the manubrium. You can feel this notch between your two clavicles (collarbones). Located superiorly and laterally are the right and left clavicular notches.
Body of sternum
The body, or gladiolus, is the longest part of the sternum. The sternal angle is located at the point where the body joins the manubrium. The sternal angle can be felt at the point where the sternum projects farthest forward. However, in some people the sternal angle is concave or rounded. During physical examinations, the sternal angle is a useful landmark when counting ribs because the second rib attaches here.
Located at the inferior end of the sternum is the pointed xiphoid process. Improperly performed chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can cause the xiphoid process to snap off, driving it into the liver which can cause a fatal hemorrhage.
The superior seven costal cartilages articulate with the sternum forming the costal margin anteriorly. The right and left clavicular notches articulate with the right and left clavicles, respectively. The costal cartilage of the second rib articulates with the sternum at the sternal angle making it easy to locate.
The transversus thoracis muscle is innervated by the intercostal nerve and superiorly attaches at the posterior surface of the lower sternum. Its inferior attachment is the internal surface of costal cartilages two through six and works to depress the ribs.
Fractures of the sternum are rather uncommon. They may result from trauma, such as when a driver's chest is forced into the steering column of a car in a car accident. A fracture of the sternum is usually a comminuted fracture. The most common site of sternal fractures is at the sternal angle. Some studies reveal that repeated punches or continual beatings, sometimes called "sternum punches", to the sternum area have also caused fractured sternums. Those are known to have occurred in contact sports such as rugby and football. Sternum fractures are frequently associated with underlying injuries such as pulmonary contusions, or bruised lung tissue. A somewhat rare congenital condition of the sternum is a sternal foramen, a single round hole in the sternum that is present from birth and usually is off-centered to the right or left, commonly forming in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th segments of the sternum body. Congenital sternal foramens can often be mistaken for bullet holes.
The sternum or breastbone, in vertebrate anatomy, is a flat bone that lies in the middle front part of the rib cage. It is endochondral in origin. It probably first evolved in early tetrapods as an extension of the pectoral girdle; it is not found in fish. In amphibians and reptiles it is typically a shield-shaped structure, often composed entirely of cartilage. It is absent in both turtles and snakes. In birds it is a relatively large bone and typically bears an enormous projecting keel to which the flight muscles are attached. Only in mammals does the sternum take on the elongated, segmented form seen in humans. In some mammals, such as opossums, the individual segments (sternebrae) never fuse and remain separated by cartilagenous plates throughout life.
English sternum is a translation of Ancient Greek στέρνον. The Greek writer Homer used the term στέρνον to refer to the male chest. The term στῆθος was used by Homer to refer to the chest of both sexes. The Greek physician Hippocrates used στέρνον to refer to the chest, and στῆθος to the breastbone. The Greek physican Galen was the first to use στέρνον in the present meaning of breastbone.
The στέρνον can be considered as the solid bony part of the chest. From that perspective, στέρνον can be related to Ancient Greek στερεός/στερρός, firm/solid. English breastbone is actually more akin to Latin os pectoris, derived from classical Latin os, bone and pectus, chest/breast. Confusingly, pectus is also used in classical Latin as breastbone.
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This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.
- Ossification of sternum
- Bone terminology
- Terms for anatomical location
- Pectus carinatum
- Pectus excavatum
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